JP2008176180A - Visual display device - Google Patents

Visual display device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2008176180A
JP2008176180A JP2007011239A JP2007011239A JP2008176180A JP 2008176180 A JP2008176180 A JP 2008176180A JP 2007011239 A JP2007011239 A JP 2007011239A JP 2007011239 A JP2007011239 A JP 2007011239A JP 2008176180 A JP2008176180 A JP 2008176180A
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Prior art keywords
optical system
surface
central axis
image
display device
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JP2007011239A
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Japanese (ja)
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Kokichi Kenno
孝吉 研野
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Olympus Corp
オリンパス株式会社
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an observation apparatus capable of three-dimensional observation from all directions without using a complicated mechanical rotation mechanism or glasses, and a display apparatus capable of displaying observation images different depending on viewing angles and individual persons. A visual display device suitable for the above is provided.
A main optical system (2) has a transparent medium (2) that is rotationally symmetric about a central axis (1) and has a refractive index greater than 1. The transparent medium (2) is composed of a first transmission surface (21) and a first transmission surface (21). In the case of an imaging optical system, the main optical system has a first reflecting surface 22 disposed on the image surface side and a second transmitting surface 23 disposed on the image surface side with respect to the first reflecting surface 22. 2 enters the transparent medium 2 through the first transmission surface 21, and enters the image plane side by the first reflection surface 22 disposed on the opposite side of the first transmission surface 21 with the central axis 1 interposed therebetween. It is reflected and goes out of the transparent medium 2 through the second transmission surface 23 arranged on the same side as the first reflection surface 22 with respect to the central axis 1.
[Selection] Figure 11

Description

  The present invention relates to a visual display device, and is particularly suitable for an observation device capable of stereoscopic observation without using glasses or the like from all surrounding directions, and a display device capable of displaying different observation images depending on viewing angles and individual persons. The present invention relates to a visual display device.

Conventionally, when a screen provided with a viewing angle limiting filter is rotated around a central axis, for example, an image obtained by viewing one object from a 360 ° peripheral direction is projected on the screen to observe from an arbitrary direction. Patent Documents 1 to 3 are known in which a viewing image changes depending on the viewing direction, and three-dimensional display is possible.
JP 2005-221690 A JP 2006-10852 A JP 2006-11367 A

  However, in the case of the conventional examples known in Patent Documents 1 to 3, a mechanism for mechanically rotating a screen provided with a viewing angle limiting filter is necessary, and observation is performed in that direction when viewed from a specific direction. Possible images can only be seen intermittently. Furthermore, there is a display device that can be viewed stereoscopically with the naked eye without rotating the display element or the screen surface, without using glasses or the like, and capable of observing from any direction around 360 °. There wasn't.

  The present invention has been made in view of such a situation in the prior art, and the object thereof is to enable stereoscopic observation from all directions without using a complicated mechanical rotation mechanism or glasses. And a visual display device suitable for a display device capable of displaying different observation images depending on viewing angles and individual persons.

  In the visual display device of the present invention that achieves the above object, a rotationally symmetric main optical system is arranged concentrically with a central axis, and a plurality of identically configured sub optical systems are arranged in parallel on a circumference concentric with the central axis The exit pupil of the composite optical system composed of the main optical system and each sub optical system is opposite to the sub optical system side of the main optical system and is opposite to the sub optical system in the optical path with respect to the central axis. The display surface of the display element is arranged on the side opposite to the main optical system of each sub optical system, the image of the display surface by each combining optical system is formed near the central axis, and each combining An exit pupil of the optical system is formed substantially continuously and concentrically with the central axis, the main optical system has a transparent medium having a refractive index greater than 1 that is rotationally symmetric about the central axis, 1 transmission surface, a 1st reflective surface arrange | positioned from the said 1st transmission surface to the image surface side on an optical path, and an image on an optical path from the said 1st reflection surface A light beam incident on the main optical system enters the transparent medium through the first transmission surface in the order of reverse ray tracing, and enters the transparent medium with the central axis in between. Reflected to the image plane side by the first reflecting surface disposed on the opposite side of the surface and passed through the second transmitting surface disposed on the same side as the first reflecting surface with respect to the central axis. It is characterized by going out of the medium.

  In this case, on the display surface, images taken from a plurality of viewpoints for the same object can be displayed to enable stereoscopic observation.

  Further, the display surface can be configured by arranging a plurality of flat display elements in rotational symmetry.

  Further, the display surface can be configured by rounding a display element configured two-dimensionally and configuring it three-dimensionally.

  Further, it is desirable that at least one surface of the main optical system has different curvatures in a longitudinal section including a rotational symmetry axis and a transverse section orthogonal to the rotational symmetry axis.

  In addition, at least one surface of the main optical system may have a rotationally symmetric shape formed by rotating an arbitrary-shaped curve having no symmetric surface around a rotational symmetry axis. In addition, it may have a rotationally symmetric shape formed by rotating an arbitrarily shaped curve including an odd-order term around the rotational symmetry axis.

When half of the outer diameter of the main optical system is Rs,
10mm <Rs (1)
It is desirable to satisfy the following conditions.

  In addition, it is desirable that a light shielding member is disposed in a region where light does not pass.

  Further, an illumination device that illuminates the entire display surface from all directions opposite to the sub optical system side may be provided.

  In the visual display device of the present invention described above, it is possible to observe a stereoscopic image by observing an image with parallax when viewed from the surroundings without using a complicated mechanical rotation mechanism or glasses. A visual display device can be provided. Further, it is possible to provide a visual display device that can display different observation images depending on the viewing angle and the viewing direction.

  The visual display device of the present invention will be described below based on examples.

  The basic principle of the visual display device according to the present invention is that a main optical system 2 that is concentric with the central axis 1 is rotationally symmetric, and a plurality of sub optical systems 3 having the same configuration are arranged in parallel on a circumference concentric with the central axis 1. The exit pupil 4 of the combining optical system constituted by the main optical system 2 and each sub optical system 3 is opposite to the sub optical system 3 side of the main optical system 2 and is relative to the central axis 1 The display surface 5 of the display element is disposed on the side opposite to the main optical system 2 of each sub optical system 3 from the sub optical system 3 on the opposite side of the optical path, and an image of the display surface 5 by each combining optical system. Is formed in the vicinity of the central axis, and the exit pupil 4 of each combining optical system is formed substantially continuously and concentrically with the central axis, and the main optical system 2 has a rotationally symmetric refractive index around the central axis 1. A transparent medium greater than 1, the transparent medium comprising: a first transmission surface 21; a first reflection surface 22 disposed on the image plane side on the optical path from the first transmission surface 21; A light beam incident on the main optical system 2 in the order of reverse ray tracing in the case of an observation optical system has a second transmission surface 23 arranged on the image plane side on the optical path from the first reflection surface 21. Through the transparent medium, reflected by the first reflecting surface 22 disposed on the opposite side of the first transmitting surface 21 across the central axis 1, and reflected by the first reflecting surface with respect to the central axis 1. 22 exits from the transparent medium through the second transmission surface 23 arranged on the same side as 22.

