GB2432896A - A penetrating shell produced from a shaped charge - Google Patents

A penetrating shell produced from a shaped charge Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2432896A
GB2432896A GB0624032A GB0624032A GB2432896A GB 2432896 A GB2432896 A GB 2432896A GB 0624032 A GB0624032 A GB 0624032A GB 0624032 A GB0624032 A GB 0624032A GB 2432896 A GB2432896 A GB 2432896A
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United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
shell
lining
charge
penetrating
awm
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GB0624032A
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GB2432896B (en
GB0624032D0 (en
Inventor
Werner Arnold
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TDW VERTEIDIGUNGSTECH WIRKSYS
TDW Gesellschaft fuer Verteidigungstechnische Wirksysteme mbH
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TDW VERTEIDIGUNGSTECH WIRKSYS
TDW Gesellschaft fuer Verteidigungstechnische Wirksysteme mbH
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Priority to DE200510057254 priority Critical patent/DE102005057254B4/en
Application filed by TDW VERTEIDIGUNGSTECH WIRKSYS, TDW Gesellschaft fuer Verteidigungstechnische Wirksysteme mbH filed Critical TDW VERTEIDIGUNGSTECH WIRKSYS
Publication of GB0624032D0 publication Critical patent/GB0624032D0/en
Publication of GB2432896A publication Critical patent/GB2432896A/en
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B1/00Explosive charges characterised by form or shape but not dependent on shape of container
    • F42B1/02Shaped or hollow charges
    • F42B1/024Shaped or hollow charges provided with embedded bodies of inert material
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B1/00Explosive charges characterised by form or shape but not dependent on shape of container
    • F42B1/02Shaped or hollow charges
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B1/00Explosive charges characterised by form or shape but not dependent on shape of container
    • F42B1/02Shaped or hollow charges
    • F42B1/028Shaped or hollow charges characterised by the form of the liner
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/02Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect
    • F42B12/04Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect of armour-piercing type
    • F42B12/06Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect of armour-piercing type with hard or heavy core; Kinetic energy penetrators

Abstract

An active charge HE is provided for producing a penetrating shell P that includes an expanding material AWM consisting of a material having low compressibility that is ballistically almost ineffective in the target and of at least one jacket M radially surrounding the expanding material and consisting of a further material that is ballistically effective in the target. The shell is formed by the explosive HE which on detonation shapes and binds the core AWM and jacket M. The materials of the core AWM and of the jacket M differ with respect to their density so that on impact the low-density material of the core expands and scatters the jacket. In a further embodiment, an active charge L in an initial state includes a structural member B aligned in the direction of propagation of the detonating charge. The member B is destined to form the core AWM in the penetrating shell which is formed by the explosive HE which on detonation shapes and binds the core AWM and jacket M.

