JP2012001037A - Air conditioning device for vehicle - Google Patents

Air conditioning device for vehicle Download PDF

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JP2012001037A
JP2012001037A JP2010135793A JP2010135793A JP2012001037A JP 2012001037 A JP2012001037 A JP 2012001037A JP 2010135793 A JP2010135793 A JP 2010135793A JP 2010135793 A JP2010135793 A JP 2010135793A JP 2012001037 A JP2012001037 A JP 2012001037A
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air
vehicle
heat
heat exchanger
outside
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JP5640485B2 (en
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Yoshimasa Katsumi
佳正 勝見
Takuya Murayama
拓也 村山
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Panasonic Corp
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Panasonic Corp
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60HARRANGEMENTS OF HEATING, COOLING, VENTILATING OR OTHER AIR-TREATING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR PASSENGER OR GOODS SPACES OF VEHICLES
    • B60H1/00Heating, cooling or ventilating [HVAC] devices
    • B60H1/02Heating, cooling or ventilating [HVAC] devices the heat being derived from the propulsion plant
    • B60H1/03Heating, cooling or ventilating [HVAC] devices the heat being derived from the propulsion plant and from a source other than the propulsion plant
    • B60H1/039Heating, cooling or ventilating [HVAC] devices the heat being derived from the propulsion plant and from a source other than the propulsion plant from air leaving the interior of the vehicle, i.e. heat recovery

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an air conditioning device for a vehicle capable of effectively recovering heat in a heat pump system.SOLUTION: The device includes part of an external heat exchanger 12, which is arranged at an internal exhaust passage 8 between an internal exhaust outlet 7 and a heat recovery unit 19, thereby lowering a condensing temperature of the refrigerant of the external heat exchanger 12 acting as a condenser at air-conditioning. Consequently, an evaporation temperature of the refrigerant is prevented from being increased at a first in-vehicle heat exchanger 10 acting as an evaporator, and thereby a proper refrigerating cycle can be maintained to reduce a power consumption of a compressor 13.

Description

本発明は、暖房の熱源の得られにくい電気自動車やハイブリッド車等に使用される車室内を暖房可能な車両用空調装置に関するものである。   The present invention relates to a vehicle air conditioner that can heat a vehicle interior used in an electric vehicle, a hybrid vehicle, or the like that is difficult to obtain a heat source for heating.

従来、エンジン車では、例えば、吸排気時に内気から吸熱し、外気へ放熱する全熱交換器と冷凍サイクルを備え、暖房はエンジンの排熱を利用して行う車両用空調装置が考案されている(例えば、特許文献1参照)。   Conventionally, in an engine vehicle, for example, a vehicle air conditioner has been devised that includes a total heat exchanger that absorbs heat from inside air during intake and exhaust and dissipates heat to the outside air and a refrigeration cycle, and that uses exhaust heat from the engine for heating. (For example, refer to Patent Document 1).

この車両用空調装置は、内気の熱を利用して、外気の温度を高めることができるので、外気導入による熱損失を低減でき、暖房効果を向上できるもので、冷凍サイクルのエバポレータ(冷却用熱交換器)と、その空気下流側には、エンジン冷却水(温水)を熱源とするヒータコア(加熱用熱交換器)が配置してある。そして、空調の温度制御方式として、冷温風の混合割合を調整するエアミックス方式を採用しており、ヒータコアの空気上流側で、エバポレータの空気下流側に配置したエアミックスドアの開度によりヒータコアを通過する温風とヒータコアをバイパスする冷風の風量割合を調整して、車室内への吹出空気温度を制御している。   This vehicle air conditioner can increase the temperature of the outside air by utilizing the heat of the inside air, so that heat loss due to the introduction of the outside air can be reduced and the heating effect can be improved. The evaporator (cooling heat) of the refrigeration cycle can be improved. The heater core (heating heat exchanger) which uses engine cooling water (hot water) as a heat source is disposed on the air downstream side of the exchanger. And, as the air conditioning temperature control system, an air mix system that adjusts the mixing ratio of cold and hot air is adopted, and the heater core is adjusted by the opening degree of the air mix door arranged on the upstream side of the heater core and on the downstream side of the evaporator. The temperature of the air blown into the passenger compartment is controlled by adjusting the air volume ratio between the passing hot air and the cold air bypassing the heater core.

一方、電気自動車やハイブリッド車のエアコンには、コンプレッサをモータで駆動するクーラと電気ヒータとによるシステムが一部に用いられている。   On the other hand, in air conditioners of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles, a system using a cooler that drives a compressor with a motor and an electric heater is used in part.

最近では、暖房時の省電力の観点からヒートポンプサイクルによるシステムが主流となっており、電動コンプレッサを駆動制御した冷凍サイクルを用いて、冷房、暖房、除湿などを行うものがある(例えば、非特許文献1参照)。   Recently, a system using a heat pump cycle has become mainstream from the viewpoint of power saving during heating, and there is a system that performs cooling, heating, dehumidification, etc. using a refrigeration cycle that drives and controls an electric compressor (for example, non-patent) Reference 1).

図3に四方弁を用いたヒートポンプシステムの例を示す。冷房時の冷媒はコンプレッサ101から吐出され四方弁102により室外熱交換器103に流して放熱後、 冷房用絞り104で減圧しエバポレータ(蒸発器)105で吸熱しコンプレッサ101に戻る冷凍サイクルである。   FIG. 3 shows an example of a heat pump system using a four-way valve. The refrigerant during cooling is discharged from the compressor 101, flows through the outdoor heat exchanger 103 through the four-way valve 102, dissipates heat, depressurizes with the cooling throttle 104, absorbs heat with the evaporator (evaporator) 105, and returns to the compressor 101.