  In the case of an optical system that observes the central axis direction from the periphery with respect to the central axis, in the conventional optical system in which the image plane is orthogonal to the central axis with a rotational symmetry, it is necessary to bend the light beam greatly, Therefore, a relatively large observation area could not be taken.

  On the other hand, in the method of projecting onto the screen disclosed in Patent Documents 1 to 3, it is necessary to rotate the screen.

  Therefore, in the present invention, a rotationally symmetric optical system that functions as an expansion imaging optical system from any direction around the central axis is arranged with the rotationally symmetric axis (center axis) as the vertical direction, and the observation direction is substantially the same as the rotationally symmetric axis. The greatest feature is that observation is possible from all directions in the vertical and horizontal directions.

  With such a configuration, it has succeeded in functioning as a magnifying observation optical system (visual display device) from any horizontal direction with the rotational symmetry axis as the vertical direction.

  In addition, by using the first surface as the transmission surface, the display image formed in the main optical system can be enlarged by the positive power of the first transmission surface, and the first surface is observed from the reflection surface. The image can be enlarged.

  Further, by configuring the second surface with a reflecting surface, the occurrence of aberration is smaller than when the second surface is configured with a transmitting surface, and in particular, image distortion can be reduced.

  More preferably, in consideration of image distortion in advance, it is possible to display the display element so as to cancel the distortion in advance.

  More preferably, in the case of the observation optical system, in the order of reverse ray tracing, the transmission surface transmits light rays coming from outside the rotational symmetry axis in the rotational symmetry axis direction, and the reflection surface transmits light rays coming from the rotational symmetry axis direction to the rotational symmetry axis. In the direction along the axis of rotational symmetry, more preferably, the light-transmitting surface, the reflecting surface, the transmitting surface, the display element, or vice versa are arranged.

  With this arrangement, the reflection angle of the light beam on the reflecting surface is minimized, and the occurrence of decentration aberration can be minimized.

  Hereinafter, description will be given with reference to the drawings. FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view taken along the central axis of the optical system of the visual display device according to the first embodiment of the present invention to be described later, FIG. 12 is an enlarged view of the main part of FIG. 11, and FIG. FIG. 14 is an enlarged plan view of a main part viewed in a direction along a central axis indicating an optical path in the system, and FIG. 14 is a plan view viewed in a direction along the central axis indicating the entire optical system. In FIGS. 11 to 13, only a part of the sub optical system 3 and the display surface 5 are shown.

  Hereinafter, the visual display device of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS.

  In the optical system of the visual display device of the present invention, a main optical system 2 that is rotationally symmetric with respect to the central axis 1 is disposed. The main optical system 2 includes a transparent medium 2 having a rotational symmetry around the central axis 1 and a refractive index larger than 1. The transparent medium 2 is an image on the optical path from the first transmission surface 21 and the first transmission surface 21. In the case of an observation optical system, the main optical system has a first reflecting surface 22 disposed on the surface side and a second transmitting surface 23 disposed on the image surface side on the optical path from the first reflecting surface 22. The light beam incident on the system 2 enters the transparent medium 2 via the first transmission surface 21, and the first reflection surface 22 disposed on the opposite side of the first transmission surface 21 with the central axis 1 interposed therebetween is on the image plane side. And exits from the transparent medium 2 through a second transmission surface 23 disposed on the same side as the first reflection surface 22 with respect to the central axis 1.

  As is clear from FIG. 14 in particular, a plurality of sub-optical systems 3 having the same configuration are arranged in parallel on a circumference concentric with the central axis 1. The sub optical system 3 is not limited to a plurality of refractors having positive power, and may be a single refractor, a reflection optical system, a catadioptric optical system, or a composite optical system. A diaphragm which has power and is arranged in the sub optical system 3 when combined with the main optical system 2, and in this embodiment, a diaphragm is arranged in the vicinity of the fourth surface facing the image plane 5 of the sub optical system 3. The exit pupil 4 which is an image of the main optical system 2 of the stop is formed on the opposite side of the sub optical system 3 with the central axis 1 in between. Since the plurality of sub optical systems 3 having the same configuration are arranged in parallel on the circumference concentric with the central axis 1, the exit pupils 4 of the respective combining optical systems are arranged in parallel with the central axis 1. The size of each exit pupil 4 is such that when arranged in parallel, they are connected substantially continuously on the circumference thereof.

  The display surface of the display element is positioned at the position opposite to the main optical system 2 of each sub optical system 3 and at a position conjugate with the central axis 1 position of the combining optical system composed of the main optical system 2 and the sub optical system 3. 5 is arranged. Therefore, the real image of the display surface 5 is formed in the vicinity of the central axis 1 as the intermediate image 6.

  With such a configuration, when the observer brings his / her eyes near one of the exit pupil 4 positions, the combined optical system (main optical system 2 and sub optical system 3) that forms the exit pupil 4 is used. Observe a virtual image formed by an optical part on the observation side of the intermediate image 6 of the main optical system 2 of the intermediate image 6 formed in the vicinity of the central axis 1 by the composite optical system of the display surface 5 arranged on the image surface. It can be observed as an image 7. Then, since the composite optical system composed of the main optical system 2 and the sub optical system 3 is equivalent to being arranged at a certain angle around the central axis 1, when the central axis 1 is set as the vertical direction, When viewed from any direction of 360 ° around the central axis 1, the display surface 5 at a position corresponding to the exit pupil 4 where the observer's eyes are located (on the opposite side of the exit pupil 4 across the central axis 1) A virtual image of the display surface 5) can be observed on the central axis 1 as an observation image 7.

  By the way, when the central axis 1 is set as the vertical direction, it is important to arrange the sub optical system 3 below the observation direction so that the sub optical system 3 does not interfere with the observation from the horizontal direction. is there. For example, arranging the observation direction and the height of the display surface 5 in the same plane is the simplest arrangement, but the display surface 5 on the opposite side (observation side) across the central axis 1 is in the way, It becomes impossible to observe the observation image. Therefore, the sub optical system 3 is arranged below the observation direction, and at the same time, an image on the smaller display surface 5 is enlarged and projected onto the sub optical system 3 in the direction of the main optical system 2, and the main optical system 2 observes the observation image 7. As a result, the large observation image 7 can be displayed on the small display surface 5 without being obstructed by the display element having the display surface 5.

