JP2007512954A - Irradiation device - Google Patents

Irradiation device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2007512954A
JP2007512954A JP2006542701A JP2006542701A JP2007512954A JP 2007512954 A JP2007512954 A JP 2007512954A JP 2006542701 A JP2006542701 A JP 2006542701A JP 2006542701 A JP2006542701 A JP 2006542701A JP 2007512954 A JP2007512954 A JP 2007512954A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
radiation
plurality
optical
end
solid
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Granted
Application number
JP2006542701A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
エム. アギーレ,フランシス
エー. クラトン,ミシェル
エル. フィリップス,デイビッド
ディー. ヘンソン,ゴードン
ティー. ベンソン,ピーター
エル. ホッフェルト,デイビッド
エー. マイス,マイケル
ダブリュ. ライ,ジャック
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スリーエム イノベイティブ プロパティズ カンパニー
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Priority to US10/726,257 priority Critical patent/US7250611B2/en
Priority to US10/869,235 priority patent/US7202489B2/en
Priority to US10/869,236 priority patent/US7202490B2/en
Priority to US10/869,237 priority patent/US7189983B2/en
Application filed by スリーエム イノベイティブ プロパティズ カンパニー filed Critical スリーエム イノベイティブ プロパティズ カンパニー
Priority to PCT/US2004/040182 priority patent/WO2005057670A2/en
Publication of JP2007512954A publication Critical patent/JP2007512954A/en
Application status is Granted legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6/4201Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details
    • G02B6/4249Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details comprising arrays of active devices and fibres
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V29/00Protecting lighting devices from thermal damage; Cooling or heating arrangements specially adapted for lighting devices or systems
    • F21V29/50Cooling arrangements
    • F21V29/70Cooling arrangements characterised by passive heat-dissipating elements, e.g. heat-sinks
    • F21V29/80Cooling arrangements characterised by passive heat-dissipating elements, e.g. heat-sinks with pins or wires
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/04Light guides formed by bundles of fibres
    • G02B6/06Light guides formed by bundles of fibres the relative position of the fibres being the same at both ends, e.g. for transporting images
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70375Imaging systems not otherwise provided for, e.g. multiphoton lithography; Imaging systems comprising means for converting one type of radiation into another type of radiation, systems comprising mask with photo-cathode
    • G03F7/70383Direct write, i.e. pattern is written directly without the use of a mask by one or multiple beams
    • G03F7/70391Addressable array sources specially adapted to produce patterns, e.g. addressable LED arrays
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C19/00Dental auxiliary appliances
    • A61C19/003Apparatus for curing resins by radiation
    • A61C19/004Hand-held apparatus, e.g. guns
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/36Mechanical coupling means
    • G02B6/3628Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers
    • G02B6/3632Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers characterised by the cross-sectional shape of the mechanical coupling means
    • G02B6/3644Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers characterised by the cross-sectional shape of the mechanical coupling means the coupling means being through-holes or wall apertures
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/36Mechanical coupling means
    • G02B6/3628Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers
    • G02B6/36642D cross sectional arrangements of the fibres
    • G02B6/36682D cross sectional arrangements of the fibres with conversion in geometry of the cross section
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/36Mechanical coupling means
    • G02B6/3628Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers
    • G02B6/36642D cross sectional arrangements of the fibres
    • G02B6/36722D cross sectional arrangements of the fibres with fibres arranged in a regular matrix array
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/36Mechanical coupling means
    • G02B6/3628Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers
    • G02B6/368Mechanical coupling means for mounting fibres to supporting carriers with pitch conversion between input and output plane, e.g. for increasing packing density
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/36Mechanical coupling means
    • G02B6/38Mechanical coupling means having fibre to fibre mating means
    • G02B6/3807Dismountable connectors, i.e. comprising plugs
    • G02B6/3873Connectors using guide surfaces for aligning ferrule ends, e.g. tubes, sleeves, V-grooves, rods, pins, balls
    • G02B6/3885Multicore or multichannel optical connectors, i.e. one single ferrule containing more than one fibre, e.g. ribbon type
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6/4201Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details
    • G02B6/4204Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details the coupling comprising intermediate optical elements, e.g. lenses, holograms
    • G02B6/4206Optical features
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/24Coupling light guides
    • G02B6/42Coupling light guides with opto-electronic elements
    • G02B6/4201Packages, e.g. shape, construction, internal or external details
    • G02B6/4219Mechanical fixtures for holding or positioning the elements relative to each other in the couplings; Alignment methods for the elements, e.g. measuring or observing methods especially used therefor

Abstract

  The illumination device (100) includes a plurality of solid radiation sources for generating radiation that modifies the first material (650), such as by being cured or aligned by polarized light. The solid radiation source (104) can be arranged in an array pattern. An optical concentrator (120) arranged in a corresponding array pattern receives radiation from a corresponding solid radiation source (104). The concentrated radiation is also received by a plurality of optical waveguides (130) arranged in a corresponding array pattern. Each optical waveguide (130) includes a first end (132) for receiving radiation and a second end (133) for outputting radiation. A control device (304) in electrical communication with the radiation source (104) can control each relevance state. The radiation modifying apparatus (100) can be used for continuous substrates, sheets, piece parts, spot curing, and / or 3D radiation curing processes.

Description

  The present invention relates to a reformer, a system, and a method. More particularly, the present invention relates to solid state light devices, systems, and methods that can replace current high intensity light sources and technologies used for modification applications.

  Lighting systems are used for a variety of applications. Home, medical, dental, and industrial applications often require light to be made available. Similarly, aircraft, marine and automotive applications often require high intensity illumination beams.

  Conventional lighting systems use powered filaments or arc lamps, which sometimes include a focusing lens and / or reflective surface to direct the generated illumination onto the beam. Conventional light sources based on powered filaments or arc lamps, such as incandescent bulbs or discharge bulbs, emit both heat and light at 360 degrees. Conventional light sources also include a microwave drive source. Thus, for conventional applications, the optics used must be designed and / or specially treated to withstand the constant heating effects caused by high intensity (and high heat) discharge bulbs. In addition, if heat is to be removed from the area of illumination, expensive and complex heat transfer systems must be used.

  For example, conventional cure systems use water cooled rolls to minimize distortion and / or breakage of the substrate and / or formulation. Other conventional systems use a flat water-cooled plate placed directly under or in contact with the substrate.

  For modification applications such as cure, stacked LED arrays are currently being investigated (eg, in cross-machine-direction (CMD) and machine-direction (MD)). An array that can be “stacked”). However, in these conventional systems, as the LED emission wavelength becomes shorter, the irradiance and lifetime decrease rapidly. This can lead to problems where the chemical reaction is initiated by radiation absorption and response by a photoinitiator that is typically formulated to absorb radiation below 450 nm. If the irradiance is too low, the polymerization reaction may not provide desirable product properties.

  To counter low irradiance, the prior art is to position the LEDs close together to increase the total irradiance and achieve the desired cure. However, such an arrangement of LEDs results in several problems associated with thermal management and electrical connections. If the LED is more spread out, the irradiance uniformity across the array may not be ideal. To improve irradiance levels, sometimes reflectors are mounted around the LEDs, but this method still has non-uniformities across the reflector openings. If a suitable material is not used in the reflector, the irradiance also decreases with the square of the distance to the illuminated surface.

  According to a first embodiment of the invention, the irradiation device includes a plurality of solid radiation sources for generating radiation that modifies the first material. A controller is in electrical communication with the solid radiation source to selectively and individually activate each of the plurality of solid radiation sources. A plurality of optical concentrators are included, each optical concentrator receiving radiation from one or more of the plurality of solid state radiation sources. A plurality of optical waveguides are included, each of the plurality of optical waveguides including a first end and a second end, wherein each first end is radiation from one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators. Receive. A support structure is included to stabilize at least the first portion at the second end of the plurality of optical waveguides.

  According to a second embodiment of the present invention, an irradiation system includes a solid radiation source including a plurality of LED dies for generating radiation capable of modifying a radiation-modifiable chemical formulation. A controller is electrically connected to the plurality of LED dies in order to selectively and individually activate each of the plurality of LED dies. A plurality of optical concentrators are included, each optical concentrator receiving radiation from one or more of the LED dies. A plurality of optical fibers, each of the plurality of optical fibers including a first end and a second end, each first end from one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators; Receive concentrated radiation. A substrate is included to support the radiation modifiable chemical formulation.

  According to a third embodiment of the invention, the irradiation device includes a plurality of solid radiation sources for generating radiation that cures the first material. A controller is in electrical communication with the solid radiation source to selectively and individually control the intensity of radiation from each of the plurality of solid radiation sources. A plurality of optical concentrators are included, each optical concentrator receiving radiation from one or more of the plurality of solid state radiation sources. A plurality of optical waveguides are included, each of the plurality of optical waveguides including a first end and a second end, wherein each first end is radiation from one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators. Receive. A support structure is included to stabilize at least the first portion at the second end of the plurality of optical waveguides.

  According to a fourth embodiment of the present invention, an irradiation system includes a solid radiation source including a plurality of LED dies for generating radiation capable of modifying a radiation-modifiable chemical formulation. A controller is electrically connected to the plurality of LED dies to selectively and individually control the intensity of radiation from each of the plurality of LED dies. A plurality of optical concentrators are included, each optical concentrator receiving radiation from one or more of the LED dies. A plurality of optical fibers, each of the plurality of optical fibers including a first end and a second end, each first end from one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators; Receive concentrated radiation. A substrate is included to support the radiation modifiable chemical formulation.

  According to a fifth embodiment of the invention, the irradiation device comprises a plurality of solid radiation sources for generating radiation that modifies the first material. A plurality of optical concentrators are included, each optical concentrator receiving radiation from one or more of the plurality of solid state radiation sources. A plurality of optical waveguides are included, each of the plurality of optical waveguides including a first end and a second end, wherein each first end is radiation from one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators. Receive. A light valve is disposed on the path of radiation emanating from one or more of the second ends of the light guide. A support structure is included to stabilize at least the first portion at the second end of the plurality of optical waveguides.