暖房時は四方弁102を切り替え、冷媒をコンデンサ106に流して放熱し、室外熱交換器103は蒸発器として作動させる。また除湿をする場合はコンデンサ106、 暖房用絞り107、室外熱交換器103、冷房用絞り104、エバポレータ105などの順に冷媒を流し、空気を冷却除湿した後に過熱を行う、いわゆるリヒート方式としている。   At the time of heating, the four-way valve 102 is switched, the refrigerant flows through the condenser 106 to dissipate heat, and the outdoor heat exchanger 103 is operated as an evaporator. In the case of dehumidification, a so-called reheat method is employed in which a refrigerant is passed in the order of the condenser 106, the heating throttle 107, the outdoor heat exchanger 103, the cooling throttle 104, the evaporator 105, etc., and the air is cooled and dehumidified to perform overheating.

特開平10−16531号公報Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-16531

電気自動車ハンドブック編集委員会 編著「電気自動車ハンドブック」丸善株式会社出版(図5.151)Electric Vehicle Handbook Editorial Committee “Electric Vehicle Handbook” published by Maruzen Co., Ltd. (Fig. 5.151)

このような従来の車両用空調装置においては、前者は内気の熱を利用して、外気の温度を内気の温度に近づけることができるので、外気導入による熱損失を低減できるが、後者のヒートポンプシステムにおいて、熱回収を有効に行える車両用の空調は考案されていないという課題を有していた。   In such a conventional vehicle air conditioner, the former can use the heat of the inside air to bring the temperature of the outside air close to the temperature of the inside air, so heat loss due to the introduction of the outside air can be reduced. However, there has been a problem that an air conditioning system for vehicles capable of effectively recovering heat has not been devised.

そこで本発明は、上記従来の課題を解決するものであり、ヒートポンプシステムにおいて、熱回収を有効に行える車両用空調装置を提供することを目的とする。   Therefore, the present invention solves the above-described conventional problems, and an object thereof is to provide a vehicle air conditioner that can effectively recover heat in a heat pump system.

そして、この目的を達成するために、本発明は、外気を導入する外気導入口から車内に空調風を吹き出す空調吹出口にかけての給気送風路と、内気を導入する内気導入口から内気を車外へ排出する内気排出口にかけての内気排出路と、前記給気送風路に前記外気導入口から前記空調吹出口に向かう空気流を発生させる外気送風手段と、前記内気排出路に前記内気導入口から前記内気排出口に向かう空気流を発生させる内気送風手段と、前記給気送風路を流れる空気を冷却または加熱する第1車内熱交換器および第2車内熱交換器と、冷房運転時凝縮器、暖房運転時蒸発器として外気と熱交換する車外熱交換器と、前記第1車内熱交換器、前記第2車内熱交換器および前記車外熱交換器と圧縮機の間で冷媒を循環させるヒートポンプと、前記内気排出路を流れる内気と前記外気導入口から導入される外気とを熱交換させて熱回収する熱回収器とを備え、前記車外熱交換器に前記熱回収器を通過した内気を送風するものであり、これにより所期の目的を達成するものである。   In order to achieve this object, the present invention provides a supply air passage from an outside air introduction port for introducing outside air to an air conditioning outlet for blowing conditioned air into the vehicle, and an inside air from the inside air introduction port for introducing inside air. An inside air discharge path to the inside air discharge port for discharging to the outside air, an outside air blowing means for generating an air flow from the outside air introduction port to the air conditioning outlet in the supply air blowing passage, and an inside air discharge passage from the inside air introduction port to the inside air discharge passage An inside air blowing means for generating an air flow toward the inside air discharge port, a first in-vehicle heat exchanger and a second in-vehicle heat exchanger for cooling or heating air flowing through the supply air passage, a condenser during cooling operation, An outside heat exchanger that exchanges heat with outside air as an evaporator during heating operation, the first in-vehicle heat exchanger, the second in-vehicle heat exchanger, and a heat pump that circulates refrigerant between the outside heat exchanger and the compressor; The above A heat recovery device that recovers heat by exchanging heat between the inside air flowing through the discharge passage and the outside air introduced from the outside air introduction port, and blows the inside air that has passed through the heat recovery device to the outside heat exchanger. Yes, and this achieves the intended purpose.

本発明によれば、車外熱交換器に熱回収器を通過した内気を送風する構成にしたことにより、車外へ排出する内気から熱回収し、冷房時には車外熱交換器の一部に外気より温度の低い内気を送風できるので、冷媒の凝縮温度を低くでき、第1車内熱交換器での冷媒の蒸発温度も低くでき、車外熱交換器に外気のみを送風するより、空調吹出口からより温度の低い冷風を吹出すことができるという効果を得ることができる。   According to the present invention, the outside air that has passed through the heat recovery device is blown to the outside heat exchanger, so that heat is recovered from the inside air that is discharged outside the vehicle, and during cooling, the temperature of the outside heat exchanger is increased from the outside air to a part of the outside heat exchanger. Therefore, it is possible to lower the condensation temperature of the refrigerant, lower the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant in the first in-vehicle heat exchanger, and lower the temperature from the air conditioning outlet than sending only the outside air to the outside heat exchanger. It is possible to obtain an effect that it is possible to blow out cold air having a low temperature.