  Further, a plurality of identical sub optical systems 3 are arranged concentrically, and the aperture (aperture) of the sub optical system 3 is arranged concentrically with the central axis 1. The apertures (diaphragms) arranged concentrically in parallel are enlarged and projected onto the region observed by the observer by the main optical system 2, and the exit pupil 4 is arranged substantially continuously and concentrically on the central axis 1. A wide observation area can be formed. A wide observation area can be secured without using a diffusion plate or the like by the exit pupils 4 continuously projected in parallel. Further, the image on the display surface 5 is enlarged by the sub optical system 3 and further formed as an intermediate image 6 near the central axis 1 by the main optical system 2. The observer observes the magnified virtual image of the magnified intermediate image 6 as the observed image 7, and can observe a large observed image.

  Further, if the observation image 7 is arranged on the central axis 1, the convergence of the observation image 7 projected by at least two combining optical systems can be made coincident with the convergence point of both eyes. Easy 3D display is possible.

  More preferably, it is desirable to display images taken from a plurality of viewpoints on the same object on each display surface 5. That is, as shown in FIG. 1, the parallax image of the object 100 is a still image captured by the camera 101 by rotating the object 100 every 22.5 ° when the entire circumference is divided into, for example, 16 °. Alternatively, a moving image generated by rotating a viewpoint every 22.5 ° similarly for a three-dimensional object created by CG or the like may be used. Furthermore, it may be a moving image from an imaging device in which 16 cameras are installed toward the center point.

  The 16-view still images and moving images created in this way become 16-view images, as shown in FIG. When the entire display surface (display element) 15 has a conical shape, such an image is displayed so as to be concentric in a conical shape in the order of the taken angles as shown in FIG. Actually, since the up / down / left / right direction is inverted by the image formation of the combining optical system, the image is displayed as an image in which the up / down / left / right direction is inverted in advance. Further, when the entire display surface (display element) 15 is cylindrical, as shown in FIG. 4, the images are displayed in a cylindrical shape in the order of the photographed angles.

  When such parallax images are arranged on the respective display surfaces 5 in the order of angles taken around the central axis, as shown in FIG. 5, when the left and right eyeballs EL and ER of the observer are positioned on the adjacent exit pupil 4 The observation image 7 of the binocular parallax image can be seen on the left and right eyeballs EL and ER, and the stereoscopic image of the photographed object 100 can be seen.

  Here, regarding the position of the exit pupil 4 on which the aperture of the sub optical system 3 is projected at the observation position and the left and right eyeballs EL and ER of the observer, as shown in FIG. Therefore, it is desirable that the projected exit pupils 4 of the optical system 50 of the visual display device of the present invention are also spaced by 65 mm. Further, the shape of the exit pupil 4 is not limited to a square as shown in FIG. 5, but may be an ellipse or a rectangle.

  Also, as shown in FIG. 6, when the observation position is a clear vision distance of 30 cm, the standard eye width is 65 mm. Therefore, the observation region by one synthetic optical system of the optical system 50 of the visual display device of the present invention is 12 It is preferably 37 ° or more. Furthermore, when the observer E moves his / her head, as shown in FIG. 7, the observer sequentially moves to the observation area by the adjacent synthetic optical system and eventually observes a stereoscopic image from all directions of 360 °. It becomes possible. It is also possible to observe the omnidirectional stereoscopic image by mechanically rotating the optical system 50, and to electronically switch the display image on each display surface 5 to observe the stereoscopic image from all directions. It is also possible to do so.

  Note that the images to be arranged on each display surface 5 are not limited to those arranged in the order of angles as described above. For example, by making a completely different image with a certain angle as a boundary, the viewing angle or individual Therefore, different images can be observed.

  The image of the main optical system 2, the sub optical system 3, the display surface (display element) 15, and the observation image 7 of the visual display device of the present invention described above is shown in the schematic diagram of FIG.

  More preferably, each display surface 5 can be configured by arranging a plurality of flat display elements in rotational symmetry. This makes it possible to configure each display surface 5 with a general-purpose display element without newly manufacturing a special display element, and to configure the apparatus at a low cost.

  More preferably, the display surface 5 can be configured by rounding display elements that are two-dimensionally configured to be three-dimensionally configured. In recent years, there are display elements such as LCD or organic EL formed on a flexible substrate, and these flexible two-dimensional display elements are rounded into a cylindrical shape or a conical shape and used as the display surface 5 so that they can be concentric at low cost. It is possible to provide a display element arranged in a dimension.

  Further, it is desirable that at least one surface of the main optical system 2 is configured to have different curvatures in a longitudinal section including the rotational symmetry axis (center axis) 1 and a transverse section orthogonal to the rotational symmetry axis 1. Since the visual display device of the present invention is an omnidirectional optical system in which a video display area and an observation area exist with a rotational symmetry axis in between, if the video display area and the observation area are arranged in one plane, the video display area is observed. The image will be blocked. In order to avoid this, it is necessary to make the light beam reaching the observation area from the image display area oblique to the rotational symmetry axis 1 of the main optical system 2. Therefore, the sub optical system 3 is decentered with respect to the main optical system 2, and decentration aberration occurs. In order to reduce this, at least one surface of the main optical system 2 is configured to have different curvatures in a longitudinal section including the rotational symmetry axis (center axis) 1 and a transverse section orthogonal to the rotational symmetry axis 1. Thus, this decentration aberration can be corrected.

  More preferably, at least one surface of the main optical system 2 has a rotationally symmetric shape formed by rotating an arbitrary-shaped curve having no symmetric surface around the rotational symmetry axis 1, thereby further decentering aberration, For example, coma generated by decentration can be corrected.

  More preferably, at least one surface of the main optical system 2 has a rotationally symmetric shape formed by rotating an arbitrary-shaped curve including an odd-order term around the rotational symmetry axis 1, thereby further increasing the degree of freedom. Aberration correction can be performed, which is preferable in terms of aberration correction.

More preferably, when Rs is half of the outer diameter of the main optical system 2 (the outer diameter in the direction perpendicular to the rotational symmetry axis 1),
10mm <Rs (1)
It is desirable to satisfy the following conditions. If the lower limit of 10 mm is exceeded, the observation image becomes small, and it becomes difficult to make a realistic observation.

More preferably,
20 mm <Rs (1-1)
Satisfying these conditions is preferable for obtaining a sense of reality.

  In addition, Rs of Examples 1 to 3 described below is as follows.

Example 1 2 3
Rs (mm) 100.00 101.00 102.00
By the way, in the visual display device of the present invention, the display surface 5 is arranged corresponding to each of the sub optical systems 3, but the entire display surface 15 in which the display surfaces 5 are arranged in parallel is a cylinder as described above. And conical. This may be constituted by one display element, or a plurality of flat display elements may be arranged rotationally symmetrically. In either case, the display surface 5 may be disposed on the inner surface of the cylindrical surface or the conical surface, or the display surface 5 may be disposed on the outer surface. FIG. 9 shows an example in which the entire display surface (display element) 15 is cylindrical, and shows a case where the display surface 5 is disposed on the inner surface (a) and a case where the display surface 5 is disposed on the outer surface (b).