  According to a sixth embodiment of the present invention, an irradiation system includes a solid radiation source including a plurality of LED dies for generating radiation capable of modifying a radiation-modifiable chemical formulation. A plurality of optical concentrators are included, each optical concentrator receiving radiation from one or more of the LED dies. A plurality of optical fibers, each of the plurality of optical fibers including a first end and a second end, each first end from one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators; Receive concentrated radiation. A light valve is disposed on the path of radiation emanating from one or more of the second ends of the light guide. A substrate is included to support the radiation modifiable chemical formulation.

  The above summary of the present invention is not intended to describe each embodiment or every implementation of the present invention. The following figures and detailed description illustrate these embodiments in more detail.

  While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specifics thereof are shown by way of example in the drawings and will be described in detail. However, it should be understood that the invention is not intended to be limited to the specific embodiments described. On the contrary, it is intended to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the scope of the invention as defined by the claims.

  FIG. 1A shows a solid state light device 100 (also referred to herein as an illumination device or photon emission device) in an exemplary configuration. The optical device 100 is shown in an exploded view in FIG. 1B. “Light” means electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the ultraviolet, visible, and / or infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the structure described below, the optical device 100 may have a compact size that is comparable to the size of a conventional High Intensity Discharge (HID) bulb, and thus road lighting, spot lighting. Lamp device replacements can be provided in a variety of applications, including backlighting, image projection, and radiation activated curing.

  The optical device 100 includes an array of solid radiation sources 104 for generating radiation. The radiation is collected and concentrated by a corresponding array 120 of optical concentrators. The focused radiation is then incident into a corresponding array of waveguides 130 supported by the support structure 150. Each of these features will now be described in more detail.

  In the exemplary embodiment, solid state radiation source 104 includes a plurality of individual LED dies or chips arranged in an array pattern, although other solid state radiation sources including laser diodes are applicable. Individual LED dies 104 are mounted separately and have independent electrical connections for operational control (not LED arrays where all LEDs are connected to each other by their common semiconductor substrate). LED dies can produce a symmetric radiation pattern and are efficient in converting electrical energy into light. Since many LED dies are not overly temperature sensitive, LED dies can operate properly with only a moderate heat sink compared to many types of laser diodes. In the exemplary embodiment, each LED die is separated from its nearest neighbor by a distance that is at least greater than the LED die width. In a further exemplary embodiment, each LED die is separated from its nearest neighbor by a distance greater than at least 6 LED die widths. These exemplary embodiments provide adequate thermal management, as described in further detail below.

  Furthermore, the LED die 104 can be operated at temperatures from -40 ° C to 125 ° C, compared to most laser diode lifetimes of about 10,000 hours, or UV arc lamp lifetimes of about 2,000 hours. , Have an operating life in the range of 100,000 hours. In an exemplary embodiment, the LED dies can each have an output intensity of about 50 lumens or more. Individual high-power LED dies are GaN-based LED dies that are commercially available from companies such as Cree (such as Cree's InGaN-based X Bright® product) and Osram Can do. In one exemplary embodiment, an array of LED dies (manufactured by Cree), each having a light emitting area of about 300 μm × 300 μm, is used to provide a focused (small area, high power) light source. be able to. Other light emitting surface shapes such as rectangular or other polygonal shapes can also be used. Furthermore, in an alternative embodiment, the light emitting layer of the LED die used can be placed on the top or bottom.

  In some exemplary embodiments, multiple slightly blue or ultraviolet (UV) LED dies can be used. In an alternative embodiment, one or more LED dies, preferably on the light emitting surface, are YAG: Ce phosphors for blue LED dies, or RGB (red, green, blue) phosphors used in UV LED dies. It can be coated with a phosphor layer (not shown) such as a mixture of Thus, the phosphor layer can be used to convert the output of the LED die to “white” light under different mechanisms. The arrangement and structure of the phosphor layer is a co-owned, co-filed application (Representative: “Illumination System Using a Plurality of Light Sources”), incorporated by reference. Human case number 58130US004) is described in detail.

  In an alternative embodiment, a collection of red, blue, and green LED dies can be selectively placed in the array. The resulting emission is collected by an array 130 of fibers, and the light emitted from the output end of the fiber is viewed by the viewer as colored or “white” light when mixed together.

  In an alternative embodiment, the LED die array can be replaced with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array that can provide an output in the visible region that conventionally includes “white” light.

  As shown in FIG. 1B, light emitted from the LED die 104 is received by a plurality of optical concentrators 120 arranged in an array pattern corresponding to the LED die. In the exemplary embodiment, each optical concentrator receives radiation from a corresponding one of LED dies 104. In the exemplary embodiment, optical concentrator 120 includes a non-imaging optical concentrator (also referred to as a reflective optical coupler) disposed in an array. The shape of the reflective surface of the optical concentrator 120 is designed to capture a substantial portion of the radiation emitted by each of the light sources 104 in order to maintain each power density. Further, the concentrated output substantially matches the acceptance angle criteria of the receiving waveguide so that a substantial portion of the radiation is operably captured and guided through the waveguide 130. Can be designed to In the exemplary embodiment, each non-imaging concentrator in array 120 of non-imaging concentrators has an internal reflective surface that conforms to a two-dimensional (2-D) surface, at least a second of the internal reflective surfaces. This part fits a three-dimensional (3-D) surface. This and other reflective surface designs are filed concurrently and are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety, a co-pending patent application named “Reflective Light Coupler” (Representative Light Coupler) (proxy) Human case number 59121US002) is described in detail.

  Each optical concentrator in the array 120 can be formed by, for example, injection molding, transfer molding, microreplication, stamping, punching, or thermoforming. The substrate or sheet that can form the optical concentrator 120 (alone or as part of an array of optical concentrators) can be a metal, plastic, thermoplastic material, or multilayer optical film (MOF) (in St. Paul, Minn.). Various materials can be included, such as Enhanced Specular Reflector (ESR) film available from 3M Company (3M Company, St. Paul, MN). The substrate material used to form the optical concentrator 120 may be coated with a reflective coating material, such as a reflective multilayer stack of silver, aluminum, or inorganic thin film, or simply polished to increase its reflectivity. Can do.

  Further, the optical concentrator substrate can be arranged so that the array of optical concentrators can be oriented below, around, or above the LED dies. In the exemplary embodiment, the optical concentrator substrate is disposed on or in close proximity to the LED array, and each concentrator of the array 120 is slidably formed on each LED die 104. The optical concentrator's lower opening 123 (see FIG. 4) can provide a tight fit around the periphery of the LED die 104. An alternative concentrator design involves the additional use of a reflective coating on the substrate on which the LED die is supported.

  The aspect of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1B is a one-to-one correspondence between each radiation source, the corresponding optical concentrator, and the corresponding waveguide. Each optical concentrator surface is adapted to convert isotropic emission from a corresponding LED die, which can be a phosphor-coated LED die in some applications, into a beam that meets the acceptance angle criteria of the corresponding receiving waveguide. Designed to. As mentioned above, this concentrator surface design helps maintain the power density of the light emitted from the LED die.

  Referring again to FIG. 1B, the concentrated output radiation is received by a plurality of optical waveguides 130 shown in FIG. 1B as an array of optical fibers, each waveguide having an input end 132, an output end 133, and Have This exemplary embodiment is based on a large core (eg, 400 μm to 1000 μm) polymer clad silica fiber (such as that sold under the trade name TECS® available from 3M Company of St. Paul, Minn.). An array 130 is included. In a further exemplary embodiment, each of the optical fibers 130 can include a polymer clad silica fiber having a core diameter of about 600 μm to 650 μm. In an exemplary embodiment, the longitudinal length of the fiber can be about 1 to 5 inches (2.5 cm to 12.5 cm) in length. Since the exemplary fiber is very flexible, this short distance still provides the ability to place the fiber in a dense patterned bundle at the output end. Moreover, its short length provides a very compact device with a size comparable to that of a conventional HID lamp. Of course, the fiber length can be increased without causing deleterious effects on the output in other applications.

  Depending on parameters such as the output wavelength of the LED die light source, other types of optical fibers such as conventional or specialized silica fibers can also be used with embodiments of the present invention. For example, polymer fibers may be prone to solarization and / or bleaching in applications involving deep blue or UV light sources. In this exemplary embodiment, using an optical fiber / waveguide that is low loss at wavelengths below 450 nm based on the type of photo-initiator or other curable material to be irradiated Can do.

  Alternatively, other waveguide types such as planar waveguides, polymer waveguides, flexible polymer waveguides, etc. may be used in accordance with the present invention, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art who have understood the specification.

  Once the light emitted by the LED die is collected by the concentrator and redirected into the receiving fiber, the fiber can send the light to a specific location with low optical loss due to total internal reflection. However, the receiving fiber not only helps to transmit light, but also changes the fiber from a wider spacing of the LED die array, such as a tightly packed fiber bundle, to one or more closer spacings at the output aperture. This effectively concentrates light from (relatively) dispersed LED arrays in a very small area. Also, with the exemplary optical design of the receiving fiber core and cladding, the light emitted from the bundled end group by the numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber at the output end as well as the input end The beam can be shaped. As described herein, the receiving fiber performs light concentration, beam shaping, and light transport.

  The optical fiber 132 may further include a fiber lens on one or more output ends 133 of the optical fiber. Similarly, each of the light receiving ends 132 of the optical fiber 130 may further include a fiber lens. Fiber lens manufacture and implementation is described in co-pending US patent application Ser. No. 10 / 317,734 and US patent application Ser. No. 10 / 670,630, incorporated herein by reference. Has been. Alternatively, an optical element such as a lens, lenslet, mirror, or polarizer is adjacent to the second end of the fiber to focus, diffuse, collimate, or polarize the irradiance. Can be arranged. The optical element may be continuous across multiple fibers or may be separate.

  A fiber array connector 134 can be used to support the first end of each optical fiber of the array 130. In the exemplary embodiment, fiber array connector 134 comprises a rigid material, such as a molded plastic material, and the plurality of apertures have a pattern that corresponds to the pattern of optical concentrator 120. Each aperture can receive and directly bond to the optical fiber input end 132 of the array 130.