また暖房時には車外熱交換器の一部に外気より温度の高い内気を送風できるので、冷媒の蒸発温度を高くでき、第2車内熱交換器での冷媒の凝縮温度も高くでき、車外熱交換器に外気のみを送風するより、空調吹出口からより温度の高い温風を吹出すことができるという効果を得ることができる。   Moreover, since the inside air whose temperature is higher than the outside air can be blown to a part of the outside heat exchanger during heating, the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant can be increased, the condensation temperature of the refrigerant in the second in-vehicle heat exchanger can also be increased, and the outside heat exchanger Therefore, it is possible to obtain an effect that hot air having a higher temperature can be blown out from the air-conditioning outlet than when only the outside air is blown.

さらに、内気排出路を流れる内気と前記外気導入口から導入される外気とを熱交換させて熱回収する熱回収器とを備えた構成にしたことにより、空調された車内空気から熱回収を行い、導入する外気を車内環境に近づけることができるので、車内の空調負荷を低減し、省エネ効果のある車両用空調装置を提供するという効果を得ることができる。   Furthermore, heat recovery is performed from the air-conditioned interior air by providing a heat recovery unit that recovers heat by exchanging heat between the inside air flowing through the inside air discharge path and the outside air introduced from the outside air introduction port. Since the outside air to be introduced can be brought close to the in-vehicle environment, the effect of reducing the air-conditioning load in the vehicle and providing a vehicle air-conditioning device having an energy saving effect can be obtained.

本発明の実施の形態1の車両用空調装置の概略構成図1 is a schematic configuration diagram of a vehicle air conditioner according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention. 本発明の実施の形態2の熱回収器を示すイメージ図The image figure which shows the heat recovery device of Embodiment 2 of this invention 従来の車両用空調装置のヒートポンプシステムの概略構成図Schematic configuration diagram of a conventional heat pump system for a vehicle air conditioner

以下、本発明の実施の形態について図面を参照しながら説明する。   Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.

(実施の形態1)
図1に示すように、車両用空調装置は、外気、内気の送風路とヒートポンプシステムで構成されている。
(Embodiment 1)
As shown in FIG. 1, the vehicle air conditioner includes an outside air and inside air blowing path and a heat pump system.

外気、内気の送風路には、外気を導入する外気導入口1から車内に空調風を吹き出す空調吹出口2にかけての給気送風路3と、内気導入口4から内気排出口7に向かい内気を車外へ排出する内気排出路8と、給気送風路3に外気導入口1から空調吹出口2に向かう空気流を発生させる外気送風手段9aと、内気排出路8に内気導入口4から内気排出路8に向かう空気流を発生させる内気送風手段9bと、給気送風路3を流れる空気を冷却または加熱する第1車内熱交換器10および第2車内熱交換器11が設けられている。   In the outside air and inside air blowing path, the inside air is directed from the outside air inlet 1 for introducing outside air to the air conditioning outlet 2 for blowing the conditioned air into the vehicle, and from the inside air inlet 4 to the inside air outlet 7. An inside air discharge path 8 for discharging outside the vehicle, an outside air blowing means 9a for generating an air flow from the outside air introduction port 1 to the air conditioning outlet 2 in the supply air blowing path 3, and an inside air discharge from the inside air introduction port 4 to the inside air discharge path 8 An inside air blowing means 9b that generates an air flow toward the path 8 and a first in-vehicle heat exchanger 10 and a second in-vehicle heat exchanger 11 that cool or heat the air flowing through the supply air blowing path 3 are provided.

また、内気導入口4には車内の空気温度を検知する内気温検知手段としての温度センサ5、車外の空気温度を検知する外気温検知手段としての温度センサ6が設けられている。   The inside air inlet 4 is provided with a temperature sensor 5 as an inside air temperature detecting means for detecting the air temperature inside the vehicle and a temperature sensor 6 as an outside air temperature detecting means for detecting the air temperature outside the vehicle.

熱源として、冷房運転時凝縮器、暖房運転時蒸発器として外気と熱交換する車外熱交換器12が、給気送風路3とは別の送風路に設けられ、第1車内熱交換器10、第2車内熱交換器11および車外熱交換器12と圧縮機13の間で冷媒を循環させるヒートポンプを備えている。   As a heat source, an external heat exchanger 12 for exchanging heat with the outside air as a condenser during cooling operation and an evaporator during heating operation is provided in an air passage different from the air supply air passage 3, and the first in-vehicle heat exchanger 10, The heat pump which circulates a refrigerant | coolant between the 2nd in-vehicle heat exchanger 11, the external heat exchanger 12, and the compressor 13 is provided.

ここでヒートポンプの構成を説明する。   Here, the configuration of the heat pump will be described.

圧縮機13の高圧冷媒吐出側に四方弁14、四方弁14と車外熱交換器12の間に逆止弁15、車外熱交換器12と第1車内熱交換器10の間に絞り弁16(図に示すように膨張弁16aと電磁弁16bを内蔵)、第2車内熱交換器11と車外熱交換器12の間に逆止弁17と絞り弁18(図に示すように膨張弁18aと電磁弁18bを内蔵)を設け、ヒートポンプを構成している。ここで本実施の形態では、前述の外気温検知手段としての温度センサ6を、車外熱交換器12の吸込み側に設けている。   On the high-pressure refrigerant discharge side of the compressor 13, a four-way valve 14, a check valve 15 between the four-way valve 14 and the vehicle exterior heat exchanger 12, and a throttle valve 16 (between the vehicle exterior heat exchanger 12 and the first vehicle interior heat exchanger 10 ( As shown in the drawing, an expansion valve 16a and an electromagnetic valve 16b are incorporated), and a check valve 17 and a throttle valve 18 (an expansion valve 18a as shown in the drawing) A solenoid valve 18b is built in) to constitute a heat pump. Here, in the present embodiment, the temperature sensor 6 as the above-described outside air temperature detecting means is provided on the suction side of the outside heat exchanger 12.

