JP2007060910A - Method for policulture of seaweed and bivalve - Google Patents

Method for policulture of seaweed and bivalve Download PDF

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JP2007060910A
JP2007060910A JP2005247140A JP2005247140A JP2007060910A JP 2007060910 A JP2007060910 A JP 2007060910A JP 2005247140 A JP2005247140 A JP 2005247140A JP 2005247140 A JP2005247140 A JP 2005247140A JP 2007060910 A JP2007060910 A JP 2007060910A
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seaweed
net cage
bivalves
bivalve
seaweeds
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Takao Takioka
隆雄 瀧岡
Hideki Hamaoka
秀樹 濱岡
Koji Omori
浩二 大森
Noboru Okuda
昇 奥田
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Ehime Univ
国立大学法人愛媛大学
Mishocho Gyogyo Kyodo Kumiai
御荘町漁業協同組合
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<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for polyculture of seaweeds and bivalves enhancing utilization efficiency and profitability of sea areas. <P>SOLUTION: The method for polyculture of seaweeds and bivalves comprises culturing seaweeds such as Meristotheca papulosa on the outside of a net basket and simultaneously culturing bivalves such as Chlamys nobilis on the inside of the net basket so that the seaweeds take nutrient salt excreted by the bivalves and thereby the yield of the seaweeds is increased and also seawater pollution is prevented, and so that barnacles adhering to the bivalves are reduced and thereby the bivalves are increased in commercial value. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2007,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、海藻と二枚貝を海中で養殖する混合養殖方法に関する。 The present invention relates to a mixed culture method for culturing seaweed and bivalves in the sea.
紅藻類のスギノリ目に属するトサカノリMeristotheca papulosa(Montagne)J.Agardhは本邦中南部太平洋岸および九州西岸の亜潮間帯に生育しており、主に海藻サラダや刺身のつまとして食用される。特許文献1や特許文献2には、このトサカノリの養殖方法が記載されている。 The red seaweed Meristotheca papulosa (Montagne) J. Agardh, which grows in the subtidal zone of the central and southern Pacific coasts of Japan and west coast of Kyushu, is mainly used as a seaweed salad and sashimi. Patent Literature 1 and Patent Literature 2 describe a method for cultivating this quail.
特許文献3には、大規模藻場・海中林を造成することが記載されている。コンブの育成を行うとともに、休閑期にはホタテガイ、ヒオオギガイの養殖を行うことが記載されている。
特開昭63−216413 特開2003−81 特開平9−37677
Patent Document 3 describes the creation of a large-scale seaweed bed / underwater forest. In addition to growing kombu, it is stated that scallops and giant mussels are cultivated during the fallow season.
JP 63-216413 A JP2003-81 JP 9-37677 A
トサカノリは商品価値の高い海藻であるが、特許文献1や特許文献2に記載の養殖方法は、トサカノリの収穫のみを目的とするものであり、このような養殖方法で高い収益を得ることは困難である。 Tosakanori is a seaweed with a high commercial value, but the culture methods described in Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2 are intended only for harvesting Tosakanori, and it is difficult to obtain high profits by such aquaculture method. It is.
特許文献3には、コンブの育成を行うことと、ホタテガイ、ヒオオギガイの養殖を行うことが記載されているが、ホタテガイ、ヒオオギガイの養殖はコンブを収穫した後の休閑期に行うものである。 Patent Document 3 describes the cultivation of kombu and the cultivation of scallops and giant mussels. The cultivation of scallops and giant mussels is carried out during the fallow period after harvesting the kombu.
この発明は、海域の利用効率および収益性が高い海藻および二枚貝の養殖方法を提供することを目的とする。 An object of the present invention is to provide a method for culturing seaweed and bivalve molluscs with high utilization efficiency and profitability in the sea area.
上記の目的を解決するために、本発明の混合養殖方法は、網籠の外部で海藻を養殖するとともに、網籠の中で二枚貝を養殖するものである。網籠に海藻の胞子を付着させ、この網籠を海中に吊るして網籠の外部で海藻を養殖させる。たとえば、海藻としてはトサカノリ、二枚貝としてはヒオウギガイを養殖することができる。 In order to solve the above-mentioned object, the mixed culture method of the present invention cultivates seaweed outside the net cage and cultures bivalves in the net cage. Seaweed spores are attached to the net cage, and the net cage is suspended in the sea to cultivate the seaweed outside the net cage. For example, sea cucumbers can be cultivated as seaweeds, and bivalve mussels can be cultured.