  In an exemplary embodiment, a rigid or flexible interconnect circuit layer can be used to provide thermal management for the LED die 104 and electrical connection to the LED die 104. As shown in FIG. 1B, the interconnect circuit layer is a 3M® Flexible (or Flex) (or Flex) available from the 3M Company, Saint Paul, Minn. (3M Company, Saint Paul, MN). )) Multilayer structures such as Circuits can be included. For example, a multi-layer interconnect layer can include a metal mounting substrate 112 made of, for example, copper or other thermally conductive material, an electrically insulating dielectric layer 114, and a patterned conductive layer 113, wherein the LED die is It is operatively connected to a bond pad (not shown) of the conductive layer 113. The electrically insulating dielectric layer 114 can comprise a variety of suitable materials including, for example, polyimide, polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polycarbonate, polysulfone, or FR4 epoxy composite. The conductive thermally conductive layer 113 can include a variety of suitable materials including, for example, copper, nickel, gold, aluminum, tin, lead, and combinations thereof.

  In an exemplary embodiment, and as described in more detail below, one or more groups of LED dies 104 are spaced from each other away from other groups of LED dies to obtain a pixelated radiation output. Connected. Vias (not shown) can be used to extend through the dielectric layer 114. The metal mounting substrate 112 can be mounted on a heat sink or heat dissipation assembly 140. The substrate 112 can be separated from the heat sink 140 by a layer 116 of electrically insulating and thermally conductive material. In an exemplary embodiment, the heat sink 140 can further include a series of thermal conductor pins to further extract heat from the LED die array during operation.

  In one exemplary embodiment, each LED die 104 itself can reside on a metal / circuit layer 113 and in a recessed portion of the dielectric surface 114. An implementation of an interconnect circuit is currently pending, a co-owned application named “Flexible Circuit LED Thermal Packaging,” which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Human case number 59333US002).

  In another embodiment, a more rigid FR4 epoxy-based printed wiring board structure can be used for electrical interconnection. In yet another embodiment, conductive epoxy or conductive ink can be patterned on a suitable substrate as needed to connect the LED die array to provide a low cost circuit.

  The solid state optical device 100 further includes a support structure. In the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 1B, the support structure is configured as a housing 150 having an input opening 152 and an output opening 154. The housing 150 can alleviate distortion of the array 130 serving as a waveguide, and prevent damage to the waveguide 130 due to an external light source. Furthermore, the housing 150 can provide a rigid support that is preferred for vehicle applications, as described in more detail below. If the waveguide 130 is an optical fiber, the support structure may further include a banding 156 disposed in contact with the peripheral portion of the second end of the waveguide 130. Banding 156 serves to distribute the output end 134 of the waveguide 130 in a selected output pattern, as described in more detail below.

  Further, the fiber array connector 134 can include a ridge or recess for receipt in the input opening 152 of the housing 150. In an exemplary embodiment, the housing 150 is snapped onto the fiber array connector 134, although the housing 150 can be joined or otherwise attached to the fiber array connector 134.

  In an exemplary configuration method, the fiber is first loaded into a fiber array connector and joined to the connector. Using fixtures (not shown), the fibers can be grouped in each row to be an organized group. The fixture can include multiple partitions that repeatably position each fiber from the input end to the output end. Further, the fixture can be designed so that the fibers do not cross over each other and can be directed to the output end. To secure this output end, rigid or flexible banding, such as a polymer material, is used to fix the position of the fiber within the desired output pattern. The strain relief / support housing can then be slid over the fiber and banding and secured to the fiber array connector. The banding can be secured within the output opening of the housing by the use of conventional adhesives or joining elements. Alternatively, the support structure can include an encapsulant formed around the fiber bundle throughout the fiber bundle.

  Alternatively, the support structure 150 can include an adhesive material, such as a binding epoxy, that can be applied to a portion of the waveguide 130 and when the adhesive is cured, the waveguide is secured in a desired pattern.

  The overall alignment can be provided by one or more alignment pins 160 that can be used to align the fiber array connector 134, the concentrator array 120, the interconnect circuit layer 110, and the heat sink 140 together. To receive the alignment pin 160, a series of alignment holes can be formed in each of the above-described components of the device 100, such as the alignment hole 162 shown in FIG. The alignment of the optical concentrator array 120 with respect to the interconnect circuit layer can be performed by the use of fiducials (not shown).

FIG. 2 shows the footprint of the solid state optical device 100. In this exemplary configuration, an array of 60 LED dies 104 may be provided on the interconnect circuit layer 110 mounted on the heat sink 140 in a substantially rectangular array pattern. Of course, according to the present invention, the array of LED dies can include a substantially larger or smaller number of LED dies 104. However, since the width of each LED die is about 300 micrometers and each LED die 104 can be separated from its nearest neighbor beyond the LED die width, the solid state light source of the present invention is high Total power density, compact footprint area (approximately 1 in 2 to 4 in 2 , or 6.5 cm 2 to 26 cm 2 ) and appropriate thermal control can be provided. Further, in the exemplary embodiment, the footprint of the fiber output end 133 (see FIG. 1B) is more compact, for example, about 0.1 in 2 to 1 in 2 (0.65 cm 2 to 6.5 cm). 5 cm 2 ). Alternatively, the output end footprint can be much longer in one direction than in another direction, as shown in any of the embodiments described below.

  A side view of the solid state optical device 100 is shown in FIG. In this exemplary embodiment, the interconnect circuit layer 110 (with the LED die mounted thereon) is disposed on a heat sink 140 that includes a heat dissipation pin 142 that extends in a direction opposite to the output opening 154. In addition. Further, as described above, the housing 150 can include a protrusion 153 to allow for a snap fit onto the fiber array connector 134. The array of optical concentrators 120 is disposed between the fiber array connector 134 and the interconnect layer 110. In this embodiment, the fiber 130 is supported by a fiber array connector 134 and a banding 156 disposed within the output opening 154 of the housing 150.

  As shown in more detail in FIG. 4, an exemplary structure of a solid state optical device reduces misalignment between individual optical fibers 131 of the fiber array and individual optical concentrators 121 of the concentrator array. Includes a fiber-concentrator alignment mechanism. In particular, the fiber array connector 134 can further include a protruding portion 135 that engages the recessed portion 125 of the optical concentrator array substrate. Accordingly, the fiber 131 is received within the opening of the fiber array connector 134. The fiber array connector is then placed on the optical concentrator substrate so that the protrusion 135 is received by the recess 125. Thus, the output aperture 126 of the optical concentrator 121 can be substantially flush with the input end of the fiber 131. Further, in this exemplary design, multiple input ends of the fiber can be polished simultaneously, with the fiber ends positioned relative to the optical concentrator.

  In the structural example of FIG. 4, the receiving opening 123 of the optical concentrating device 121 can be disposed so as to be close to the light emitting surface of the corresponding LED die 104 or to surround the periphery thereof. Although not shown, a spacer disposed between the optical concentrator substrate and the interconnect circuit layer can set an appropriate spacing between these two components. The optical concentrator substrate can then be attached to the spacer or otherwise bonded to the interconnect circuit layer using conventional techniques.

  FIG. 4 further illustrates a cross-section of an exemplary multilayer interconnect 110 that includes a conductive epoxy 115 to bond the LED die 104 to the interconnect layer 110. First and second conductive layers 113, 111 (which can include, for example, nickel and gold, or other conductive materials) provide electrical traces to each LED die in the array, and dielectric layer 114 ( For example, polyimide) is placed to provide electrical insulation. A substrate 112 (eg, copper) is provided to support the conductive and insulating layers and provide thermal conductivity to the heat sink 140 to conduct heat away from the direction of light emission.

  In accordance with the principles described herein, a solid state light device can provide highly directional and / or shaped output emission in one or more directions simultaneously. As shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B, the output end 133 of the fiber array 130 can be patterned to provide a rectangular or square output. 5A-5F illustrate alternative reconfigurable output end patterns for a fiber array that can be used with illumination required for a particular application. For example, FIG. 5A shows a hexagonal output fiber pattern 133A, FIG. 5B shows a circular output fiber pattern 133B, FIG. 5C shows a ring-shaped output fiber pattern 133C, FIG. 5D shows a triangular output fiber pattern 133D, and FIG. Indicates a linear output fiber pattern 133E. Further, as shown in FIG. 5F, in an alternative exemplary embodiment, it can be a segmented output pattern 133F, where multiple individual fiber output groups are used for a particular target illumination. be able to. In some applications, the banding that secures the output end of the fiber can be formed from flexible materials, such as lead, tin, and zinc based materials and alloys, so that the fiber output pattern can be It is configurable.

  As shown in FIGS. 6A-6C, the output of the solid state light device can be directable and one or more different directions can be illuminated simultaneously or alternately. FIG. 6A shows a fiber output end 233 arranged, for example, in three different groupings 233A, 233B, and 233C. For example, the solid state light device can provide output illumination forward through the output end 233A under normal operation. In the case of a trigger signal, the LED die corresponding to the output fiber 233B can be activated and additional illumination can be provided to the side through the output fiber 233B. Similarly, the LED die corresponding to output fiber 233C can be activated to provide additional illumination to the other side.

  In curing applications as described below with respect to FIG. 12, “orientation” of the fiber output can facilitate radiation curing of complex three-dimensional parts and structures. These types of structures are not well suited for “flood” type curing with conventional light sources because the shadowing effect results in non-uniform curing. Furthermore, conventional packaged LED arrays arranged on rigid circuit boards are not easily bent to accommodate complex shapes.

  Alternatively, a directable illumination system can be provided using a laterally extending output array of fibers, as shown in FIG. 5E, and the pixelated control circuit described below (eg, 9A and 9B) can activate the block of illuminated fiber from one side to the other. In this way, depending on the application, the output illumination can be directed in a specific direction (or away from it).

  In this way, non-mechanical methods can be used to provide output illumination that can be directed from a solid state light device. Alternatively, more or fewer groups of fibers can be used, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art who understand this specification. Furthermore, the groups can have different relative orientations.