Description

<p>Penetrating shell and process The invention relates to a penetrating
shell with a rod-shaped core consisting of a material having low compressibility that is ballistically almost ineffective in the target and with at least one jacket radially surrounding the core and consisting of a further material that is ballistically effective in the target, the materials of the core and of the jacket differing distinctly with respect to their density, and also to a process for producing a penetrating shell in situ, the shell consisting of differing materials using an active charge with a shaped lining that exhibits at least one layer of a first material that is suitable for target penetration.</p>
<p>Shells or warheads are basically designed in such a way that they unleash a specific effect that is as great as possible in the respective target. Hence a high piercing power or an effect that is as planar as possible for the purpose of increasing the efficiency is striven for, depending on the field of application. As long as targets are able to be assigned to hard or easy target classes, it is sufficient to design the shells or warheads accordingly.</p>
<p>However, so-called hardened target objects are increasingly appearing, the engagement of which necessitates a relatively high piercing power. In the interior of the target the projectile that is necessary for piercing the external surface of the target produces a destructive effect only in a spatially very limited region. From this, the requirement arises that the shell, in addition to its piercing power, is also to unleash a certain lateral effect in the target. This has resulted in the development of a new type of shell.</p>
<p>From DE 197 00 349 C2 a shell for engaging armour-plated targets has become known that is able to satisfy the aforementioned requirements. The rod-shaped shell consists * 2 of a jacket that is advantageously manufactured from metal or heavy metal. The interior space is filled out by a so-called expanding medium (AWM) which is selected from a number of suitable media that exhibit specific properties.</p>
<p>A distinctly lower density than the material of the jacket is necessary, and at the same time a low compressibility.</p>
<p>Polyethylene (PE), glass-fibre-reinforced plastic (GFRP) and also aluminium are named as examples of such materials.</p>
<p>The special design of shells of such a type depends on parameters such as target material and actual impact velocity, but also on the desired expansion effect.</p>
<p>The operating principle of such a penetrating shell, which in specialist circles is designated as a PELE penetrator (Eenetrator with enhanced lateral effect), is described in detail in the printed publication and will therefore only be briefly elucidated here. After target impact, the penetrating shell is decelerated from the impact velocity to the so-called crater-bottom velocity. The latter depends, in the case of impact velocities starting from about 2000 m/sec, merely on the ratio of the densities of shell material and target material. But since the core of the shell consists of an AWN having lower density than the jacket, the crater-bottom velocity of the AWM is lower than that of the jacket. As a result, a displacement of the two materials relative to one another occurs in such a manner that the AWN is pushed into the jacket. Since the AWM is only slightly compressible, a high pressure builds up which finally brings about the disintegration of the jacket. At the time of disintegration a lateral velocity component is additionally imposed on the splinters that are produced, which deflects the splinters in the radial direction.</p>
<p>A significant disadvantage of the PELE penetrator consists in the fact that an appropriate accelerator -such as a cannon, for example -is necessary for its acceleration.</p>
<p>As a result, because of the limits the system the maximum attainable velocity is also limited in the upward direction to values of the order of magnitude of about 2000 rn/sec. * 3</p>
<p>The object underlying the invention is therefore to develop a comparable penetrating shell that, on the one hand, does not require an accelerator of such a type and that, on the other hand, can be accelerated to velocities within the range 1500-9000 rn/sec.</p>
<p>According to the invention the penetrating shell, consisting of a first part of a lining of an active charge, and the jacket of the penetrating shell, consisting of at least one further part of the lining arranged adjacent to the first part, are capable of being shaped by means of the triggering of the active charge and connected to one another, with the first part of the lining bearing totally against the explosive charge of the active charge.</p>
<p>Consequently a principle is employed that is similar to the formation of a spike in a hollow charge. According to embodiments of the present invention, the process of formation of the penetrating shell is set in motion by means of the detonative triggering of the active charge, by the lining being accelerated in the direction of fire, beginning in the central region of the active charge, the core and the jacket of the penetrating shell being formed from the first part and the further part of the lining and being simultaneously firmly connected or bonded to one another or compressed around the axis to form the penetrating shell. The penetrating shell is simultaneously accelerated to a velocity from 1500 rn/sec up to 9000 rn/sec.</p>
<p>One configuration of the invention consists in that at least one further part of the lining forming the jacket of the projectile P in the initial state partially overlaps the first part of the lining. Hence it is ensured that the core material -that is to say, the AWM -is always surrounded by jacket material.</p>
<p>A further configuration of the invention consists in that the further part of the lining consists of segments or sectors. Consequently the penetrating shell can be varied in diverse ways with regard to its design in cross-section. * 4</p>
<p>In this connection the choice of the variants may be extended by making the segments or sectors of differing materials.</p>
<p>According to a variant of the solution, in the initial state of the active charge a structural member aligned in the direction of propagation of the detonating active charge is arranged in the centre of a lining of the active charge, this structural member being arranged as a core in the penetrating shell that is shaped by means of the triggering of the active charge, and according to which the jacket of the penetrating shell, consisting of at least one part of the lining of the active charge, is shaped as the active charge is detonated and is connected to the core.</p>
<p>In this variant, the core of the penetrating shell is already predetermined as a structural member and, after detonative triggering of the active charge has occurred, connects itself to the jacket material originating from the lining so as to form the desired penetrating shell which is likewise accelerated to a velocity from 1500 rn/sec up to 9000 rn/sec.</p>
<p>The structural member forming the core of the penetrating shell optionally exhibits the shape of a rod or a plate.</p>
<p>Hence it is ensured that by means of the invention not only rotationally symmetrical penetrating shells can be produced but that plate-like penetrating shells can also be formed by means of an active charge that has been stretched perpendicular to the direction of fire. Consequently it is possible for the range of application of the invention to be significantly extended.</p>
<p>Moreover, it is possible for at least one part of the active charge to be triggered for the purpose of shaping the core and the jacket of the penetrating shell. This can be useful in special applications, particularly if parts of the active charge are to be triggered in temporally staggered manner. * 5</p>