そして、内気排出路8を流れる内気から吸熱し、外気導入口1から導入される外気へ放熱する熱回収器19を備えている。この熱回収器19は顕熱と潜熱の両方を熱交換する全熱交換器である。   A heat recovery unit 19 that absorbs heat from the inside air flowing through the inside air discharge path 8 and dissipates heat to the outside air introduced from the outside air introduction port 1 is provided. The heat recovery unit 19 is a total heat exchanger that exchanges both sensible heat and latent heat.

そして本願の特徴は車外熱交換器12に熱回収器19を通過した内気を送風するものであり、本実施の形態では、車外熱交換器12の一部を内気排出口7と熱回収器19の間の内気排出路8に設けている。   The feature of the present application is that the inside air that has passed through the heat recovery device 19 is blown to the outside heat exchanger 12. In this embodiment, a part of the outside heat exchanger 12 is connected to the inside air discharge port 7 and the heat recovery device 19. It is provided in the inside air discharge path 8 between.

上記構成において、表1に記載の各運転モードについて説明する。   In the above configuration, each operation mode described in Table 1 will be described.

まず冷房運転時の冷媒の流れは、圧縮機13→四方弁14→逆止弁15→車外熱交換器12→絞り弁16→第1車内熱交換器10→圧縮機13で、第2車内熱交換器11には冷媒は流さない。   First, the flow of the refrigerant during the cooling operation is as follows: compressor 13 → four-way valve 14 → check valve 15 → external heat exchanger 12 → throttle valve 16 → first in-vehicle heat exchanger 10 → compressor 13; No refrigerant flows through the exchanger 11.

このような冷媒の流れの中、外気は外気送風手段9aの運転により外気導入口1から導入され、熱回収器19で外気より温度の低い内気に冷やされ、給気送風路3を通り、蒸発器として作用する第1車内熱交換器10通過時に冷媒の気化熱で冷却され、冷媒の流れていない第2車内熱交換器11を通り、空調吹出口2からフロントガラスや運転者に冷風を吹き出す。吹出された冷風は、内気となり車内を循環し、内気送風手段9bの運転により内気導入口4から内気排出路8中の熱回収器19で外気に暖められた後、車外熱交換器12で冷媒の凝縮熱によりさらに暖められ、内気排出口7から車外へ排出される。   In such a refrigerant flow, the outside air is introduced from the outside air introduction port 1 by the operation of the outside air blowing means 9a, cooled to the inside air having a temperature lower than that of the outside air by the heat recovery device 19, and evaporated through the supply air blowing path 3. Cooled by the heat of vaporization of the refrigerant when passing through the first in-vehicle heat exchanger 10 acting as a cooler, passes through the second in-vehicle heat exchanger 11 where no refrigerant flows, and blows out cool air from the air conditioning outlet 2 to the windshield and the driver. . The blown-out cool air becomes inside air and circulates inside the vehicle. After the inside air blowing means 9b is operated, the cold air is warmed to the outside air by the heat recovery device 19 in the inside air discharge path 8 from the inside air introduction port 4, and then the refrigerant in the outside heat exchanger 12 Is further warmed by the heat of condensation, and discharged from the inside air outlet 7 to the outside of the vehicle.

このように外気より温度の低い内気をそのまま排出せず、熱回収器19で外気と熱交換させ、さらに車外熱交換器12を通過してから排出するようにしたので、第1車内熱交換器10での冷媒による冷却負荷が減り圧縮機13の消費電力を低減できる。   In this way, the inside air having a temperature lower than that of the outside air is not discharged as it is, but is exchanged with the outside air by the heat recovery device 19 and further discharged after passing through the outside heat exchanger 12. Therefore, the first inside heat exchanger The cooling load by the refrigerant at 10 is reduced, and the power consumption of the compressor 13 can be reduced.

しかも、外気温度が高く冷凍サイクル内の冷媒の蒸発温度も高くなってしまうような場合にも、凝縮器として作用する車外熱交換器12に外気より温度の低い内気を送風して冷媒の液化を促進できるので、第1車内熱交換器10での冷媒の蒸発温度も低くでき、冷房能力の低下を抑制できる。   Moreover, even when the outside air temperature is high and the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle becomes high, the inside air having a temperature lower than the outside air is blown to the outside heat exchanger 12 acting as a condenser to liquefy the refrigerant. Since it can accelerate | stimulate, the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant | coolant in the 1st vehicle heat exchanger 10 can also be made low, and the fall of a cooling capability can be suppressed.

次に暖房運転時の冷媒の流れは、圧縮機13→四方弁14→第2車内熱交換器11→絞り弁18→車外熱交換器12→電磁弁16b→圧縮機13で、第1車内熱交換器10には冷媒は流さない。   Next, the refrigerant flow during the heating operation is as follows: compressor 13 → four-way valve 14 → second in-vehicle heat exchanger 11 → throttle valve 18 → outside heat exchanger 12 → electromagnetic valve 16b → compressor 13; No refrigerant flows through the exchanger 10.