  In FIG. 6B, a structure is shown that can be used to stably support different fiber groups. For example, banding 256 is provided at the output end of the optical fiber. The banding 256 can form a first opening 254, a second opening 254A, and a third opening 254B, and the fibers disposed in the openings 254A and 254B are coupled to the fibers disposed in the opening 254. Output light in different directions. Further, as shown in FIG. 6C, the banding 256 can be connected to or integral with the housing 250 as part of the support structure of the solid state optical device.

  Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 7, the solid state optical device can generate light that is directable from one bundle at the fiber output end. For example, the fiber output end 133 can be provided at the same position as the output opening 254 from FIG. 6B. In this exemplary embodiment, some of these output ends, shown as fiber output ends 129, are at a different angle, or even a substantially different angle, from the remainder 133 of the fiber output ends. Angle polishing (for example, only 10 to 50 degrees with respect to the fiber axis). The resulting light emission is directed in a direction different from the output direction of the fiber end 133. Thus, similar to the applications described above with respect to FIGS. 6A-6C, the solid state light device can provide output illumination both forward (through the output end 133) and laterally (through the output fiber 129).

  In an alternative embodiment for providing the orientable illumination shown in FIG. 13, fibers extending from the fiber array connector 734 are bundled as multiple offset fiber bundles, ie, center bundle 730A and side bundles 730B and 730C. Can be. Light emitted from the output end of the fiber bundle is received by a multifocal lens 750, such as an aspheric lens, and directs the output further from the offset bundle to different desired illumination areas 751A, 751B, and 751C.

  In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, a solid state light device can be used as a bulb replacement for a discharge type illumination light source. For example, attachment to an existing receptacle can be accomplished by use of the flange 139 shown in FIG. The flange 139 can be disposed at a peripheral portion of the fiber array connector 134, for example. The flange can be designed to engage the locking slot of such a receptacle. Alternatively, the flange can be formed on other components of the solid state optical device, such as a housing or an optical concentrator substrate.

  According to another embodiment of the present invention, an illumination system 300 is provided that takes into account pixelated light control that can be used for aperture shaping and / or dynamic beam movement, as shown in FIG. 9A. The The system 300 includes a solid light source 301 configured similarly to the solid light source 100 described above. A controller 304 is coupled to the solid state light source 301 via wiring 302 and connector 310, which can be connected to the interconnect circuit layer. A power supply 306 is coupled to the controller 304 to provide power / current to the solid state light source 301.

  In the exemplary embodiment, controller 304 is configured to selectively activate individual LED dies or groups of LED dies housed within solid state light source 301. Further, since the light receiving waveguide is provided in a one-to-one correspondence with the LED die, the illumination system 300 can provide a pixelated output. This type of pixelation control allows control of differently colored (eg, red, green, and blue for RGB output) or similarly colored (eg, white, blue, UV) LED dies. .

  FIG. 9B shows an example of a control circuit 305 that can provide pixelation to an array of LED dies housed in a solid state light device. In this example, 60 LED dies (LD1-LD60) are provided in the LED die array, which are each grouped into 3 large groups of 20 LED dies (314A-314C), each of which is , Further subdivided into smaller subgroups or channels (e.g., LD1-LD5) of 5 LED dies each. Overall, in this exemplary embodiment, the 12 channels of each of the 5 LED dies can be controlled separately. In one implementation, for RGB output applications, a first group of LED dies can include a red light emitting LED die, a second group of LED dies can include a blue light emitting LED die, A third group can include green light emitting LED dies. Alternatively, in another implementation, the first, second, and third groups of LED dies can include “white” light emitting LED dies.

  Furthermore, the interconnect circuit layers are also designed to provide separate interconnects for different LED die groups. Different types of LED die groups and larger or smaller numbers of LED dies can also be used in accordance with the principles described herein. In this configuration, individual RGB LED die channels can be driven to provide “white” or other colored output. In addition, if a particular diode channel fails or is dimmed due to LED die degradation, adjacent channels can be driven at higher currents and the output illumination appears to remain unchanged. Due to the (relatively) wide LED die spacing and / or the thermal management capabilities of the interconnect layer, higher drive currents to some of the LED die channels do not adversely affect overall performance.

  More particularly, a voltage is provided to circuit 305 by power supply 306. The voltage is converted to a regulated output current / voltage by boost converter chips 312A-312C and their associated electronics (not shown). In this way, voltage variations from the power supply 306 can be reduced, and the current / voltage supplied to the LED die is maintained at a stabilization level. Chips 312A-312C may include, for example, an LM2733 chip available from National Semiconductor. In this exemplary embodiment, the drive voltage / current parameter can be about 20 volts at 80-100 mA, thus providing a total of about 1.0 to 1.2 A for the entire LED die array. The drive current / voltage is then supplied to the different LED die channels in the array. In this example, each LED die requires a nominal bias current of about 20 mA, and the bias threshold increases as the current increases, approaching about 4.0 V for a typical GaN-based LED die. Of course, different LED die efficiencies or compositions will require different bias levels and drive levels.

  Further, resistor / thermistor chain 316 can be included in circuit 305 to set the total maximum current for each LED die channel. In addition, a switch set 318 can be provided that includes a corresponding number of LED die channel electronic switches, and each LED die channel is connected to ground (or to switch set 318 to activate each particular LED die channel). Depending on the orientation of the LED, it is coupled / disconnected to the power supply. The switch set 318 can be automatically controlled by a microcontroller (not shown) or a remote switch based on the lighting parameters required for the particular application. Of course, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art who have understood this specification, this circuit architecture allows for many implementations and modifications. For example, the control circuit 305 can be implemented to drive all LED dies with the same current, or a given LED die channel can be turned on / off automatically or by command. Different currents can be applied to each channel by adding fixed or variable resistors to the switch legs of the switch set.

  FIG. 10 shows a schematic diagram of an exemplary solid state light device 401 used in lamp applications that can be used for spot curing. For example, a solid state optical device 401 that can be configured according to the above-described embodiments is disposed in the compartment 402. The optical device 401 may be secured within the compartment 402 through the use of a slidably engaging flange 439 configured to slide and lock within the slot 438 of the receptacle. Accordingly, a heat sink 440 that draws heat in the opposite direction of the light output is placed in a separate compartment 404. The beam shaping output illumination can be collected / focused by the optical element 415 into an illumination pattern as required. The optical element 415 can be designed to provide a selected output pattern according to applicable standards. Examples of optical elements can include aspheric / anamorphic optical elements and / or discontinuous and / or non-analytic (spline) optical elements.

  In this way, the use of complex reflective optics arranged in the compartment 402 can be avoided. In addition, since heat is drawn away from the compartment 402, the remaining optical elements in the compartment 402 do not need to be specially heat treated, and thus the potential caused by exposure to continuous high intensity heat. Avoid performance degradation. Further, if the solid state optical device 401 is provided with an output fiber and output aperture structure as shown above in FIGS. 6A-6C, it must be used currently when steering the output from a conventional HID lamp. Steerable output illumination can be provided without the need to use moving mirrors, bulbs, and / or lens mechanisms.

  The solid state optical devices described herein can also be used for other applications. For example, FIG. 11 illustrates that a solid state optical device 501 (having a structure similar to that shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B and / or other embodiments herein) is housed in a curing apparatus 500. A highly localized (eg dental) curing application. The solid state optical device 501 can be disposed within the handle portion 510 of the curing apparatus 500. Further, the output fiber used to receive and guide the output from the LED die or other solid state light source can extend through a light delivery arm 525 that can be placed directly on the curable material. In this application, UV and / or blue radiation sources can be used, depending on the curing mode of the material that is illuminated.

  In the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 12, a schematic material curing apparatus such as a web curing station is provided. For example, in adhesive, tape, or web-based manufacturing, radiation curable agents are often blue / UV curable materials that must be cured on different materials or substrates. In conventional methods, high intensity discharges, arc lamps, and microwave driven lamps are often used to perform the curing process. However, these conventional lamps emit light and heat at 360 degrees and therefore require complex heat exchange and / or cooling mechanisms. Alternatively, in some conventional methods, the substrate material and UV curing agent must be able to withstand high intensity heat.

  A solution to the heating problem found in conventional curing systems is shown schematically in FIG. 12, where the curing station 600 is a solid state light device 604 (as described above, as in FIGS. 1A and 1B). The heat dissipation or heat sink component of the solid state optical device can be coupled to or replaced with the heat exchange unit 602. As described above, the heat generated by the radiation source of the solid state light device is drawn in the opposite direction of the light output by appropriate LED die spacing, thermally conductive interconnect circuits, and / or heat sinks. The curing station 600 can be used for continuous curing operations and / or for piece parts, spot curing, or sheets.

In addition, the solid state light device 604 can deliver highly focused radiation to the radiation curable material, and thus is evident when using conventional LED arrays for radiation curing. Harmful effects caused by insufficient depth can be reduced. For example, as described above with respect to FIGS. 1A, 1B, and 2, the LED die footprint can be concentrated on a fraction of the original LED die array area. For example, the output end footprint can be 2-5 times smaller than the LED die array footprint, and the corresponding strength increases per unit area (including coupling loss) at the end of the fiber array. For example, each LED die can be a GaN-based LED die, and the output power density approaches 100 mW / cm 2 per die with nominal 365 nm radiation. The resulting irradiance values can approach or even exceed the output of conventional high power (600 W / in) focused mercury ultraviolet lamps that typically output about 2 W / cm 2 of nominal 365 nm radiation.

  The concentrated output of the LED die or other radiation source can be collected and guided by a waveguide array disposed within the strain relief housing 630 and delivered to a radiation curable material or formulation 650. Radiation curable materials can include, for example, acrylate or epoxy monomers and / or oligomers with a suitable photoinitiator or blend. A radiation curable material or blend 650 can be disposed on the substrate 652. Examples of substrates include continuous polymers, textiles, metal foils and the like.

  The substrate 652 can be placed on a platform, such as a moving platform or conveyor belt, to provide a bulk sheet of material or continuous curing, or the substrate 652 is suspended between moving rollers (not shown). be able to. As described above with respect to FIGS. 5A-5F, the output end of a waveguide, such as an optical fiber, for example, can be arranged in a number of different reconfigurable patterns, and thus a very wide variety of shapes, and A solid state optical device can be produced that is particularly suitable for curing materials having a curing depth requirement.