  FIG. 10 shows a positive power Fresnel lens in which a light emitter 16 is arranged on the central axis 1 as an illuminating device, and illumination light emitted from the light emitter 16 is arranged outside the light emitter 16 with the central axis 1 as the center. It is a figure which condenses with the ring-shaped condensing optical systems 13 and 13 'which are rotationally symmetrical around the central axis 1 in the shape, and shows the example which condenses and illuminates the cylindrical display element 15 from an inner side. In this configuration, in order to increase the contrast of the observation image, a means such as a viewing angle limiting filter or a louver is provided as a light emitter so as to limit the light emitted from the display surface 15 within the cross section including the central axis 1. 16 and the display surface 15 may be arranged.

  Examples 1 to 3 of the optical system of the visual display device of the present invention will be described below. The configuration parameters of these optical systems will be described later. For example, as shown in FIGS. 12 and 13, the configuration parameters of these embodiments are such that the object plane is the plane of the observation image 7, the image plane conjugate with the observation image 7 is the display plane 5, and the exit pupil 4 extends from the object plane 7. (The light beam passes through the exit pupil 4 while extending in the opposite direction), and the light beam traveling toward the image plane 5 passes through the optical surfaces 21 and 22 and the diaphragm surface of the main optical system 2 and the optical surfaces 31, 32 and 33 of the sub optical system 3. , 34 and based on the result of back ray tracing to the image plane 5.

  For example, as shown in FIG. 12, the coordinate system uses the center of the object plane 7 (located on the central axis 1) as the origin of the decentered optical surface of the decentered optical system, and the image plane 5 of the center axis 1 is used. The direction opposite to the Y axis is the Y axis positive direction, and the inside of FIG. 12 is the YZ plane. The direction on the image plane 5 side in FIG. 12 is the Z-axis positive direction, and the Y-axis, the Z-axis, and the axis constituting the right-handed orthogonal coordinate system are the X-axis positive direction.

  For the decentered surface, the amount of decentering from the center of the origin of the optical system in the coordinate system in which the surface is defined (X-axis direction, Y-axis direction, and Z-axis direction are X, Y, and Z, respectively) and the optical system The inclination angles (α, β, γ (°), respectively) of the coordinate system defining each surface centered on the X axis, Y axis, and Z axis of the coordinate system defined at the origin are given. In this case, positive α and β mean counterclockwise rotation with respect to the positive direction of each axis, and positive γ means clockwise rotation with respect to the positive direction of the Z axis. Note that the α, β, and γ rotations of the central axis of the surface are performed by rotating the coordinate system defining each surface counterclockwise around the X axis of the coordinate system defined at the origin of the optical system. Then rotate it around the Y axis of the new rotated coordinate system by β and then rotate it around the Z axis of another rotated new coordinate system by γ. It is.

  Further, among the optical action surfaces constituting the optical system of each embodiment, when a specific surface and a subsequent surface constitute a coaxial optical system, a surface interval is given, in addition, the curvature radius of the surface, The refractive index and Abbe number of the medium are given according to conventional methods.

  The extended rotation free-form surface is a rotationally symmetric surface given by the following definition.

  First, the following curve (a) passing through the origin on the YZ coordinate plane is determined.

Z = (Y 2 / RY) / [1+ {1- (C 1 +1) Y 2 / RY 2} 1/2]
+ C 2 Y + C 3 Y 2 + C 4 Y 3 + C 5 Y 4 + C 6 Y 5 + C 7 Y 6
+ ··· + C 21 Y 20 + ··· + C n + 1 Y n + ····
... (a)
Next, a curve F (Y) obtained by rotating the curve (a) in the positive direction of the X axis and turning the counterclockwise to the positive angle θ (°) is determined. This curve F (Y) also passes through the origin on the YZ coordinate plane.

  The curve F (Y) is translated in the Y positive direction by a distance R (Y negative direction if negative), and then the rotationally symmetric surface is rotated by rotating the translated curve around the Z axis. Let it be a free-form surface.

  As a result, the extended rotation free-form surface becomes a free-form surface (free-form curve) in the YZ plane and a circle with a radius | R | in the XY plane.

  From this definition, the Y-axis becomes the axis of the extended rotation free-form surface (rotation symmetry axis).

Where RY is the radius of curvature of the spherical term in the YZ section, C 1 is the conic constant, C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 . Aspheric coefficient.

A conical surface having an axis parallel to the Y axis as a central axis is given as one of the extended rotation free-form surfaces, and RY = ∞, C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 ,. , Θ = (conical surface inclination angle), R = (radius of bottom surface in XZ plane).

  In addition, a term relating to an aspheric surface for which no data is described in the constituent parameters described later is zero. The refractive index and the Abbe number are shown for the d-line (wavelength 587.56 nm). The unit of length is mm. As described above, the eccentricity of each surface is expressed by the amount of eccentricity from the reference surface.

  FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view taken along the central axis 1 of the optical system of the visual display device of Example 1, FIG. 12 is an enlarged view of the main part of FIG. 11, and FIG. 11 is a center showing the optical path in the optical system of FIG. FIG. 13 shows an enlarged plan view of the main part viewed in the direction along the axis 1. And the top view seen in the direction in alignment with the central axis which shows the whole optical system is shown in FIG. In FIGS. 11 to 13, only a part of the sub optical system 3 and the display surface 5 are shown. Further, FIG. 15 shows a lateral aberration diagram of the entire optical system of this example. In this lateral aberration diagram, the angle shown at the center indicates (horizontal field angle, vertical field angle), and the lateral aberrations in the Y direction (meridional direction) and X direction (sagittal direction) at that field angle. Show. Note that a negative field angle means a clockwise angle in the Y-axis positive direction for the horizontal field angle, and a clockwise angle in the X-axis positive direction for the vertical field angle. same as below.

  This embodiment is an example in which the main optical system 2 is composed of a transparent medium having a refractive index larger than 1 concentrically rotationally symmetric with respect to the central axis 1 that is internally reflected once in the cross section including the central axis 1. The main optical system 2 is composed of a transparent medium having a refractive index that is rotationally symmetric around the central axis 1 and greater than 1. The transparent medium 2 is an extended rotation obtained by rotating a curve including odd-order terms around the central axis 1. A first transmission surface 21 made of a free-form surface and having positive power, a first reflection surface 22 arranged on the image surface side on the optical path from the first transmission surface 21 and made of an extended rotation free-form surface and having positive power, and a first reflection A light beam that is disposed on the image surface side of the optical path from the surface 22 and has a second transmission surface 23 made of an extended rotation free-form surface and having positive power, and incident on the main optical system 2 in the order of backward ray tracing in the case of an observation optical system. Enters the transparent medium 2 through the first transmission surface 21 and is reflected toward the image plane by the first reflection surface 22 disposed on the opposite side of the first transmission surface 21 with the central axis 1 interposed therebetween. 1 through a second transmission surface 23 arranged on the same side as the first reflection surface 22. From the transparent medium 2 goes out.