本発明の混合養殖方法は、網籠の外部で海藻を養殖するとともに、網籠の中で二枚貝を養殖するので、同じ海域で海藻と二枚貝を収穫でき、海域の利用効率が高く、収益性も向上する。二枚貝の排泄物を海藻の養分として吸着させるので、海水の汚染を防止するとともに、海藻の収穫量を増加させるという効果も有する。 In the mixed culture method of the present invention, seaweed is cultivated outside the net cage, and bivalve is cultivated in the net cage, so seaweed and bivalve can be harvested in the same sea area, and the use efficiency of the sea area is high and profitability is also high. improves. Since the bivalve waste is adsorbed as seaweed nutrient, it has the effect of preventing seawater contamination and increasing the yield of seaweed.
この発明を実施するための最良の形態について説明する。図1は、混合養殖の施設を示す正面図である。この発明の混合養殖方法では、網籠1が使用される。この網籠1の中に稚貝を入れ、海中に吊り下げて二枚貝2を養殖する。 The best mode for carrying out the present invention will be described. FIG. 1 is a front view showing a mixed culture facility. In the mixed culture method of the present invention, the net cage 1 is used. Put the juvenile shellfish into this net cage 1 and hang it in the sea to cultivate the bivalve 2.
さらに、網籠1の外側で海藻3を養殖する。同じたとえば、網籠1に海藻の胞子を付着させて、この網籠1を海中に吊り下げておくと、網籠1の外側で海藻3が生育する。 Further, seaweed 3 is cultivated outside the net cage 1. For example, when seaweed spores are attached to the net cage 1 and the net cage 1 is suspended in the sea, the seaweed 3 grows outside the net cage 1.
このように、二枚貝2と海藻3を同じ網籠1で養殖することが重要である。二枚貝2の周囲を海藻3が取り囲むようになり、二枚貝2の排泄物は海藻3によって吸収される。二枚貝の排泄物を養分として吸収することによって、海藻3の成長が促進される。また、二枚貝の排泄物の海水中への流出が減少するので、その海域の汚染が防止される。 Thus, it is important to culture the bivalve 2 and the seaweed 3 with the same net cage 1. The seaweed 3 surrounds the bivalve 2, and the excrement of the bivalve 2 is absorbed by the seaweed 3. The growth of seaweed 3 is promoted by absorbing bivalve excrement as nutrients. Moreover, since the outflow of bivalve excrement into seawater is reduced, contamination of the sea area is prevented.
つぎに、この発明の実施例について説明する。愛媛県宇和郡愛南町室手湾におけるトサカノリとヒオウギガイMimachlamys nobilisの混合養殖の例である。 Next, examples of the present invention will be described. This is an example of mixed aquaculture of Tokakanori and Mimachlamys nobilis in Murote Bay, Ainan-cho, Uwa-gun, Ehime Prefecture.
網籠1としては、網籠は垂下式二枚貝養殖網籠(縦30cm×横30cm、高さ20cm、網目0.7cm×0.7cm、クレモナ素材製による四角錐型網籠)を用いた。このタイプの網籠はヒオウギガイや真珠の養殖で使用されるものであり、入手しやすい。 As the net cage 1, a hanging bivalve cultured net cage (length 30 cm × width 30 cm, height 20 cm, mesh 0.7 cm × 0.7 cm, quadrangular pyramid type made from Cremona) was used. This type of netting is used in the cultivation of giant snails and pearls and is readily available.
網籠1への胞子の付着について説明する。図2は、胞子付着の状況を示す説明図である。6月に行う。水槽4の中に網籠1とトサカノリの成熟葉体5を吊り下げ、ポンプによって汲み上げた海水をゆっくり流すことによって、網籠1にトサカノリの胞子を付着させた。 The adhesion of spores to the net 1 will be described. FIG. 2 is an explanatory diagram showing the situation of spore adhesion. Perform in June. The spore of Tosakanori was made to adhere to the net cage 1 by suspending the net cage 1 and the mature leaf body 5 of Tokakanori in the water tank 4 and slowly flowing seawater pumped up by a pump.