  For example, as described above, the output ends of the fibers can be arranged in a selected pattern. In curing applications, the selected pattern may be selected to provide curing of piece part substrates having corners, tears, and other structures that do not receive uniform curing radiation from conventional “flood” type light sources. it can. Thus, the shadow effect can be reduced by properly arranging the output ends of the fiber.

  Furthermore, the apparatus 600 can further include a controller 670 coupled to the solid state light source 604. A controller 670, which can be implemented as one controller unit or as a set of controller units, emits radiation corresponding to the preferential absorption band of an exemplary photoinitiator and / or different Different LED dies of the LED die array can be selectively activated to cure the type of formulation. For example, the controller 670 may include a number of different control sections (eg, control sections 670a-670d) corresponding to different LED die sections or individual (independent) channels in the LED die array of the solid state source 604. it can. Alternatively, multiple independent controller units can be used to control each LED die channel individually. Control can be performed using electrical or mechanical switching, for example using a toggle switch (not shown).

  Each LED die section can include, for example, a set of LED dies that emit radiation at different wavelengths and / or illuminate different sections of radiation curable material 650 than other sets of LED dies. Using the exemplary pixelated circuit described above, the apparatus 600 can thus provide greater flexibility in curing different types of materials using the same curing device. For example, one or more groups of LED dies can be selectively activated, eg, switched on or off, to accommodate one or more photoinitiators in the curable material.

  In this exemplary embodiment of the present invention, radiation emitted from a plurality of solid sources can be concentrated in a pre-defined pattern, and the irradiated surfaces are otherwise dense with each other and the irradiated surface. It receives much higher intensity than would have been achieved with the light source placed in close proximity to. The curing apparatus described above can be used for continuous substrates, sheets, piece parts, spot curing, and / or 3D radiation curing processes.

  Compared to a conventional curing device that uses a lamp, the curing apparatus 600 of FIG. 12 provides longer life, smaller power requirements, greater efficiency, and a smaller form factor (for dense gap curing applications). With little or no infrared radiation emitted to the substrate and / or chemistry (especially important for heat-sensitive product structures).

  In accordance with this exemplary embodiment of the present invention, lower intensity LEDs at short wavelengths (<500 nm) through the use of optical lumped elements combined with optical waveguides that can selectively pattern the output. From the die, high irradiance levels can be achieved. Thus, shorter wavelength LED dies can be used without the conventional low irradiance problem. In addition, a wide range of photoinitiators and photoinitiator blends can be used in the cured material 650. Examples of photoinitiators include ITX and Camphor Quinone (available from Biddle-Sawyer), TPO-L (available from BASF), and Irgacure and Darocur (DAROCUR) Series initiators (available from Ciba Specialty Chemicals).

  Also, by using the optical fiber-concentrator structure described above, the LED dies can be separated by a distance suitable for direct thermal management and electrical connection (eg, at least 6 die width or more). The resulting efficient heat dissipation can effectively extend the life of the LED die and maintain higher irradiance. Furthermore, since more LED dies can be used within a relatively small footprint, the current / power drive requirements per LED die can be reduced without affecting the irradiance level. Thus, longer total die life can be achieved with exemplary embodiments of the invention.

  A problem associated with low irradiance is that if the irradiance is too low, the rate of cure towards the bottom of the relatively thick radiation curable formulation is reduced. Thus, the depth of cure and adhesion can be a problem with some conventional LED-based methods. The depth of cure problem is exacerbated when the formulation contains scattering centers or radiation absorbing particles, pigments, or dyes. In addition, additional problems may arise if the radiation must pass through a carrier film or roll before reaching the formulation.

  As a solution, the apparatus 600 can further include a single lens or multiple lenses, and can be formed integrally with (eg, a fiber lens) or placed away from the end of the fiber and cured. The radiation can be further concentrated or collimated to the material or formulation. Such lenses can promote curing of relatively thick and / or highly absorbing and / or scattering formulations due to the orientation of the components within the irradiated formulation. For example, a lens or lens array (not shown in this figure) can be placed at a selected distance from the output end of the fiber / waveguide. As mentioned earlier, additional output collimating / focusing lenses are specially designed for continuous exposure to heat since the heat generated from the radiation source is drawn away from the direction of emission. There is no need to process.

  Further, in accordance with this exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the apparatus 600 allows a more uniform curing beam by extending the concentrated pattern into a cross machine direction (CMD) and / or machine direction (MD) array. Can be provided. In conventional lamp-based systems, the lamps have a variation of at least 15% across their length. In some cases, lamp uniformity variation can degrade to 30-40% over time. In conventional LED-based methods, the LEDs in the array are isolated, which results in irradiance non-uniformity across the array. This non-uniformity can cause potentially deleterious effects on the final product properties due to non-uniform curing.

  The curing apparatus of the present invention can also use an array of different types of LED dies that can be controlled by the pixelation circuit described above in FIGS. 9A and 9B. For example, the output ends of the fibers can be tightly coupled so that different types of LED dies (eg, of various intensities and / or wavelengths) can be incorporated into the LED die array, so that the machine direction and Wavelength and / or intensity selective curing devices can be made with minimal loss of uniformity in the cross machine direction. Further, by incorporating LED dies of different wavelengths into the LED die array, radiation can be emitted at selected wavelengths that match the preferential absorption bands of exemplary photoinitiators such as, for example, a blend of ITX and TPO-L. it can.

  Accordingly, the curing device 600 can be designed to cure at different wavelengths and / or intensities, and the same curing device can be used to cure different types of formulations. It can be made suitable for laboratories, pilots, and production lines that process different formulations that require different radiation wavelengths and intensities. Further, with the pixelation control circuit described herein, the device 600 can be controlled to selectively activate a particular LED die or LED die group, depending on the type of material being cured. In contrast, in conventional methods, an LED array is usually composed of only one specific type of LED. Thus, if different wavelengths or intensities are required in conventional systems, a new array is needed to accommodate formulation absorption. This leads to additional modules that require greater equipment costs and more potential maintenance.

  The apparatus 600 is also suitable for high resolution curing of patterns, 3D structures, lithography and masking. For example, the output end of the fiber can be secured in a reconfigurable banding, such as banding 156 in FIG. Parts can be cured. Further, for substrate-based processes, apparatus 600 can provide high resolution irradiance profile hardening in the cross machine direction and machine direction. Since the output end of the fiber can be tightly bundled or densely patterned, the LED die can be driven at various intensities to create a smooth intensity profile. Its resolution is on the order of the fiber diameter. In contrast, conventional LED arrays that are farther apart (due to heat) provide a variable intensity profile.

  Referring now to FIG. 14, an example configuration of a modification device is shown in which the light emitted from the waveguide 802 is polarized before impinging on the radiation-polarizable material. As shown in FIG. 14 and FIGS. 15-18 described below, it will be appreciated that the waveguide 802 is linear, but a two-dimensional array is also applicable. The waveguide 802 outputs unpolarized light 808 so that electromagnetic energy waves are randomly arranged. However, for some modifying applications, it is preferable to treat the radiation-modifiable material with polarized light. An example of such a modification application is the treatment of liquid crystal materials. Another example is the treatment of polymer chains. In these cases, it is desirable that the liquid crystal or polymer chain bonds become aligned in a specific way. The liquid crystal or polymer bonds are aligned according to the arrangement of electromagnetic energy waves of radiation that strikes the target material. Thus, polarizing light before it strikes the material of interest will align the liquid crystal or polymer bonds with aligned waves.

  In the example of FIG. 14, light 808 emitted from the waveguide 802 hits the polarizer 804 directly, where it covers an essentially circular region 810. Since the light 808 emitted directly from the waveguide 802 has a relatively wide angle emission, the polarizer 804 avoids wasting light emitted from the waveguide 802 in order to avoid wasting the wide acceptance cone. cone)). Even with an efficient polarizer for a particular wavelength of radiation, polarized light that passes through the polarizer 804 and strikes the substrate 806 with the radiation-modifiable material disposed thereon has a relatively low intensity. Have.

  Various polarizer designs can be applied. For infrared and visible wavelengths, accepted polarizers include, but are not limited to, Brewster stacks, coated plates, multilayer optical films, absorbing polarizers, and prisms. However, for UV wavelengths, an accepted polarizer typically has a narrow receiving cone that requires a narrowing of the light spread angle from the waveguide as described below. Examples of polarizers suitable for UV applications include Brewster stacks, multilayer coating optics, wire grids, and some prisms.

  FIG. 15 shows an example configuration of a reformer that focuses light emitted from the waveguide 902 into a line before it is first polarized. In this example, light 908 emitted from waveguide 902 is focused into a line along the axis of cylindrical lens 914 disposed between waveguide 902 and polarizer 904 on the radiation path. The light that reaches the polarizer 904 forms a line 912 that has a higher intensity than the full cone of emitted light. Accordingly, polarized light reaching the substrate 906, on which the radiation modifiable material is disposed, has a higher intensity.

  The cylindrical lens focuses the light from each of the fiber ends of the waveguide 902 into a line, but the light 910 emanating from the cylindrical lens 914 has a wide spread angle along the axis of the cylindrical lens 914. to continue. Thus, the polarizer 904 must also have a wide acceptance cone at least along the same axis to avoid wasting light emitted from the waveguide 902. As indicated above, for UV applications, the accepted polarizer has a smaller receiving cone that requires the light divergence angle to be reduced as described below.

  FIG. 16A shows an example configuration of a reformer that collimates the light emitted from the waveguide 1002 before it is first polarized. One benefit of collimating the light is that a UV polarizer can be used. In this example, light 1008 emitted from waveguide 1002 is collimated by lenslet array 1014. The array 1014 has a number of lenslets matched to the number of fibers and the divergence angle of the waveguide 1002. The required acceptance cone of polarizer 1004 is not only determined by fiber properties, but is a function of the focal length of each lenslet in array 1014 and the size of each fiber in waveguide 1002. Thus, the lenslet array 1014 collimates the light, where the acceptance cone required by the polarizer 1004 is reduced to an amount that can be accepted by many polarizers, including polarizers that accept UV light.