このような冷媒の流れの中、外気は外気送風手段9aの運転により外気導入口1から導入され、熱回収器19で外気より温度の高い内気に暖められ、給気送風路3を通り、冷媒の流れていない第1車内熱交換器10を通り、凝縮器として作用する第2車内熱交換器11通過時に冷媒の凝縮熱で加熱され、空調吹出口2からフロントガラスや運転者に温風を吹き出す。吹出された温風は、内気となり車内を循環し、内気送風手段9bの運転により内気導入口4から内気排出路8中の熱回収器19で外気に冷やされ、内気排出口7から車外へ排出される。   In such a refrigerant flow, the outside air is introduced from the outside air introduction port 1 by the operation of the outside air blowing means 9a, warmed to the inside air having a temperature higher than the outside air by the heat recovery device 19, and passes through the supply air blowing path 3, When the air passes through the first in-vehicle heat exchanger 10 where the air does not flow and passes through the second in-vehicle heat exchanger 11 acting as a condenser, it is heated by the condensation heat of the refrigerant, and warm air is blown from the air conditioning outlet 2 to the windshield and the driver. Blow out. The blown warm air becomes the inside air and circulates inside the vehicle, and is cooled to the outside air by the heat recovery device 19 in the inside air discharge path 8 from the inside air introduction port 4 by the operation of the inside air blowing means 9b, and discharged from the inside air discharge port 7 to the outside of the vehicle. Is done.

このように外気より温度の高い内気をそのまま排出せず、熱回収器19で外気と熱交換させ、さらに車外熱交換器12を通過してから排出するようにしたので、第2車内熱交換器11での冷媒による加熱負荷が減り圧縮機13の消費電力を低減できる。   In this way, the inside air having a temperature higher than the outside air is not discharged as it is, but is exchanged with the outside air by the heat recovery unit 19 and further discharged after passing through the outside heat exchanger 12, so that the second inside heat exchanger The heating load due to the refrigerant at 11 is reduced, and the power consumption of the compressor 13 can be reduced.

しかも、外気温度が低く冷凍サイクル内の冷媒の凝縮温度も低くなってしまうような場合にも、蒸発器として作用する車外熱交換器12に外気より温度の高い内気を送風して冷媒の蒸発を促進できるので、第1車内熱交換器10での冷媒の凝縮温度も高くでき、暖房能力の低下を抑制できる。   Moreover, even when the outside air temperature is low and the condensation temperature of the refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle is also lowered, the inside air having a temperature higher than the outside air is blown to the outside heat exchanger 12 acting as an evaporator to evaporate the refrigerant. Since it can accelerate | stimulate, the condensing temperature of the refrigerant | coolant in the 1st in-vehicle heat exchanger 10 can also be made high, and the fall of heating capability can be suppressed.

また暖房時窓が曇る等除湿が必要な場合(表1では第一除湿暖房)、例えば結露検知手段として温度センサ6で検知した外気の温度が温度センサ5で検知した車内室温(または車内の空調の設定温度)の露点温度より低い場合、車外熱交換器12の後、第1車内熱交換器10にも冷媒を流し蒸発器として作用させ、第1車内熱交換器10通過時に外気を冷却除湿することにより、低湿な温風を空調吹出口2からフロントガラスや運転者に吹き出すことができる。   In addition, when dehumidification is required such as the window being clouded during heating (first dehumidifying heating in Table 1), for example, the temperature of the outside air detected by the temperature sensor 6 as dew condensation detection means is the room temperature detected by the temperature sensor 5 (or the air conditioning in the vehicle). If the temperature is lower than the dew point temperature), the refrigerant flows through the first heat exchanger 10 after the vehicle heat exchanger 12 to act as an evaporator, and the outside air is cooled and dehumidified when passing through the first heat exchanger 10. By doing so, low-humidity warm air can be blown out from the air conditioning outlet 2 to the windshield and the driver.

ここで車内の露点温度は、車内の湿度により変化するが、暖房時の一般的な相対湿度50〜60%と設定することにより、車内の露点温度は算出でき、外気温との比較により、窓の曇りの有無を判断できる。また、車内の湿度を検知する湿度検知手段として湿度センサ(図示なし)を内気温検知手段としての温度センサ5の近傍に設けて検知した湿度も用いて車内の露点温度を算出することにより、窓の曇りの有無をより正確に判断できる。   Here, the dew point temperature inside the vehicle changes depending on the humidity inside the vehicle, but by setting the general relative humidity 50 to 60% during heating, the dew point temperature inside the vehicle can be calculated. It can be judged whether there is cloudiness. Further, a humidity sensor (not shown) is provided in the vicinity of the temperature sensor 5 as the inside air temperature detecting means as a humidity detecting means for detecting the inside humidity of the car, and the dew point temperature inside the car is calculated using the detected humidity. It is possible to more accurately determine the presence or absence of cloudiness.

このとき、窓の曇りを早く解消したい場合、車外熱交換器12より第1車内熱交換器10での冷媒の蒸発量を多くすればよい。すなわち、車外熱交換器12用の送風機20を停止または送風量を減少させることにより、第1車内熱交換器10での冷媒の蒸発量を多くでき、除湿能力を増加させることができる。   At this time, if it is desired to eliminate the fogging of the window quickly, the amount of refrigerant evaporated in the first in-vehicle heat exchanger 10 may be increased more than in the outside heat exchanger 12. That is, by stopping the blower 20 for the vehicle exterior heat exchanger 12 or reducing the amount of blown air, the amount of refrigerant evaporated in the first in-vehicle heat exchanger 10 can be increased, and the dehumidifying capacity can be increased.