図3は養殖用筏を示す斜視図である。この養殖用筏6は真珠養殖で使用するものと同様のものである。胞子を付着させた網籠1をクレモナ製ロープに結びつけ、湾内に設置した養殖用筏6から、水深2m、5m、8mの位置にそれぞれ9籠ずつ吊り下げた。 FIG. 3 is a perspective view showing an aquaculture cage. This aquaculture cage 6 is the same as that used in pearl culture. The net cage 1 to which spores were attached was tied to a rope made of Cremona, and 9 cages were suspended from the aquaculture cage 6 installed in the bay at a depth of 2 m, 5 m, and 8 m, respectively.
9月にこの網籠1にヒオウギガイの稚貝を入れる。このヒオウギガイの稚貝の湿重量をそれぞれ計測し、個体識別用タグを付けたあと、網籠1にそれぞれ15個体ずつ入れた。こうして、ヒオウギガイの稚貝を入れた網籠1は、元の位置に戻され、翌年4月まで海中で養殖が続けられた。 In September, put a giant clam larvae into this net cage 1. After measuring the wet weight of the mussel clams, attaching individual identification tags, 15 individuals were put into the net cage 1 respectively. Thus, the net cage 1 containing the giant clam clam was returned to its original position and continued to be cultured in the sea until April of the following year.
また、比較例1として、胞子を付着させてはいるがヒオウギガイを入れていない網籠も同じように海中に設置した。さらに、比較例2として、胞子を付着させていない網籠にヒオウギガイの稚貝を入れたものも海中に設置した。 Moreover, as Comparative Example 1, a net cage that had spore attached but no giant mussel was also installed in the sea. In addition, as Comparative Example 2, a cypress shell with no spore attached was placed in the sea.
比較例2の網籠は1月毎に海面上に引き上げられ、網籠に付着した海藻を除去したのち、海中に戻される。一方、本実施例および比較例1の網籠も1月毎に海面上に引き上げられるが、海藻の除去は行わず、そのまま海中に戻される。 The net cage of Comparative Example 2 is pulled up to the sea level every month, and after removing the seaweed adhering to the net cage, it is returned to the sea. On the other hand, the net cages of the present example and comparative example 1 are also lifted to the sea surface every month, but the seaweed is not removed and returned to the sea as it is.
以上の処理を施しながら翌年2004年4月25日まで培養し、網籠を引き上げてトサカノリとヒオウギガイを採取した。採取したトサカノリは株数と乾燥重量を、ヒオウギガイについては湿重量と貝殻に付着していたフジツボ類を計測した。ヒオウギガイの培養前後での湿重量から1日あたりの比成長率(r=ln(Δw/Δt)を計算した。これらの測定項目について実施例、比較例1、比較例2で比較した。 While carrying out the above treatment, the culture was continued until April 25, 2004, and the reeds were pulled up to collect Tosakanori and Hiugi Guy. The number of spinach we collected was measured for the number of strains and dry weight, and for the giant clam, wet weight and barnacles attached to the shell were measured. The specific growth rate per day (r = ln (Δw / Δt)) was calculated from the wet weight before and after the cultivation of the snail. These measurement items were compared in Example, Comparative Example 1 and Comparative Example 2.
図4はトサカノリの総乾燥重量を示すグラフであり、図5はトサカノリの平均化部数を示すグラフである。それぞれ、本実施例と比較例1のデータを表示している。 FIG. 4 is a graph showing the total dry weight of Tokakanori, and FIG. 5 is a graph showing the average number of copies of Tokakanori. The data of this example and Comparative Example 1 are displayed respectively.
トサカノリ乾燥重量は比較例1(n=15)に比べ本実施例 (n=14)のほうが有意かつ顕著に増加した。深度間にはトサカノリ収穫量の差が見られなかった。 Compared to Comparative Example 1 (n = 15), this example (n = 14) significantly and significantly increased the dry weight of Tokasori. There was no difference in the crop yield between the depths.
株数についても比較例1(n=15)に比べ本実施例 (n=14)のほうが有意かつ顕著に増加した。株数については、深度間にも差が見られ、水深が深くなるほどトサカノリ株数は有意に増加した。 The number of strains was significantly and significantly increased in this example (n = 14) as compared to Comparative Example 1 (n = 15). Regarding the number of strains, there was also a difference between the depths, and the number of Tosakanori strains increased significantly as the water depth increased.