  The collimated light 1010 then reaches the polarizer, and the collimated light 1010 from each lenslet strikes the polarizer and covers a region 1012 shaped according to the shape defined by each lenslet. . As shown below with reference to FIG. 18, a cylindrical lens is formed of a polarizer 1004 and a substrate 1006 on which a radiation-modifiable material is disposed to focus light into a higher intensity line. Can be included in between.

  FIG. 16B shows a configuration similar to that of FIG. 16A except that a lens is formed at the end of each fiber of waveguide 1003 and a lenslet array is not required. Each fiber lens collimates the light from the fiber, and the collimated light 1009 is shaped as defined by each fiber lens with a reduced cone when it strikes the polarizer 1005. The area 1011 covered. Again, a cylindrical lens is placed on either side of the polarizer 1005 to focus the light into a higher intensity line before the polarized light strikes the substrate 1007 with the radiation modifiable material disposed thereon. Can also be arranged.

  FIG. 17 shows an example configuration of a reformer in which light emitted from the waveguide 1102 is first collimated and then focused on a line before being polarized. In this example, light 1108 is collimated by lenticular array 1114 combined with cylindrical lens 1116. It will be appreciated that the lenticular array 114 has a lens for each fiber, and the size of the fiber and the focal length of the lens define the receiving cone required for the polarizer 1104. Again, the lenticular array 1114 collimates the light and the acceptance cone required for the polarizer 1104 is reduced to an amount that can be applied to many polarizers, including polarizers that accept UV light.

  The collimated light 1110 strikes the polarizer 1104 and covers the relatively focused linear region 1112. The polarized light then strikes a substrate 1106 with a radiation modifiable material disposed thereon. As shown below with reference to FIG. 18, a cylindrical lens can be included between the polarizer 1104 and the substrate 1106 to further focus the light into higher intensity lines. Further, in embodiments where the lenticular array 1114 is made from a flexible material, the lenticular array 1114 can be bent into an arcuate shape to perform the focusing function of the cylindrical lens 1116.

  FIG. 18 shows an alternative configuration to the configurations of FIGS. In this configuration, the waveguide 1202 emits light 1208 that reaches an optical element 1218 such as the lenslet array of FIG. 16 or the lenticular array of FIG. The optical element 1218 collimates the light, and then the collimated light 1210 reaches the polarizer 1204. Again, since the light 1210 is collimated, the acceptance cone required for the polarizer 1204 is reduced, making it possible to select a polarizer including those polarizers that are capable of receiving UV light. Next, the polarized light 1212 emitted from the polarizer 1204 strikes a second optical element 1214 such as a cylindrical lens. In the case of a cylindrical lens, polarized light 1216 is focused into a line, which then strikes a substrate 1206 with a radiation modifiable material disposed thereon.

For these configurations, the lens and polarizer parameters as a combination can be selected to optimize intensity or polarization uniformity and minimize light loss. Parameters to consider for the lens include the distance of the lens from the end of the waveguide and the diameter of the lens. These parameters relate to these known values, including the fiber core diameter (D fiber ) of each fiber in the waveguide, the numerical aperture of each fiber (NA fiber ), and the acceptance cone of the selected polarizer. You can choose.

As an example, for the selected waveguide, the fiber core diameter D fiber is equal to 600 μm and the numerical aperture NA fiber is equal to 0.39. The selected polarizer can have a complete acceptance cone of 5 degrees to achieve the desired polarization state. To optimize the lens, D fiber or 600 μm is divided by twice the tangent of half of the desired spread angle (less than half of 5 degrees), which is less than or equal to 0.086. This gives the minimum allowable focal length of the lens, and when the lens is positioned at one focal length from the waveguide, it produces light whose cone angle matches the angle of the receiving cone of the polarizer. In this example, this minimum distance is 6.97 mm. Next, approximate the minimum lens diameter required to subtract the light exiting the waveguide by multiplying twice the NA fiber or 0.78 by the calculated distance or 6.97 mm. . The resulting diameter of this example is 5.44 mm. To give some tolerance for these minimum parameters, the distance to the lens can be chosen to be 7 mm and the lens diameter is chosen to be 5.5 mm. Choosing a lens with a longer focal length results in a smaller spread, but in order to delimit all the light from the waveguide, the lens F-number is twice the inverse of NA fiber , in this case 1 Must remain below 28.

  Figures 19-21 show controller configurations that take into account the LED die pulse drive of any of the devices described above, including those with or without a lens and / or polarizer. As described above with respect to FIG. 9B and as described in more detail below, the controller can pulse each individual die separately from the other and at a different intensity than the other. The dies can be individually controlled to be pulsed. Individually controlling the activation and intensity of the LED dies in the array is described in more detail below with reference to FIGS.

  The pulse driving of the curing device LEDs has many advantages compared to the application of radiation from a steady-state LED. Higher instantaneous irradiance can be achieved by pulsing the LED, which allows for acrylate curing in air and results in thicker coating curing. Furthermore, pulsing the LED increases the local peak temperature in the coating while reducing the total heat generated during the coating. In order to achieve higher irradiance, the current is increased during the pulse period. In order to prevent damage to the LED, the current is turned off and cooled between pulses. Advantages from pulse-driven LED curing include increased cure depth, increased reaction rate, depletion of added oxygen, and increased diffusion of free radicals to initiate the polymerization reaction. There is also an advantage to dark cure, where the material to be cured is not exposed to light between pulses, and radical-radical annihilation is minimized. Specifically, when the LED die emits UV radiation, pulsing the LED provides these advantages, which results in the production of a higher molecular weight product.

  The controller configuration of FIG. 19 is a configuration that performs high frequency, short pulse duration pulse drive, which is subject to various modifications including curing acrylates in air and curing relatively thick coatings. Useful. This configuration includes a variable voltage DC power supply 1302 that provides power to the solid state switch 1304. In the case of individual pulse drive to the LED die, the solid state switch 1304 can perform individual switching for each LED die of the LED array 1308. The solid state switch 1304 is driven by a pulse generator 1306. The pulse generator can select both variable pulse frequency and variable pulse width.

  The output voltage of the DC power supply 1302 can be adjusted to provide a desired value of drive current to the LED array 1308 via the solid state switch 1304. An example of the solid state switch 1304 is a power transistor such as a field effect transistor (power FET) having a driver circuit that receives an input from the pulse generator 1306. The pulse generator can be one of a variety of commercially available devices, such as model 81101A from Agilent Technologies. This particular pulse generator has a frequency of 1 MHz to 50 MHz and a small pulse width of 10 ns. It is known that the optical rise time of UV LEDs as provided by Cree Optoelectronics is on the order of 30 ns.

  The controller arrangement of FIG. 20 provides low frequency and long pulse duration pulse drive. This configuration includes a personal computer 1402 that is used to program a commercially available LED sign controller 1404 to be pulsed. Next, the LED sign controller 1404 pulses each of the LEDs of the LED matrix array 1406 as if the LED matrix (grid) array 1406 is a blinking LED sign. Since the LED sign controller 1404 is designed to control the visible sign, the pulse frequency is much lower, on the order of 25 Hz.

  FIG. 21 shows yet another controller configuration that provides pulse driving at intermediate frequencies and intermediate pulse durations. This configuration includes a variable voltage DC power supply 1502 that provides power to a solid state switch or switch array 1504. The solid state switch array 1504 is driven by a digital output board 1508 configured as an X and Y array, which is controlled by a personal computer 1506. The personal computer 1506 can implement a control program, such as a National Instruments LabView Virtual Instrument program, to control a National Instruments digital output board 1508. This program allows the LEDs to be pulsed randomly or at specific frequencies, typically in the kilohertz range.

  FIG. 22 shows an example of a circuit in which individual LED dies form their own channels so that curing or other modification can be performed at high resolution, as described above with respect to FIG. . Each LED can be selectively and individually activated in relation to the other LED dies of the array. Thus, the pattern can be made in the radiation-modifiable material by activating only the LEDs necessary to create the pattern, rather than driving all the LEDs in the array. FIG. 22 includes a Vcc power supply 1602 that provides power to a booster circuit 1604 as described above with reference to FIG. 9B. The booster circuit 1604 then provides power to the individual channels 1606A-1606F, each channel being one LED die. The switch array set 1608 then selectively activates one or more of the channels, which selectively activates one or more individual LED dies. Thus, switch array set 1608 can be configured to activate only those channels necessary to create the desired pattern.

  This circuit can be used in connection with any of the techniques shown above. For example, the circuit can be used in connection with or without a lens and / or polarizer. Further, this circuit can be used with or without a pulse drive controller. When a pulse drive controller is included, the switch set 1608 allows current to pass through the selected LED die according to a given pulse drive signal.

  FIG. 23 shows each channel so that individual LED dies 1706A-1706C can form their own channels and the intensity can be controlled for each individual LED die so that curing can be performed at high resolution. Shows an example of a circuit having power control circuits 1704A-1704C connected to a Vcc power supply 1702. Individual control of the intensity of each LED die 1706A-1706C via each individual booster circuit 1704A-1704C allows profile curing or other profile modification to be performed and is provided across the waveguide. Irradiance is not uniform to match a non-uniform target.

  This circuit can also be used in connection with any of the techniques shown above. For example, the circuit can be used in connection with or without a lens and / or polarizer and with or without a pulse drive controller.

  FIG. 24 shows an example of a non-uniform target. In this example, the target is a curable material 1808 disposed on a non-uniform structure 1810. Specifically, the structure 1810 in this example is U-shaped and the radiation curable material is farther from the waveguide at its center than at the ends. Thus, when uniform irradiance is provided across the waveguide 1802, the surface of the material 1808 does not receive uniform irradiance. Instead, the edges receive an irradiance that is greater than the irradiance at the center.

  To deal with the U-shaped structure 1810, the waveguide 1802 outputs non-uniform irradiance. The intensity of the irradiance beams 1804A and 1804B on the end of the waveguide is lower than the irradiance of the beams 1806A and 1806B at the center. Thus, the irradiance reaching the material 1808, ie, the resulting cure, is more uniform across the entire side.

  FIG. 25 also shows another example of a non-uniform target. However, in this example, the target is a curable material 1910 having various permeability, specifically thickness, from one end to the other. Thus, if the irradiance at the waveguide 1902 is uniform, the irradiance at the surface of the material is less effective at the thin end 1914 than at the thick end 1912 and the cure across the coating may not be relatively uniform. is there.