さらに上記の除湿をしても窓が曇る場合(表1では第二除湿暖房)、外気導入口1をダンパ21で閉じ、外気導入口1aのダンパ21aを開き、熱回収器19を通らない外気導入口1aから外気を導入することにより、熱回収器19での内気からの湿度回収を行わないため、より低湿な温風を空調吹出口2からフロントガラスや運転者に吹き出すことができる。   Further, if the window is cloudy even after the above dehumidification (the second dehumidifying heating in Table 1), the outside air inlet 1 is closed by the damper 21, the damper 21 a of the outside air inlet 1 a is opened, and the outside air that does not pass through the heat recovery device 19. By introducing the outside air from the introduction port 1a, the humidity recovery from the inside air in the heat recovery device 19 is not performed, and therefore, hot air with lower humidity can be blown out from the air conditioning outlet 2 to the windshield and the driver.

また、外気が高湿、すなわち、外気の絶対湿度が内気の絶対湿度より高い場合には、内気導入口4のダンパ22、外気導入口1のダンパ21、外気導入口1aのダンパ21aを閉じ、通常閉じている内気導入口4aのダンパ22aを開けることによる内気循環を断続的に行うことによっても、第1車内熱交換器10での除湿負荷を減らすことができ、無駄な電力を消費せず窓、特にフロントガラスの曇りを抑制できる。   When the outside air is highly humid, that is, when the absolute humidity of the outside air is higher than the absolute humidity of the inside air, the damper 22 of the inside air introduction port 4, the damper 21 of the outside air introduction port 1, and the damper 21a of the outside air introduction port 1a are closed, Even when the inside air circulation is intermittently performed by opening the damper 22a of the normally closed inside air introduction port 4a, the dehumidifying load in the first in-vehicle heat exchanger 10 can be reduced, and wasteful power is not consumed. It is possible to suppress fogging of windows, particularly the windshield.

以上のように、車外熱交換器12に熱回収器19を通過した内気を送風する構成にしたことにより、車外へ排出する内気から熱回収し、冷房時には車外熱交換器12の一部に外気より温度の低い内気を送風できるので、冷媒の凝縮温度を低くでき、第1車内熱交換器10での冷媒の蒸発温度も低くでき、車外熱交換器12に外気のみを送風するより、空調吹出口2からより温度の低い冷風を吹出すことができるという効果を得ることができる。   As described above, since the inside air that has passed through the heat recovery device 19 is blown to the outside heat exchanger 12, heat is recovered from the inside air that is discharged outside the vehicle. Since the cooler internal air can be blown, the refrigerant condensing temperature can be lowered, the refrigerant evaporating temperature in the first in-vehicle heat exchanger 10 can also be lowered, and the air-conditioning blower can be used instead of blowing only the outside air to the outside heat exchanger 12. An effect that cold air having a lower temperature can be blown out from the outlet 2 can be obtained.

また暖房時には車外熱交換器12の一部に外気より温度の高い内気を送風できるので、冷媒の蒸発温度を高くでき、第2車内熱交換器11での冷媒の凝縮温度も高くでき、車外熱交換器12に外気のみを送風するより、空調吹出口2からより温度の高い温風を吹出すことができるという効果を得ることができる。   Further, since the inside air having a temperature higher than the outside air can be blown to a part of the outside heat exchanger 12 during heating, the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant can be increased, the condensation temperature of the refrigerant in the second in-vehicle heat exchanger 11 can also be increased, and the outside heat The effect that hot air with higher temperature can be blown out from the air-conditioning blower outlet 2 can be obtained rather than blowing only the outside air into the exchanger 12.

すなわち、冷房時の凝縮器として作用する車外熱交換器12の冷媒の凝縮温度を低くでき、蒸発器として作用する第1車内熱交換器10での冷媒の蒸発温度の上昇を防ぐことにより適正な冷凍サイクルが維持できるので、圧縮機13の消費電力を低減することができる。   That is, it is possible to reduce the condensation temperature of the refrigerant in the external heat exchanger 12 that acts as a condenser during cooling, and to prevent an increase in the evaporation temperature of the refrigerant in the first in-vehicle heat exchanger 10 that acts as an evaporator. Since the refrigeration cycle can be maintained, the power consumption of the compressor 13 can be reduced.

さらに、内気排出路8を流れる内気と外気導入口1から導入される外気とを熱交換させて熱回収する熱回収器19とを備えた構成にしたことにより、空調された車内空気から熱回収を行い、導入する外気を車内環境に近づけることができるので、車内の空調負荷を低減し、省エネ効果のある車両用空調装置を提供するという効果を得ることができる。   Further, heat recovery is performed from the air-conditioned interior air by providing a heat recovery unit 19 that performs heat exchange between the inside air flowing through the inside air discharge path 8 and the outside air introduced from the outside air inlet 1. Since the outside air to be introduced can be brought close to the vehicle interior environment, the effect of reducing the air conditioning load in the vehicle and providing a vehicle air conditioner having an energy saving effect can be obtained.

なお、本実施の形態では、車外熱交換器12の一部を内気排出口7と熱回収器19の間の内気排出路8に設けたが、内気排出路8内ではなく内気排出口7の外側に設けてもよく、同様の効果が得られる。   In the present embodiment, a part of the vehicle exterior heat exchanger 12 is provided in the inside air discharge path 8 between the inside air discharge port 7 and the heat recovery unit 19, but not in the inside air discharge path 8 but in the inside air discharge port 7. It may be provided outside, and the same effect can be obtained.