図6はヒオウギガイの1日当たり比成長率を示すグラフである。本実施例と比較例2のデータを表示している。比較例2より本実施例で若干高い傾向は見られたが、統計的に有意な差は見られなかった。しかし、深度間には有意な差が見られ、培養深度が深くなるほどヒオウギガイの成長率は有意に増加した。 FIG. 6 is a graph showing the specific growth rate per day of the giant snail. The data of the present Example and the comparative example 2 are displayed. Although a slightly higher tendency was observed in this example than in Comparative Example 2, no statistically significant difference was observed. However, there was a significant difference between the depths, and the growth rate of the mussel increased significantly with increasing culture depth.
図7はヒオウギガイに付着していたフジツボ類の数を示すグラフである。本実施例と比較例2のデータを表示している。付着していたフジツボ類の数は、比較例2に比べ本実施例のほうが有意に少なかった。深度間には差が見られなかった。 FIG. 7 is a graph showing the number of barnacles attached to the snail. The data of the present Example and the comparative example 2 are displayed. The number of barnacles adhering was significantly less in this example than in Comparative Example 2. There was no difference between the depths.
これまで、貝類の養殖を行うにあたって、養殖網籠への海藻の付着は養殖対象種の成長へマイナスの効果があると考えられていた。しかし、上述の通り、トサカノリと混合培養したヒオウギガイには貝単独で培養したヒオウギガイと比べて成長率に違いは見られなかった。 Until now, when shellfish were cultivated, the attachment of seaweed to the aquaculture net was considered to have a negative effect on the growth of the species to be cultured. However, as described above, no difference was found in the growth rate of the cypress cultivated with Tokakanori compared to the cypress cultivated with shellfish alone.
その一方で、ヒオウギガイに付着するフジツボ類の数は貝単独で培養したヒオウギガイよりも混合培養したヒオウギガイのほうが少なかった。フジツボ類や管棲ゴカイ類などの付着動物はヒオウギガイにストレスを与えるばかりでなく、それらの商品価値を低下させるため、これらを除去するには相当な時間と労力を必要とした。したがって、フジツボ類の数が減少することによって、人件費を削減でき、商品価値を高めることができる。 On the other hand, the number of barnacles adhering to the snail was less in the mixed cultivated snail than in the snail cultivated alone. Adherent animals such as barnacles and tubeworms not only stress the snails, but also reduce their commercial value, so removing them requires considerable time and effort. Therefore, by reducing the number of barnacles, labor costs can be reduced and the product value can be increased.
また、トサカノリの収穫量は海藻単独で培養するよりも、混合培養することによって増加した。つまり、本発明は二枚貝と混合養殖することでトサカノリの生産量を増大させる効果を有する。本発明は限られた空間及び海洋資源(懸濁有機物と栄養塩)を有効利用することによって生産効率の高い養殖を可能にする。 Moreover, the yield of Tosakanori increased by mixed culture rather than by seaweed alone. That is, this invention has the effect of increasing the production amount of Tosakanori by carrying out mixed culture with a bivalve. The present invention enables highly productive aquaculture by making effective use of limited space and marine resources (suspended organic matter and nutrients).
二枚貝を用いた天然型浄化は、懸濁有機物を餌として成長した二枚貝を陸上に揚げる事により水系の浄化を促す方法である。しかし、従来の浄化法には二枚貝から溶出した栄養塩が一次生産を促進し、懸濁態有機物を増加させると言う負の効果が存在するため、浄化効率は高いとは言い難かった。本実施例において、二枚貝と共に混合培養したトサカノリは海藻単独で培養したものより生産量が高かった。この結果から、トサカノリを二枚貝と混合培養することで、二枚貝から溶出する栄養塩をトサカノリに吸収できることが確認された。 Natural purification using bivalves is a method that promotes the purification of water systems by raising bivalves grown on suspended organic matter to the land. However, the conventional purification method has a negative effect that the nutrient salt eluted from the bivalve promotes primary production and increases suspended organic matter, so it is difficult to say that the purification efficiency is high. In this example, Tosakanori mixed and cultured with bivalves produced higher yields than those cultured with seaweed alone. From this result, it was confirmed that the Tosakanori can absorb the nutrient salt eluted from the bivalve by mixing and cultivating Tosakanori with the bivalve.