  In order to address changes in the permeability of the material 1910, the waveguide 1902 provides non-uniform irradiance. The intensity of the irradiance beam 1904 directed towards the thick end 1912 is highest. The intensity of the irradiance beam 1906 directed toward the center of the material has a lower intensity than the beam 1904 but higher than the irradiance of the beam 1908 directed at the thin end 1914. Accordingly, the curing of material 1910 is more uniform across the entire side.

  FIG. 26 illustrates an alternative manner of controlling the application of radiation from the waveguide 2002 to the radiation modifiable material 2006. Radiation from individual fibers in the waveguide 2002 can be controlled by a light valve structure 2012 disposed on the path of radiation emanating from the waveguide 2002. The light valve structure 2012 operates to control the passage of light through the modifiable material. As shown, allow radiation from a given fiber to be blocked, allow substantially all of the radiation from a given fiber to pass, or reduce the radiation intensity from a given fiber. To reduce continuously, light valve 2012 can operate in conjunction with a set of polarizers 2003, 2004. Further, the light valve can be configured in a static or masked state, or the light valve can be controllable to be dynamic.

  As shown, the light valve structure 2012 is a one-dimensional array of light valve cells 2016, each of which can be individually controlled, thereby dynamically passing the received radiation. Control. As used herein, the term light valve generally refers to a light valve structure 2012 that includes a plurality of light valve cells 2016 or an individual light valve cell 2016. It will be appreciated that a complete light valve structure 2012, or only individual light valve cells 2016, can be placed on the path of radiation.

  There are various forms of light valves that can be used. As shown in FIG. 26, a liquid crystal display (“LCD”) array may be provided. The LCD array uses LCD cells as individual light valve cells 2016. A standard LCD controller (not shown) selectively controls individual LCD cells to control the rotation of the polarization of light passing therethrough. Other examples of light valves include grating light valves and digital mirror devices. The grating light valve uses a light valve cell that includes a number of electrostatically controlled reflective ribbons that form a diffraction grating. In the grating light valve example, the light valves are arranged relative to the waveguide 2002 and material 2006 to take into account the reflections caused by the individual light valve cells, rather than the linear method as shown for LCD light valves. An example configuration that uses a deflection-dependent grating light valve or digital mirror device to control light intensity is described in more detail below with reference to FIG.

  The LCD light valve of FIG. 26 operates in conjunction with the first polarizer 2003 and the final polarizer 2004 to control the intensity of light reaching the modifiable material. The first polarizer 2003 gives the light a specific polarization. Next, the LCD light valve 2012 rotates the polarizer by a given amount anywhere from 0 to 180 degrees. The radiation will then pass through the final polarizer 2004. However, only light with the appropriate polarization state passes through the final polarizer 2004 with normal intensity. If the polarization state is 90 degrees from the required polarization state of the final polarizer 2004, no radiation will pass. Thus, the LCD light valve 2012 can be used to rotate the polarization state as needed, thereby controlling the amount of radiation that passes through the final polarizer 2004. Since individual LCD cells 2016 can be controlled independently, the radiation passing through some LCD cells can be given a different polarization rotation from the radiation passing through other LCD cells, and the radiation pattern Emits from the final polarizer 2004.

  Since the light valve controls the intensity of the radiation reaching the radiation modifiable material, using this light valve creates the required pattern in the material or as shown in FIGS. Such highly non-uniform material uniformity or material position cure or other modification uniformity can be improved. The intensity of the light passing through the light valve is controlled so that the intensity profile across the light valve is in the desired pattern or changes in that profile. Thus, the intensity from individual fibers can be made substantially uniform without activation and / or intensity control of each as described above with respect to FIGS.

  As illustrated, this example of FIG. 26 shows a one-dimensional array of light valve cells 2016. It will be appreciated that other dimensional arrays are also applicable. However, as shown in this example, it may be desirable to apply an array, such as a one-dimensional array 2012, to focus light emanating from the waveguide 2002 onto the array 2012 by using optical elements. I will. The light is focused and substantially all of the light from the waveguide 2002 must pass through the light valve structure 2012 before reaching the material 2006. In the example shown, a cylindrical lens 2014 is placed on the path of radiation 2008 emanating from the waveguide 2002 so that the light 2010 emanating from the cylindrical lens 2014 is focused on the light valve 2012.

  It would also be beneficial to further modify the passage of radiation emanating from the second polarizer 2004. In the example shown, a second optical element 2020 is inserted between the polarizer 2004 and the modifiable material 2006. Specifically, the second optical element in this example is a projection lens that takes the light spreading from the polarizer and refocuses it toward the point 2024 on the modifiable material 2006. The collection of points 2024 forms a line that follows the pattern or intensity profile determined by the light valve 2012.

  Another enhancement that can be used in conjunction with a light valve having multiple dimensions includes the use of angle control elements such as prismatic films (not shown). The prismatic film is placed between the waveguide 2002 and the light valve 2012 in order to better use the high angle light exiting the waveguide 2002.

  FIG. 27 shows a radiation modifying configuration that uses an optical system to smooth the intensity profile imparted to the radiation modifiable material. A waveguide 2102 outputs radiation toward an optical element 2106 such as a lenslet array. To provide an infinite waveguide 2102 effect, mirrors 2104A and 2104B may be included to reflect the deviating radiation back toward the optical element 2106. In this example, an optional second optical element 2108 such as a lenslet array is also included to further collimate the light emanating from the first optical element 2106. A blur filter 2110 may be disposed between the second optical element 2108 and the radiation modifiable material 2112.

  In order to produce a smoothing effect, the angle of the non-radiation path as well as some angles of the radiation path are shown in FIG. A non-radiation path 2114 extends from a small area between the fibers of the waveguide 2102 where no radiation is emitted. As shown, this path 2114 extends to a point 2116 on the modifiable material 2112. However, this point 2116 is not exposed to radiation, and the radiation path 2118 extends from the central region of the fiber to point 2116 so that the otherwise unexposed point 2116 receives radiation. Similarly, point 2224 does not receive radiation via high angle path 2122. However, point 2224 receives radiation via a path that includes path 2120. Thus, optical element 2106 and optionally 2108 take a non-imaging configuration, and light emanating from waveguide 2102 is blurred in material 2112 rather than being directly imaged. A blur filter 2110 can be included to further blur the radiation to smooth the intensity profile.

  FIG. 28 shows a deflecting light valve, radiation modifying configuration for creating a pattern and / or reducing the radiation entrance angle to the polarizer. A waveguide 2202 outputs radiation towards an optical element 2206, such as a lenslet array. As in the configuration of FIG. 26, mirrors 2204A and 2204B can be included to reflect deviated radiation back toward the optical element 2206 to provide the effect of an infinite waveguide 2202. In this example, a second optical element 2208 such as a lenslet array is also included to further collimate the light emanating from the first optical element 2206.

  This configuration also includes a deflection light valve 2210 disposed between the first optical element 2206 and the second optical element 2208. The deflection light valve 2210 can be a grating light valve or a digital mirror device. The deflecting light valve 2210 has individually controllable cells to selectively deflect light to create a pattern as needed.

  To represent the deflection, the angle of the non-radiation path as well as some angles of the radiation path are shown in FIG. 28 and smoothing is also shown. A non-radiation path 2214 extends from a small area between the fibers of the waveguide 2202 where no radiation is emitted. As shown, this path 2214 extends to a point 2216 on the modifiable material 2212. However, this point 2216 is not exposed to radiation, and the radiation path 2218 extends from the central region of the fiber to point 2216 so that the otherwise unexposed point 2216 receives radiation. However, in this example, the deflection light valve 2210 is activated and the point 2222 receives radiation via a path that includes the deflected path 2220. The deflection can redirect the radiation as needed and can be used to pattern the radiation modifiable material 2212. Furthermore, deflection reduces the angle of entry of radiation, which is useful when a polarizer (not shown in this figure) is placed between the optical element 2206 and the material 2212.

  Although the invention has been described with reference to exemplary preferred embodiments, the invention can be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is to be understood that the embodiments described and shown herein are exemplary only and should not be considered as limiting the scope of the present invention. Other changes and modifications can be made in accordance with the scope of the present invention.

1 is a perspective view illustrating a solid state optical device according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 1 is an exploded view showing a solid state optical device according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 2 is a top view illustrating an exemplary LED die array disposed on an interconnect circuit according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. It is a side view which shows the solid light source by embodiment of this invention. FIG. 4 is a detailed view showing individual LED dies coupled to an optical fiber by a non-image forming optical concentrator according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 illustrates an alternative fiber output pattern according to an alternative embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 illustrates an alternative fiber output pattern according to an alternative embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 illustrates an alternative fiber output pattern according to an alternative embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 illustrates an alternative fiber output pattern according to an alternative embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 illustrates an alternative fiber output pattern according to an alternative embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 illustrates an alternative fiber output pattern according to an alternative embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 shows an alternative fiber output pattern for a directable output. FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary banding and support structure implementation for a directable output according to an alternative embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary banding and support structure implementation for a directable output according to an alternative embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 shows another alternative output pattern for a directable output, with a portion of the output end of the fiber having an angle polished output surface, according to an alternative embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating an alternative structure of a fiber array connector according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 shows a solid state lighting system adapted for pixilation according to another embodiment of the invention. FIG. 5 illustrates an exemplary controller circuit adapted for pixilation according to another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 3 illustrates an exemplary implementation of a solid state optical device. FIG. 6 illustrates another exemplary implementation of a solid state optical device used as part of a dental curing apparatus. FIG. 3 shows a radiation curing apparatus according to another exemplary embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 6 illustrates an alternative embodiment of directable output light emission. It is a figure which shows the radiation modification | reformation apparatus which processes the radiation-modifiable material containing a polarizer and arrange | positioned on the board | substrate. FIG. 2 shows a radiation modifying apparatus for processing a radiation modifiable material that includes both a cylindrical lens and a polarizer and is disposed on a substrate. FIG. 2 shows a radiation modifying apparatus for processing a radiation modifiable material that includes both a lenslet array and a polarizer and is disposed on a substrate. FIG. 2 shows a radiation modifying apparatus for processing a radiation modifiable material that includes both a lens formed on each fiber at the output end of a waveguide and a polarizer and is disposed on a substrate. FIG. 2 shows a lenticular array combined with a cylindrical lens and a radiation modifying apparatus for processing a radiation modifiable material including a polarizer and disposed on a substrate. FIG. 6 shows an example of a radiation modifying apparatus that includes an optical element in conjunction with a polarizer followed by another optical element as an alternative to processing a radiation modifiable material disposed on a substrate. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a first example of a pulse control system that includes a pulse generator for generating pulsed radiation for modifying a radiation curable material in an array of LEDs. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a second example of a pulse control system including an LED sign control device for generating pulsed radiation for modifying a radiation curable material in an array of LEDs. FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of a third example of a pulse control system that includes a computer driven output for generating pulsed radiation for modifying a radiation curable material in an array of LEDs. FIG. 10 shows another adapter circuit for the increased resolution of the LED array for the adapter circuit of FIG. FIG. 6 shows another adapter circuit for increased intensity control for an LED array. FIG. 24 illustrates uniform radiation modification of a radiation-modifiable material disposed on a non-uniform structure according to the adapter circuit of FIG. FIG. 3 shows uniform radiation modification of radiation modifiable materials having various thicknesses disposed on a substrate. FIG. 2 shows a radiation reformer that uses a light valve to provide high resolution reforming. FIG. 2 shows a radiation modifying apparatus that uses one or more optical elements to smooth the intensity profile imparted to the radiation modifiable material. FIG. 2 shows a radiation modification device that uses a light valve to deflect radiation to create a pattern and / or to reduce high angles reaching the polarizer.