Then, 30 sub-optical systems 3 having the same configuration are arranged in parallel on a circumference concentric with the central axis 1 so as to face the second transmission surface 23 of the main optical system 2. The sub optical system 3 includes a positive meniscus lens 3L 1 having a convex surface facing the main optical system 2 disposed on the main optical system 2 side, and a positive meniscus lens having a convex surface facing the display surface 5 disposed on the display surface 5 side. consisting of 3L 2. Then, a stop is disposed in the vicinity of the fourth surface 34 facing the display surface 5 of the sub optical system 3, and an image of the main optical system 2 of the stop is different from each sub optical system 3 across the central axis 1. An exit pupil 4 (not shown) is formed on the opposite side. Since the 30 sub optical systems 3 having the same configuration are arranged in parallel on a circumference concentric with the central axis 1, the exit pupil 4 of the combining optical system composed of the main optical system 2 and each sub optical system 3 is The central shaft 1 is arranged concentrically in parallel. The size of each exit pupil 4 is connected substantially continuously on the circumference when arranged in parallel.

  A flat display surface 5 is arranged facing the fourth surface 34 of each sub optical system 3, and the display surface 5 and the central axis 1 are conjugated, and the sub optical system 3, the main optical system 2, A real image of the display surface 5 is formed in the vicinity of the central axis 1 as an intermediate image 6 by the combined power of.

  With this configuration, when the observer brings his / her eyes near one of the exit pupil 4 positions, the synthesis optical system (the main optical system 2 and the sub optical system 3) that forms the exit pupil 4 An enlarged virtual image of the intermediate image 6 formed in the vicinity of the central axis 1 of the display surface 5 arranged on the image plane can be observed on the central axis 1 as an observation image 7. And, since the composite optical system composed of the main optical system 2 and the sub optical system 3 is arranged around the central axis 1 every 12 °, if the central axis 1 is set as the vertical direction, When viewed from any direction of 360 ° around the central axis 1, the display surface 5 at a position corresponding to the exit pupil 4 where the observer's eyes are located (on the opposite side of the exit pupil 4 across the central axis 1) The observation image 7 on the display surface 5) can be observed on the central axis 1.

  In this embodiment, the display surface 5 is a flat surface, but the entire display surface has the shape of a truncated conical surface, which may be composed of one display element, but 30 The flat display element may be configured to be rotationally symmetrical on each side surface of the truncated pyramid (thirty pyramid).

The specification of this Example 1 is
Exit pupil diameter φ65mm
Display size X 2.46mm x Y 3.28mm
Image size X11.25mm x Y15.00mm

FIG. 16 is a sectional view taken along the central axis 1 of the optical system of the visual display device of Example 2, FIG. 17 is an enlarged view of the main part of FIG. 16, and FIG. 16 is a center showing the optical path in the optical system of FIG. An enlarged plan view of the main part viewed in the direction along the axis 1 is shown in FIG. And the top view seen in the direction along the central axis which shows the whole optical system is shown in FIG. 16 to 18, only a part of the sub optical system 3 and the display surface 5 are shown. Further, FIG. 20 shows a lateral aberration diagram of the entire optical system of this example. In this lateral aberration diagram, the angle shown at the center indicates (horizontal field angle, vertical field angle), and the lateral aberrations in the Y direction (meridional direction) and X direction (sagittal direction) at that field angle. Show. Note that a negative field angle means a clockwise angle in the Y-axis positive direction for the horizontal field angle, and a clockwise angle in the X-axis positive direction for the vertical field angle. same as below.

  This embodiment is an example in which the main optical system 2 is composed of a transparent medium having a refractive index larger than 1 concentrically rotationally symmetric with respect to the central axis 1 that is internally reflected once in the cross section including the central axis 1. The main optical system 2 is composed of a transparent medium having a refractive index that is rotationally symmetric around the central axis 1 and greater than 1. The transparent medium 2 is an extended rotation obtained by rotating a curve including odd-order terms around the central axis 1. A first transmission surface 21 made of a free curved surface and having positive power, a first reflection surface 22 arranged on the image plane side from the first transmission surface 21 and made of an extended rotation free-form surface and having positive power, and a first reflection surface 22 The light beam incident on the main optical system 2 in the order of back ray tracing in the case of the observation optical system is arranged on the image plane side, has a second transmission surface 23 made of an extended rotation free-form surface and having a positive power. The light enters the transparent medium 2 through the transmission surface 21, is reflected to the image plane side by the first reflection surface 22 disposed on the opposite side of the first transmission surface 21 across the central axis 1, and is relative to the central axis 1. The transparent medium 2 passes through the second transmission surface 23 arranged on the same side as the first reflection surface 22. Goes out, et al.

  Then, 30 sub-optical systems 3 having the same configuration are arranged in parallel on a circumference concentric with the central axis 1 so as to face the second transmission surface 23 of the main optical system 2. The sub optical system 3 includes a positive meniscus lens 3L having a convex surface facing the main optical system 2 side.

  Then, a stop is disposed in the vicinity of the second surface 32 facing the display surface 5 of the sub optical system 3, and an image of the main optical system 2 of the stop is different from each sub optical system 3 across the central axis 1. An exit pupil 4 (not shown) is formed on the opposite side. Since the 30 sub optical systems 3 having the same configuration are arranged in parallel on a circumference concentric with the central axis 1, the exit pupil 4 of the combining optical system composed of the main optical system 2 and each sub optical system 3 is The central shaft 1 is arranged concentrically in parallel. The size of each exit pupil 4 is connected substantially continuously on the circumference when arranged in parallel.

  A flat display surface 5 is arranged facing the second surface 32 of each sub optical system 3, and the display surface 5 and the central axis 1 are conjugated, and the sub optical system 3, the main optical system 2, A real image of the display surface 5 is formed in the vicinity of the central axis 1 as an intermediate image 6 by the combined power of.

  With this configuration, when the observer brings his / her eyes near one of the exit pupil 4 positions, the synthesis optical system (the main optical system 2 and the sub optical system 3) that forms the exit pupil 4 An enlarged virtual image of the intermediate image 6 formed in the vicinity of the central axis 1 of the display surface 5 arranged on the image plane can be observed on the central axis 1 as an observation image 7. And, since the composite optical system composed of the main optical system 2 and the sub optical system 3 is arranged around the central axis 1 every 12 °, if the central axis 1 is set as the vertical direction, When viewed from any direction of 360 ° around the central axis 1, the display surface 5 at a position corresponding to the exit pupil 4 where the observer's eyes are located (on the opposite side of the exit pupil 4 across the central axis 1) The observation image 7 on the display surface 5) can be observed on the central axis 1.