また、本実施例で使用した網籠1や養殖用筏6は、真珠養殖などによって広く使用されているものであり、多くの水産業者にとっては新たな設備投資はほとんど必要ない。 Further, the net cage 1 and the aquaculture cage 6 used in the present embodiment are widely used for pearl farming and the like, and a lot of new equipment investment is unnecessary for many fishermen.
本発明は、収穫量の多い海藻養殖方法として利用でき、また、商品価値の高い二枚貝を産出できる二枚貝の養殖方法として利用できる。そして、海藻と二枚貝の両方を収穫できる収益性の高い混合養殖方法として利用できる。二枚貝から排泄物として出される栄養塩による海水の汚染を防止でき、環境によい水産業として実施できる。 INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY The present invention can be used as a seaweed cultivation method with a large yield and can be used as a bivalve cultivation method that can produce bivalves with high commercial value. And it can utilize as a highly profitable mixed culture method which can harvest both seaweed and bivalve. It is possible to prevent the seawater from being contaminated by nutrients that are excreted from the bivalve molluscs, and it can be implemented as an environmentally friendly fishery industry.
混合養殖の施設を示す正面図である。It is a front view which shows the facility of mixed culture. 胞子付着の状況を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the condition of spore adhesion. 養殖用筏を示す斜視図である。It is a perspective view which shows the cage | basket for aquaculture. トサカノリの総乾燥重量を示すグラフである。It is a graph which shows the total dry weight of Tosakanori. トサカノリの平均化部数を示すグラフである。It is a graph which shows the average number of copies of Tosakanori. ヒオウギガイの1日当たり比成長率を示すグラフである。It is a graph which shows the specific growth rate per day of a giant snail. ヒオウギガイに付着していたフジツボ類の数を示すグラフである。It is a graph which shows the number of the barnacles adhering to the giant clam.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
1.網籠
2.二枚貝
3.海藻
4.水槽
5.トサカノリの成熟葉体
6.養殖用筏
1. Net cage 2. 2. bivalves Seaweed 4. 4. Water tank Tosakanori mature leaves Aquaculture

Claims (3)

  1. 網籠の外部で海藻を養殖するとともに、網籠の中で二枚貝を養殖する混合養殖方法。 A mixed culture method in which seaweed is cultivated outside the net cage and bivalves are cultivated in the net cage.
  2. 網籠に海藻の胞子を付着させ、この網籠を海中に吊るして網籠の外部で海藻を養殖させるとともに、網籠の中で二枚貝を養殖する混合養殖方法。 A mixed aquaculture method in which spores of seaweed are attached to the net cage, the net cage is suspended in the sea, and the seaweed is cultured outside the net cage, and the bivalve is cultivated in the net cage.
  3. 網籠にトサカノリの胞子を付着させ、この網籠を海中に吊るして網籠の外部でトサカノリを養殖させるとともに、網籠の中でヒオウギガイを養殖する混合養殖方法。
    A mixed aquaculture method in which spores of Tokakanori are attached to the net cage, the net cage is hung in the sea and the Tokakanori is cultivated outside the net cage, and a giant mussel is cultivated in the net cage.
JP2005247140A 2005-08-29 2005-08-29 Method for policulture of seaweed and bivalve Pending JP2007060910A (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104429903A (en) * 2014-05-15 2015-03-25 浙江海洋学院 Floating type ecological reef
CN111096257A (en) * 2020-02-15 2020-05-05 烟台大学 Three-dimensional comprehensive cultivation method for stichopus japonicus and oysters

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JPH07194270A (en) * 1993-12-30 1995-08-01 Hiroaki Sugiyama Apparatus for culturing shellfishes
JPH0937677A (en) * 1995-07-31 1997-02-10 Ichiro Sakai Preparation of large-scale algal field/sea jungle fish bank complex by tangle and whole year usage of facility
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JP2003000081A (en) * 2001-06-22 2003-01-07 Yasushi Takioka Method for meristotheca papulosa farming

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104429903A (en) * 2014-05-15 2015-03-25 浙江海洋学院 Floating type ecological reef
CN104429903B (en) * 2014-05-15 2016-07-06 浙江海洋学院 Formula of drifting along ecologic reef
CN111096257A (en) * 2020-02-15 2020-05-05 烟台大学 Three-dimensional comprehensive cultivation method for stichopus japonicus and oysters

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