Claims (31)

  1. A plurality of solid radiation sources for generating radiation to modify the first material;
    A controller in electrical communication with the solid radiation source for selectively and individually activating each of the plurality of solid radiation sources;
    A plurality of optical concentrators, each optical concentrator receiving radiation from one or more of the plurality of solid radiation sources;
    A plurality of optical waveguides, each of the plurality of optical waveguides including a first end and a second end, wherein each first end is one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators A plurality of optical waveguides that receive radiation from,
    An irradiation apparatus comprising: a support structure for stabilizing at least a first portion at a second end of the plurality of optical waveguides.
  2.   The irradiation apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the control apparatus selectively and individually controls the intensity of radiation from each of the activated plurality of solid radiation sources.
  3.   The irradiation apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the control device generates pulse-driven radiation in the solid-state radiation source.
  4.   The irradiation apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising an optical element disposed on a path of the radiation emitted from the second end.
  5.   The irradiation device according to claim 1, wherein the control device selectively and individually activates each of the solid-state radiation sources to form a pattern in the first material.
  6. A plurality of LED dies for generating radiation capable of modifying the radiation-modifiable chemical composition;
    A controller electrically connected to the plurality of LED dies for selectively and individually activating each of the plurality of LED dies;
    A plurality of optical concentrators, each optical concentrator receiving the radiation from one or more of the LED dies;
    A plurality of optical fibers, each of the plurality of optical fibers including a first end and a second end, wherein each first end is one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators. A plurality of optical fibers that receive concentrated radiation from
    An irradiation system comprising a solid radiation source comprising a substrate for supporting the radiation-modifiable chemical composition.
  7.   The irradiation system according to claim 6, wherein the control device selectively and individually controls the intensity of radiation from each of the activated LED dies.
  8.   The illumination system of claim 6, wherein the controller selectively and individually activates each of the LED dies to create a pattern in the radiation-modifiable chemical formulation.
  9.   The irradiation system according to claim 6, further comprising an optical element disposed on a path of the radiation emitted from the second end.
  10. A plurality of solid radiation sources for generating radiation to modify the first material;
    A controller in electrical communication with the solid radiation source to selectively and individually control the intensity of the radiation from each of the plurality of solid radiation sources;
    A plurality of optical concentrators, each optical concentrator receiving radiation from one or more of the plurality of solid radiation sources;
    A plurality of optical waveguides, each of the plurality of optical waveguides including a first end and a second end, wherein each first end is one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators A plurality of optical waveguides that receive radiation from,
    An irradiation device comprising: a support structure for stabilizing at least a first portion of the second end portions of the plurality of optical waveguides.
  11.   The irradiation apparatus according to claim 10, wherein the control device selectively and individually activates each of the plurality of solid radiation sources.
  12.   The irradiation apparatus according to claim 10, wherein the control device generates pulse-driven radiation in the solid-state radiation source.
  13.   The first material is disposed on a non-uniform structure, and the control device from each of the solid-state radiation sources to impart a uniform irradiance to the first material according to the non-uniform structure. The irradiation apparatus according to claim 10, wherein the intensity of the radiation is selectively and individually controlled.
  14.   The first material has a surface with various transparency, and the control device selectively and individually controls the intensity of the radiation from each of the solid radiation sources according to the various transparency. The irradiation apparatus according to claim 10.
  15. A plurality of LED dies for generating radiation capable of modifying the radiation-modifiable chemical composition;
    A controller electrically connected to the plurality of LED dies to selectively and individually control the intensity of the radiation from each of the plurality of LED dies;
    A plurality of optical concentrators, each optical concentrator receiving the radiation from one or more of the LED dies;
    A plurality of optical fibers, each of the plurality of optical fibers including a first end and a second end, wherein each first end is one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators. A plurality of optical fibers that receive concentrated radiation from
    An irradiation system comprising a solid radiation source comprising a substrate for supporting the radiation-modifiable chemical composition.
  16.   The irradiation system according to claim 15, wherein the control device selectively and individually activates each of the plurality of LED dies.
  17.   The irradiation system according to claim 15, wherein the control device generates pulse-driven radiation to the plurality of LED dies.
  18.   The radiation-modifiable chemical composition is disposed on a non-uniform structure, and the controller provides the uniform irradiance to the radiation-modifiable chemical composition according to the non-uniform structure. 16. The illumination system of claim 15, wherein the intensity of the radiation from each of the LED dies is selectively and individually controlled.
  19.   The radiation-modifiable chemical formulation has a surface with various transparency, and the controller selectively and individually controls the intensity of the radiation from each of the LED dies according to the various transparency. The irradiation system according to claim 15, wherein the irradiation system is controlled.
  20. A plurality of solid radiation sources for generating radiation to modify the first material;
    A plurality of optical concentrators, each optical concentrator receiving the radiation from one or more of the plurality of solid radiation sources;
    A plurality of optical waveguides, each of the plurality of optical waveguides including a first end and a second end, wherein each first end is one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators A plurality of optical waveguides that receive radiation from,
    A light valve disposed on the path of the radiation emanating from one or more of the second ends of the optical waveguide;
    An irradiation device comprising: a support structure for stabilizing at least a first portion of the second end portions of the plurality of optical waveguides.
  21.   The irradiation device according to claim 20, wherein the light valve is a liquid crystal array.
  22.   The irradiation device according to claim 20, wherein the light valve is a lattice light valve.
  23.   21. An optical element disposed on a path of the radiation emanating from the second end, the optical valve further comprising an optical element on the path of the radiation emanating from the optical element. An irradiation apparatus according to 1.
  24.   The irradiation apparatus according to claim 23, wherein the optical element focuses the radiation from one or more second ends of the optical waveguide onto the light valve.
  25.   21. The irradiation device of claim 20, wherein the light valve adjusts the radiation to create a pattern in the radiation-modifiable material.
  26.   26. The irradiator of claim 25, wherein the light valve deflects at least a portion of the radiation to create the pattern.
  27. A first polarizer disposed on a path of the radiation emanating from the optical waveguide, wherein the polarized radiation reaches the light valve, and the light valve rotates the polarization of the radiation; With a polarizer
    2. A second polarizer disposed on a path of the radiation emanating from the light valve, the second polarizer controlling the intensity of the radiation according to the rotation of the polarization. 27. The irradiation apparatus according to 27.
  28. A plurality of LED dies for generating radiation capable of modifying the radiation-modifiable chemical composition;
    A plurality of optical concentrators, each optical concentrator receiving the radiation from one or more of the LED dies;
    A plurality of optical fibers, each of the plurality of optical fibers including a first end and a second end, wherein each first end is one or more of the plurality of optical concentrators. A plurality of optical fibers that receive concentrated radiation from
    A light valve disposed on the path of the radiation emanating from one or more of the second ends of the optical waveguide;
    An irradiation system comprising a solid radiation source comprising a substrate for supporting the radiation-modifiable chemical composition.
  29.   29. The illumination system according to claim 28, wherein the light valve is a liquid crystal array.
  30.   29. The illumination system of claim 28, wherein the light valve is a grating light valve.
  31.   29. The irradiation system of claim 28, wherein the light valve patterns the radiation-modifiable chemical composition.
JP2006542701A 2003-12-02 2004-12-01 Irradiation device Granted JP2007512954A (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/726,257 US7250611B2 (en) 2003-12-02 2003-12-02 LED curing apparatus and method
US10/869,235 US7202489B2 (en) 2003-12-02 2004-06-16 LED modifying apparatus and method
US10/869,236 US7202490B2 (en) 2003-12-02 2004-06-16 LED modifying apparatus and method
US10/869,237 US7189983B2 (en) 2003-12-02 2004-06-16 LED modifying apparatus and method
PCT/US2004/040182 WO2005057670A2 (en) 2003-12-02 2004-12-01 Irradiation apparatuses

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JP2007512954A true JP2007512954A (en) 2007-05-24

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JP2006542703A Granted JP2007515270A (en) 2003-12-02 2004-12-01 Irradiation device
JP2006542662A Granted JP2007521622A (en) 2003-12-02 2004-12-01 Irradiation device

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JP2006542662A Granted JP2007521622A (en) 2003-12-02 2004-12-01 Irradiation device

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JP (3) JP2007512954A (en)
KR (3) KR20060115911A (en)
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WO2005057669A3 (en) 2007-02-08
WO2005057669A2 (en) 2005-06-23

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