  In this embodiment, the display surface 5 is a flat surface, but the entire display surface has the shape of a truncated conical surface, which may be composed of one display element, but 30 The flat display element may be configured to be rotationally symmetrical on each side surface of the truncated pyramid (thirty pyramid).

The specification of Example 2 is
Exit pupil diameter φ65mm
Display size X 2.46mm x Y 3.28mm
Image size X11.25mm x Y15.00mm

FIG. 21 is a sectional view taken along the central axis 1 of the optical system of the visual display device of Example 3, FIG. 22 is an enlarged view of the main part of FIG. 21, and FIG. 21 is a center showing the optical path in the optical system of FIG. FIG. 23 shows an enlarged plan view of the main part viewed in the direction along the axis 1. And the top view seen in the direction in alignment with the central axis which shows the whole optical system is shown in FIG. 21 to 23 show only a part of the sub optical system 3 and the display surface 5. FIG. 25 shows a lateral aberration diagram of the entire optical system of this example. In this lateral aberration diagram, the angle shown at the center indicates (horizontal field angle, vertical field angle), and the lateral aberrations in the Y direction (meridional direction) and X direction (sagittal direction) at that field angle. Show. Note that a negative field angle means a clockwise angle in the Y-axis positive direction for the horizontal field angle, and a clockwise angle in the X-axis positive direction for the vertical field angle. same as below.

  This embodiment is an example in which the main optical system 2 is composed of a transparent medium having a refractive index larger than 1 concentrically rotationally symmetric with respect to the central axis 1 that is internally reflected once in the cross section including the central axis 1. The main optical system 2 is composed of a transparent medium having a refractive index that is rotationally symmetric around the central axis 1 and greater than 1. The transparent medium 2 is an extended rotation obtained by rotating a curve including odd-order terms around the central axis 1. A first transmission surface 21 made of a free curved surface and having positive power, a first reflection surface 22 arranged on the image plane side from the first transmission surface 21 and made of an extended rotation free-form surface and having positive power, and a first reflection surface 22 The light beam incident on the main optical system 2 in the order of back ray tracing in the case of the observation optical system is arranged on the image plane side, has a second transmission surface 23 made of an extended rotation free-form surface and having a positive power. The light enters the transparent medium 2 through the transmission surface 21, is reflected to the image plane side by the first reflection surface 22 disposed on the opposite side of the first transmission surface 21 across the central axis 1, and is relative to the central axis 1. The transparent medium 2 passes through the second transmission surface 23 arranged on the same side as the first reflection surface 22. Goes out, et al.

  Then, 30 sub-optical systems 3 having the same configuration are arranged in parallel on a circumference concentric with the central axis 1 so as to face the second transmission surface 23 of the main optical system 2. The sub optical system 3 includes a positive meniscus lens 3L having a convex surface facing the main optical system 2 side. Then, a stop is disposed in the vicinity of the second surface 32 facing the display surface 5 of the sub optical system 3, and an image of the main optical system 2 of the stop is different from each sub optical system 3 across the central axis 1. An exit pupil 4 (not shown) is formed on the opposite side. Since the 30 sub optical systems 3 having the same configuration are arranged in parallel on a circumference concentric with the central axis 1, the exit pupil 4 of the combining optical system composed of the main optical system 2 and each sub optical system 3 is The central shaft 1 is arranged concentrically in parallel. The size of each exit pupil 4 is connected substantially continuously on the circumference when arranged in parallel.

  A flat display surface 5 is arranged facing the second surface 32 of each sub optical system 3, and the display surface 5 and the central axis 1 are conjugated, and the sub optical system 3, the main optical system 2, A real image of the display surface 5 is formed in the vicinity of the central axis 1 as an intermediate image 6 by the combined power of.

  With such a configuration, when the observer brings his / her eyes near the position of any exit pupil 4, the combined optical system (main optical system 2 and sub optical system 3) that forms the exit pupil 4. An enlarged virtual image of the intermediate image 6 formed in the vicinity of the central axis 1 of the display surface 5 arranged on the image plane can be observed on the central axis 1 as an observation image 7. And, since the composite optical system composed of the main optical system 2 and the sub optical system 3 is arranged around the central axis 1 every 12 °, if the central axis 1 is set as the vertical direction, When viewed from any direction of 360 ° around the central axis 1, the display surface 5 at a position corresponding to the exit pupil 4 where the observer's eyes are located (on the opposite side of the exit pupil 4 across the central axis 1) The observation image 7 on the display surface 5) can be observed on the central axis 1.

  In this embodiment, the display surface 5 is a flat surface, but the entire display surface has the shape of a truncated conical surface, which may be composed of one display element, but 30 The flat display element may be configured to be rotationally symmetrical on each side surface of the truncated pyramid (thirty pyramid).

The specification of this Example 3 is
Exit pupil diameter φ65mm
Display size X 2.46mm x Y 3.28mm
Image size X15.00mm x Y20.00mm
The configuration parameters of Examples 1 to 3 are shown below. In the table below, “ERFS” indicates an extended rotation free-form surface, and “RS” indicates a reflective surface.

Example 1
Surface number Curvature radius Surface spacing Eccentricity Refractive index Abbe number Object surface ∞
1 ∞ (Pupil) Eccentricity (1)
2 ERFS [1] Eccentricity (2) 1.5163 64.1
3 ERFS [2] Eccentricity (3) 1.5163 64.1
4 ERFS [3] Eccentricity (4)
5 -5.549 -2.000 Eccentricity (5) 1.7440 44.8
6 -27.338 -1.000
7 5.843 -1.000 1.6338 35.0
8 5.770 -3.986
Image plane ∞
ERFS [1]
RY 58.924
θ -12.803
R -48.280
C 1 -3.3016 × 10
C 4 7.1894 × 10 -6
C 5 3.1993 × 10 -6
ERFS [2]
RY -56.165
θ -3.515
R 50.000
C 1 -1.8238 × 10
C 4 3.0640 × 10 -5
C 5 -7.0816 × 10 -6
ERFS [3]
RY 215.794
θ 10.485
R 29.328
Eccentricity (1)
X 0.000 Y 109.000 Z -300.000
α 0.000 β 0.000 γ 0.000
Eccentric (2)
X 0.000 Y 17.542 Z 0.000
α 0.000 β 0.0.0 γ 0.000
Eccentricity (3)
X 0.000 Y -13.474 Z 0.000
α 0.000 β 0.000 γ 0.000
Eccentric [4]
X 0.000 Y -17.300 Z 0.000
α 0.000 β 0.000 γ 0.000
Eccentric [5]
X 0.000 Y -17.318 Z 29.230
α 10.485 β 0.000 γ 0.000