(実施の形態2)
次に図2に、実施の形態1で説明した熱回収器19の別の形態を示す。
(Embodiment 2)
Next, FIG. 2 shows another form of the heat recovery unit 19 described in the first embodiment.

図2に示すように、熱回収器29は顕熱のみを回収(熱交換)する顕熱部29aと全熱を回収(熱交換)する全熱部29bにより構成され、表1で示した各運転モードにより、顕熱部29a、全熱部29bを使い分けることができる。   As shown in FIG. 2, the heat recovery unit 29 includes a sensible heat part 29 a that recovers only sensible heat (heat exchange) and a total heat part 29 b that recovers (heat exchange) total heat. Depending on the operation mode, the sensible heat part 29a and the total heat part 29b can be used properly.

上記構成において、表1で示した各運転モードにおける熱回収器29の使い分けを説明する。   In the above configuration, the proper use of the heat recovery device 29 in each operation mode shown in Table 1 will be described.

冷房運転時は外気の湿度を車内に入れない方が冷房負荷を低減できるので、全熱部29bのみを使用するのが好ましく、外気が低湿の場合、顕熱部29aと全熱部29b両方を使用してもよい。   Since it is possible to reduce the cooling load when the humidity of the outside air is not put in the vehicle during the cooling operation, it is preferable to use only the total heat part 29b. When the outside air is low humidity, both the sensible heat part 29a and the total heat part 29b are used. May be used.

暖房運転時は、外気が低湿の場合、顕熱部29aと全熱部29b両方を使用するのが好ましく、外気が高湿の場合や窓が曇る等除湿が必要な場合(表1では第一除湿暖房)、顕熱部29aのみを使用するのが好ましい。すなわち、表1での第二除湿暖房時にも、熱回収器29を使用することができ、外気より温度の高い内気をそのまま排出せず、熱回収器19で外気と熱交換させてから排出するようにしたので、第2車内熱交換器11での冷媒による加熱負荷が減り圧縮機13の消費電力を低減できる。   During heating operation, when the outside air is low humidity, it is preferable to use both the sensible heat portion 29a and the total heat portion 29b. When the outside air is high humidity or when the dehumidification is necessary such as clouding of the window (the first in Table 1) It is preferable to use only the sensible heat portion 29a. That is, the heat recovery device 29 can be used also in the second dehumidifying heating in Table 1, and the internal air having a temperature higher than the outside air is not discharged as it is, but is discharged after the heat recovery device 19 exchanges heat with the outside air. Since it did in this way, the heating load by the refrigerant | coolant in the 2nd vehicle interior heat exchanger 11 reduces, and the power consumption of the compressor 13 can be reduced.

なお、本実施の形態では、図2のように顕熱部29aと全熱部29bをイメージで表したが、顕熱部29aと全熱部29bを使い分けるには風路を切替えるダンパが必要となる。   In the present embodiment, the sensible heat part 29a and the total heat part 29b are represented by an image as shown in FIG. 2, but a damper for switching the air path is required to use the sensible heat part 29a and the total heat part 29b properly. Become.

また、顕熱部29aと全熱部29b両方に流す場合と、どちらか一方のみ流す場合では、圧損の違いから風量も変わるため、風量を確保したい場合は、顕熱部29aと全熱部29b両方に流すのが好ましい。   In addition, when the flow is made to flow through both the sensible heat portion 29a and the total heat portion 29b or when only one of them is flowed, the air volume also changes due to the difference in pressure loss. It is preferable to flow in both.

本発明にかかる車両用空調装置は、空調された車内空気から熱回収を行い、導入する外気を車内環境に近づけることができるので、車内の空調負荷の低減を可能とするものであるので、暖房の熱源の得られにくい電気自動車やハイブリッド車等に使用される車室内を暖房可能な車両用空調装置として有用である。   Since the vehicle air conditioner according to the present invention recovers heat from the air-conditioned vehicle interior and can bring the outside air to be introduced closer to the vehicle interior environment, it can reduce the air conditioning load in the vehicle. It is useful as a vehicle air conditioner that can heat the passenger compartment used in electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and the like where it is difficult to obtain a heat source.

1、1a 外気導入口
2 空調吹出口
3 給気送風路
4、4a 内気導入口
5、6 温度センサ
7 内気排出口
8 内気排出路
9a 外気送風手段
9b 内気送風手段
10 第1車内熱交換器
11 第2車内熱交換器
12 車外熱交換器
13 圧縮機
14 四方弁
15、17 逆止弁
16、18 絞り弁
16a、18a 膨張弁
16b、18b 電磁弁
19、29 熱回収器
20 送風機
21、21a、22、22a ダンパ
29a 顕熱部
29b 全熱部
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1, 1a Outside air introduction port 2 Air-conditioning blower outlet 3 Supply air ventilation path 4, 4a Inside air introduction port 5, 6 Temperature sensor 7 Inside air discharge port 8 Inside air discharge path 9a Outside air blowing means 9b Inside air blowing means 10 1st vehicle interior heat exchanger 11 Second heat exchanger 12 Inside heat exchanger 13 Compressor 14 Four-way valve 15, 17 Check valve 16, 18 Throttle valve 16a, 18a Expansion valve 16b, 18b Electromagnetic valve 19, 29 Heat recovery device 20 Blower 21, 21a, 22, 22a Damper 29a Sensible heat part 29b Total heat part

Claims (7)