Example 2
Surface number Curvature radius Surface spacing Eccentricity Refractive index Abbe number Object surface ∞
1 ∞ (Pupil) Eccentricity (1)
2 ERFS [1] Eccentricity (2) 1.5163 64.1
3 ERFS [2] Eccentricity (3) 1.5163 64.1
4 ERFS [3] Eccentricity (4)
5 -4.712 -2.000 Eccentricity (5) 1.7440 44.8
6 -11.096 -5.000
Image plane ∞
ERFS [1]
RY -52.381
θ -23.429
R -46.910
C 1 -2.5908 × 10
C 4 2.5486 × 10 -5
C 5 1.4043 × 10 -6
ERFS [2]
RY -53.688
θ -7.150
R 50.000
C 1 -4.3658 × 10 -1
C 4 3.2297 × 10 -5
C 5 4.2044 × 10 -6
ERFS [3]
RY -72.072
θ 6.850
R 28.692
Eccentric [1]
X 0.000 Y 109.000 Z -300.000
α 0.000 β 0.000 γ 0.000
Eccentric [2]
X 0.000 Y 17.044 Z 0.000
α 0.000 β 0.000 γ 0.000
Eccentric [3]
X 0.000 Y -20.448 Z 0.000
α 0.000 β 0.000 γ 0.000
Eccentric [4]
X 0.000 Y -23.007 Z 0.000
α 0.000 β 0.000 γ 0.000
Eccentric [5]
X 0.000 Y -23.026 Z 28.592
α 6.850 β 0.000 γ 0.000

Example 3
Surface number Curvature radius Surface spacing Eccentricity Refractive index Abbe number Object surface ∞
1 ∞ (Pupil) Eccentricity (1)
2 ERFS [1] Eccentricity (2) 1.5163 64.1
3 ERFS [2] Eccentricity (3) 1.5163 64.1
4 YTO [1] 0.100 Eccentricity (4)
5 -4.712 3.000 1.7423 45.0
6 -20.138 2.881
Image plane ∞ Eccentricity (5)
ERFS [1]
RY 30.651
θ -30.200
R -46.126
C 1 -3.7825 × 10 -1
C 4 3.4419 × 10 -5
C 5 1.8075 × 10 -5
ERFS [2]
RY -46.427
θ -9.481
R 50.000
C 1 5.6265 × 10
C 4 2.3973 × 10 -5
C 5 1.3112 × 10 -5
ERFS [3]
RY -12.623
RX -90.629
Eccentricity (1)
X 0.000 Y 109.000 Z -300.00
α 0.000 β 0.000 γ 0.000
Eccentric (2)
X 0.000 Y 16.759 Z 0.000
α 0.000 β 0.000 γ 0.000
Eccentricity (3)
X 0.000 Y -25.000 Z 0.000
α 0.000 β 0.000 γ 0.000
Eccentricity (4)
X 0.000 Y -26.716 Z 28.288
α 4.519 β 0.000 γ 0.000
Eccentricity (5)
X 0.000 Y 0.000 Z 0.000
α 4.306 β 0.000 γ 0.000

  By the way, in the above Examples 1-3, when the central axis 1 is set to the up-down direction, the observation direction is not a horizontal direction but an angle slightly looking down from above (the depression angle is in Examples 1--1). FIG. 26 shows a diagram corresponding to FIG. 12 of an embodiment in which this is approximately horizontal, respectively. In this embodiment, in the configuration of the second embodiment, a rotationally symmetric prism body 35 that is rotationally symmetric about the central axis 1 acting as a declination prism for making the observation direction substantially horizontal in the cross section including the central axis 1. Is arranged on the opposite side of the main optical system 2 from the sub optical system 3 side. As shown in FIG. 26, it is possible to make the observation angle substantially horizontal by adding a rotationally symmetric prism body 35 obtained by rotating a wedge-shaped section around the central axis 1. Further, it is also possible to configure the surface constituting the rotationally symmetric prism body 35 as an extended rotation free-form surface so that power is given only in the meridional section (section including the central axis 1).

  27 uses a rotationally symmetric Fresnel prism body 36 in which the prism surface is a rotationally symmetric Fresnel prism surface around the central axis 1 instead of the rotationally symmetric prism body 35 of the embodiment of FIG. It is a figure corresponding to FIG. 12 of the Example which made the observation direction the substantially horizontal direction. The cross-sectional shape including the central axis 1 of the rotationally symmetric Fresnel prism body 36 is as shown in FIG. However, FIG. 28A is an enlarged sectional view of a portion A in FIG. Further, in order to set the observation direction to an angle (elevation angle) that looks up instead of being substantially horizontal, the rotationally symmetric Fresnel prism body 36 is rotated as shown in a partial cross-sectional view in FIG. A symmetric Fresnel reflecting prism body 36 'can also be used. This rotationally symmetric Fresnel reflecting prism body 36 ′ not only refracts the observation light but also reflects it on a fine annular surface to cause a declination action.

  By using the rotationally symmetric Fresnel prism body 36 as described above in the optical system of the visual display device of the present invention, it is possible to make the optical element to be added thinner, which is preferable for weight reduction.

  Further, not only the transmissive element for changing the observation direction as shown in FIGS. 27 and 28, but also the other reflecting surfaces constituting the main optical system 2 can be configured by rotationally symmetric linear Fresnel reflecting surfaces. is there. In this case, it is needless to say that it is further preferable that the curved line including the odd-order terms is constituted by a linear Fresnel reflecting surface formed by rotating around a rotational symmetry axis. An example of a method for constructing a rotationally symmetric linear Fresnel reflecting surface is shown in FIG. A linear Fresnel lens (Fresnel lens having power only in a one-dimensional direction) 37 having a sheet-like reflective coating 38 applied to the Fresnel surface is shown in a sectional view in FIG. 29 (a) and a perspective view in FIG. 29 (c). Further, it may be bonded to the inner surface of the pipe-shaped circular tube 39 so that the one-dimensional Fresnel surface faces in the circumferential direction. FIG. 29 (b) is a cross-sectional view, and FIG. 29 (c) is a perspective view. As shown, a linear Fresnel lens 37 may be bonded to the inner surface of a pipe-like circular tube 39 having a reflective coating 38 on the inner surface so that the one-dimensional Fresnel surface faces in the circumferential direction.

  In the above optical system of the visual display device of the present invention, the optical system (main optical system 2 + sub optical system 3) that is rotationally symmetric about the central axis 1 is used as it is, so that 360 around the optical system is used. An observation image 7 of the display surface (image surface) 5 of the display surface (display element) 15 can be observed from all directions at 0 °, but the optical system is cut by a section including the central axis 1 to be ½, 3 Of course, it is possible to make the observation image 7 observable in an angular range of 180 °, 120 °, 240 °, etc. around the central axis 1 by setting it to 1/3, 2/3, or the like.

It is a figure for demonstrating the imaging | photography method of the parallax image arrange | positioned on the display surface of the optical system of the visual display apparatus of this invention. It is a figure which shows the example of the parallax image image | photographed with the imaging | photography method of FIG. It is a figure which shows how to display the parallax image on the cone-shaped whole display surface. It is a figure which shows how to display the parallax image on the cylindrical whole display surface. It is a figure which shows a mode that an observer's right and left eyeball is located in the exit pupil which the optical system of the visual display apparatus of this invention adjoins. It is a figure which shows the eye width of an eyeball of an observer's right and left, and the space | interval of the adjacent exit pupil of the optical system of the visual display apparatus of this invention. It is a figure which shows a mode that it moves to the observation area | region by an adjacent synthetic | combination optical system sequentially, when an observer moves a head. It is a schematic diagram which shows the image of the main optical system of the visual display apparatus of this invention, a sub-optical system, a display surface (display element), and an observation image. It is a figure which shows the case where (a) arrange | positions each display surface to the inner surface, and (b) arrange | positions to an outer surface, when making the whole display surface (display element) cylindrical. It is sectional drawing which shows an example of the illuminating device of the visual display apparatus of this invention. It is sectional drawing taken along the central axis of the optical system of the visual display apparatus of Example 1 of this invention. It is an enlarged view of the principal part of FIG. It is the plane enlarged view seen in the direction in alignment with the central axis of the principal part of FIG. FIG. 3 is a plan view of the entire optical system of Example 1 as viewed in a direction along the central axis. 2 is a transverse aberration diagram for the whole optical system of Example 1. FIG. It is sectional drawing taken along the central axis of the optical system of the visual display apparatus of Example 2 of this invention. It is an enlarged view of the principal part of FIG. It is the plane enlarged view seen in the direction in alignment with the central axis of the principal part of FIG. FIG. 6 is a plan view of the entire optical system of Example 2 viewed in a direction along the central axis. FIG. 6 is a transverse aberration diagram for the whole optical system of Example 2. It is sectional drawing taken along the central axis of the optical system of the visual display apparatus of Example 3 of this invention. It is an enlarged view of the principal part of FIG. It is the plane enlarged view seen in the direction in alignment with the central axis of the principal part of FIG. FIG. 6 is a plan view of the entire optical system of Example 3 viewed in a direction along the central axis. 5 is a lateral aberration diagram for the whole optical system of Example 3. FIG. It is a figure corresponding to FIG. 12 of 1 Example which makes an observation direction a substantially horizontal direction. It is a figure corresponding to FIG. 12 of the Example which uses a rotationally symmetric Fresnel prism body to make an observation direction into a substantially horizontal direction. It is sectional drawing for demonstrating the detail of a rotationally symmetric Fresnel prism body. It is a figure for demonstrating an example of the method of comprising a rotationally symmetrical linear Fresnel reflective surface.

Explanation of symbols

1 ... central axis 2 ... main optical system 3 ... positive meniscus lens 4 ... exit pupil 5 ... display toward a positive meniscus lens 3L 2 ... convex surface toward the secondary optical system 3L 1 ... convex surface facing the main optical system side to the display surface side Surface (image surface)
6 ... Intermediate image 7 ... Observation image (object plane)
13 ... Ring-shaped condensing optical system 13 '... Ring-shaped condensing optical system 15 ... Entire display surface (display element)
16... Emitters 21, 22, 23... Optical surfaces 31, 32, 33, 34 of the main optical system 35. Optical surfaces 35 of the sub optical system... Rotationally symmetric prism body 36. Prism body 37 ... Linear Fresnel lens 38 ... Reflective coating 39 ... Pipe-shaped circular tube 50 ... Optical system of visual display device (present invention)
100 ... object 101 ... camera EL, ER ... eyeball E ... observer

Claims (10)

  1.   A main optical system that is rotationally symmetric with respect to a central axis is disposed, and a plurality of sub optical systems having the same configuration are disposed in parallel on a circumference that is concentric with the central axis. The exit pupil of the combining optical system constituted by the optical system is located on the opposite side of the main optical system from the sub optical system side and on the optical path opposite to the sub optical system with respect to the central axis. A display surface of a display element is disposed on the opposite side of the optical system from the main optical system, an image of the display surface by each of the combining optical systems is formed in the vicinity of the central axis, and each of the combining optical systems The exit pupil is substantially continuously formed concentrically with the central axis, and the main optical system has a transparent medium having a refractive index greater than 1 that is rotationally symmetric about the central axis, 1 transmission surface, a first reflection surface disposed on the image plane side on the optical path from the first transmission surface, and the first reflection surface A light beam incident on the main optical system enters the transparent medium through the first transmission surface in the order of reverse ray tracing, and has a second transmission surface disposed on the image plane side on the optical path, and sandwiches the central axis. The second transmission surface which is reflected on the image plane side by the first reflection surface arranged on the side opposite to the first transmission surface and is arranged on the same side as the first reflection surface with respect to the central axis. A visual display device which goes out of the transparent medium through the above.
  2.   The visual display device according to claim 1, wherein on the display surface, images taken from a plurality of viewpoints of the same object are displayed to enable stereoscopic observation.
  3.   The visual display device according to claim 1, wherein the display surface is configured by arranging a plurality of flat display elements rotationally symmetrically.
  4.   The visual display device according to claim 1, wherein the display surface is configured by rounding a display element configured two-dimensionally and configuring the display element three-dimensionally.
  5.   The visual perception according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein at least one surface of the main optical system has different curvatures in a longitudinal section including a rotational symmetry axis and a transverse section orthogonal to the rotational symmetry axis. Display device.
  6.   The at least one surface of the main optical system has a rotationally symmetric shape formed by rotating an arbitrarily shaped curve not having a symmetric surface around a rotational symmetry axis. The visual display device according to any one of the preceding claims.
  7.   The at least one surface of the main optical system has a rotationally symmetric shape formed by rotating an arbitrarily shaped curve including an odd-order term around a rotational symmetry axis. A visual display device according to claim 1.
  8. When half of the outer diameter of the main optical system is Rs,
    10mm <Rs (1)
    The visual display device according to claim 1, wherein the following condition is satisfied.
  9.   The visual display device according to claim 1, wherein a light shielding member is disposed in a region through which light does not pass.
  10.   The visual display device according to claim 1, further comprising an illumination device that illuminates the entire display surface from all directions opposite to the sub optical system side.
JP2007011239A 2007-01-22 2007-01-22 Visual display device Pending JP2008176180A (en)

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