外気を導入する外気導入口から車内に空調風を吹き出す空調吹出口にかけての給気送風路と、
内気を導入する内気導入口から内気を車外へ排出する内気排出口にかけての内気排出路と、
前記給気送風路に前記外気導入口から前記空調吹出口に向かう空気流を発生させる外気送風手段と、
前記内気排出路に前記内気導入口から前記内気排出口に向かう空気流を発生させる内気送風手段と、
前記給気送風路を流れる空気を冷却または加熱する第1車内熱交換器および第2車内熱交換器と、
冷房運転時凝縮器、暖房運転時蒸発器として外気と熱交換する車外熱交換器と、
前記第1車内熱交換器、前記第2車内熱交換器および前記車外熱交換器と圧縮機の間で冷媒を循環させるヒートポンプと、
前記内気排出路を流れる内気と前記外気導入口から導入される外気とを熱交換させて熱回収する熱回収器とを備え、
前記車外熱交換器に前記熱回収器を通過した内気を送風することを特徴とする車両用空調装置。
An air supply air passage from an outside air inlet that introduces outside air to an air conditioning outlet that blows out conditioned air into the vehicle;
An inside air discharge path from an inside air introduction port for introducing inside air to an inside air discharge port for discharging inside air to the outside of the vehicle,
An outside air blowing means for generating an air flow from the outside air inlet to the air conditioning outlet in the supply air passage;
An inside air blowing means for generating an air flow from the inside air inlet to the inside air outlet in the inside air discharge path;
A first in-vehicle heat exchanger and a second in-vehicle heat exchanger for cooling or heating the air flowing through the air supply air passage;
An external heat exchanger that exchanges heat with outside air as a condenser during cooling operation and an evaporator during heating operation;
A heat pump that circulates refrigerant between the first in-vehicle heat exchanger, the second in-vehicle heat exchanger, and the external heat exchanger and the compressor;
A heat recovery unit that recovers heat by exchanging heat between the inside air flowing through the inside air discharge path and the outside air introduced from the outside air inlet;
A vehicle air conditioner that blows the inside air that has passed through the heat recovery device to the vehicle exterior heat exchanger.
車外熱交換器の一部を内気排出口と熱回収器の間の内気排出路に設けることを特徴とする請求項1に記載の車両用空調装置。 2. The vehicle air conditioner according to claim 1, wherein a part of the external heat exchanger is provided in an inside air discharge path between the inside air outlet and the heat recovery unit. 熱回収器は、全熱および/または顕熱を回収することを特徴とする請求項1または2に記載の車両用空調装置。 The vehicle air conditioner according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the heat recovery unit recovers total heat and / or sensible heat. 車内の空気温度を検知する内気温検知手段と、車外の空気温度を検知する外気温検知手段を備え、
前記内気温検知手段で検知した温度と前記外気温検知手段で検知した温度を用いて、暖房運転時の除湿を制御することを特徴とする請求項1乃至3のいずれかに記載の車両用空調装置。
It has an inside air temperature detecting means for detecting the air temperature inside the vehicle and an outside air temperature detecting means for detecting the air temperature outside the car,
The vehicle air conditioning according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein dehumidification during heating operation is controlled using the temperature detected by the inside air temperature detecting means and the temperature detected by the outside air temperature detecting means. apparatus.
車内の湿度を検知する湿度検知手段を設けた請求項4に記載の車両用空調装置。 The vehicle air conditioner according to claim 4, further comprising humidity detection means for detecting the humidity inside the vehicle. 熱回収器を通らない外気導入口を設けたことを特徴とする請求項4または5に記載の車両用空調装置。 6. The vehicle air conditioner according to claim 4, further comprising an outside air inlet that does not pass through the heat recovery unit. 内気導入口に切替ダンパを設け、内気循環と外気導入を切替えることを特徴とする請求項1乃至6のいずれかにに記載の車両用空調装置。 The vehicle air conditioner according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein a switching damper is provided at the inside air introduction port to switch between inside air circulation and outside air introduction.
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JP2013203190A (en) * 2012-03-28 2013-10-07 Denso Corp Battery temperature adjusting device
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WO2021059529A1 (en) * 2019-09-27 2021-04-01 三菱電機株式会社 Vehicular air-conditioning/ventilation device and vehicle
EP3895920A1 (en) 2020-04-18 2021-10-20 Konvekta Aktiengesellschaft Heating and / or air conditioning system with improved ventilation for a ground vehicle
EP3895921A1 (en) 2020-04-18 2021-10-20 Konvekta Aktiengesellschaft Heating and / or air conditioning system with improved air treatment and method for same

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JP2013193668A (en) * 2012-03-22 2013-09-30 Panasonic Corp Air conditioner for vehicle
WO2013145701A1 (en) * 2012-03-26 2013-10-03 パナソニック株式会社 Onboard air conditioning device, air conditioning unit, and vehicle
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CN104290561A (en) * 2014-09-11 2015-01-21 中国科学院理化技术研究所 Method for recycling exhaust air heat of electric automobile and heat pump air-conditioning system adopting same
WO2019202731A1 (en) * 2018-04-20 2019-10-24 三菱電機株式会社 Vehicle heat exchange system and vehicle air conditioning system
JPWO2019202731A1 (en) * 2018-04-20 2021-02-12 三菱電機株式会社 Vehicle heat exchange system and vehicle air conditioning system
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EP3895920A1 (en) 2020-04-18 2021-10-20 Konvekta Aktiengesellschaft Heating and / or air conditioning system with improved ventilation for a ground vehicle
EP3895921A1 (en) 2020-04-18 2021-10-20 Konvekta Aktiengesellschaft Heating and / or air conditioning system with improved air treatment and method for same

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