<p>The arrangement in which at least one further part of the lining forming the jacket in the initial state of the active charge is arranged adjacent to the fir5t part of the lining serves to provide an extended design option for the penetrating shell.</p>
<p>It is advantageous if the further part of the lining consists of segments or sectors of the same material or of differing materials. Hence the penetrating shell with this type of construction can be varied in diverse manner with regard to its design in cross-section.</p>
<p>An interesting variant of the penetrating shell arises if the shape of the surface of the structural member forming the core is formed in a manner reciprocally matching the contour of the lining corresponding in each instance to the structural member. Hence it is possible to form the dividing line between the core and the jacket of the penetrating shell also in a stepped manner, in order thereby to adapt the properties of the penetrating shell at the time of target impact.</p>
<p>The invention also relates to a method for producing a penetrating shell consisting of differing materials using an active charge with a lining exhibiting at least two layers of material, of which the layer facing away from the explosive charge consists of a first material that is suitable for target penetration and the adjacent layer consists of a second material that is largely ineffective in the target and that has low compressibility and lower density than the first material, wherein by means of initiation of the active charge the shell is shaped in such a manner that the first material surrounds the second material and is fixed or bonded to the latter, the shaping of the shell, beginning from the centre of the lining, including all the layers of the lining material, and the charge energy being used for the purpose of accelerating the shell to velocities within the range from 1500, preferably 2000 rn/sec to 9000 rn/sec.</p>
<p>In favourable manner, a conical, pyramidal or roof-shaped lining is used for the detonative shaping of the penetrating shell, so that the penetrating shell that is produced can be shaped in diverse ways.</p>
<p>With respect to the variable dimensioning of the penetrating shell, it is advantageous if the first material surrounds a part of the second material.</p>
<p>In a further aspect there is provided a process for producing a penetrating shell consisting of differing materials using an active charge with a shaped lining that exhibits at least one layer of a first material that is suitable for target penetration and also a structural member that is fastened in the region of the central axis of the lining and that consists of a second material that is largely ineffective in the target and that is distinguished by low compressibility and lower density than the first material, wherein by means of initiation of the active charge the shell is shaped in such a manner that the first material surrounds the second material and is firmly connected to the latter, the shaping of the shell, beginning from the centre of the lining, including the entire lining material, and proportionate charge energy being used for the purpose of accelerating the shell to velocities within the range from 1500, preferably 2000 rn/s to 9000 rn/s.</p>
<p>In this connection it is advantageous if use is made of a structural member in the form of a rod or a plate. Hence both rotationally symmetrical and plate-like penetrating shells can be produced.</p>
<p>Particularly advantageous is the use of at least one further layer of a further material that is suitable for target penetration and that is introduced between the second material and the explosive charge. By this means, a penetrating shell can be produced that exhibits in the interior a penetrating core which is surrounded by the expanding material, around which the jacket consisting of a material having higher density than the AWM material is finally laid. This concept combines good penetrating properties with high lateral performance.</p>
<p>For a better understanding of the invention, embodiments of it will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: Fig. 1: shows the principle of action of a penetrating shell in accordance with the invention, Fig. 2: shows a hollow charge (PELE) with a two-layer lining for producing a penetrating shell, Fig. 3: shows a hollow charge (PELE) with a segmented lining, Fig. 4: shows a hollow charge (PELE) with an angled segmented lining, Fig. 5: shows a hollow charge (PELE) with a multilayer lining, Fig. 6: shows a hemispherical charge (PELE) for producing a penetrating shell, Fig. 7: shows an EFP charge (PELE) for producing an EFP projectile, Fig. 8: shows an EFF charge according to Fig. 7 with a multilayer lining, Fig. 9: shows an EFF charge with metal structures integrated within the lining, Fig. 10: shows a structured shell produced by means of the charge from Fig. 9, Fig. 11: shows a sandwich charge with central initiation and with a central structural member, Fig. 12: shows a sandwich charge with planar initiation and with a central structural member.</p>
<p>Fig. 13: shows a sandwich charge according to Fig. 12 with a multilayer lining, Fig. 14: shows a sandwich charge with a multi-component, stepped lining and with a central expanding medium shaped in reciprocally matching manner.</p>
<p>The principle of operation of a penetrating shell produced in accordance with the present invention, called a PELE rod (penetrator with enhanced lateral effect having the shape of a rod) for short in specialist circles, will be elucidated briefly on the basis of Figure 1, in which the processes at the time of impact of a penetrating shell at velocity v on a target Z are represented. During the penetration the shell is decelerated in known manner to the crater-bottom velocity, which substantially depends only on the ratio of the densities of the materials of the target Z and the shell consisting of core AWN and jacket H. But since the core of the shell consists of an expanding material, called AWN for short, having a lower density than the jacket H, the crater-bottom velocity of the AWN is also lower than that of the jacket H. As a result, a relative displacement between the two materials is brought about; this means that the AWN is pushed into the jacket H. But since the AWM is also only slightly compressible, in its interior a high (hydrodynamic) pressure builds up which finally brings about the disintegration of the jacket M. Disintegration may be effected into natural splinters with purely random size distribution, or into defined splinter sizes by means of controlled disintegration. At the time of the disintegration, besides the existing axial velocity V a lateral velocity VL is additionally imposed onto the splinters that are produced, and consequently a not inconsiderable lateral effect is achieved.</p>
<p>According to embodiments of the invention, a penetrating shell of such a type is produced in situ, as it were, with the aid of the detonation of an active charge and is simultaneously accelerated to a velocity from 1500 rn/sec to 9000 rn/sec. Useable types of active charge are, in addition to the hollow charges, also EFP (explosively formed projectile) charges and hemispherical charges.</p>
<p>Different projectile shapes and performances can be produced by means of appropriate design of the individual types of active charge.</p>
<p>In accordance with the manner of designation that is customary in specialist circles, the active charges represented in Figures 2 to 6 are designated as hollow charge with enhanced lateral effect, HELE for short (= HL-HELE).</p>
<p>Figure 2 shows an HL-HELE charge before firing. It differs from the known hollow charges in that the lining exhibits, in addition to the material N forming the jacket M of the shell P after the detonation of the active or operative charge, also the expanding material AWM as a further layer of the lining, which in this example extends over the entire lining N and is arranged between the lining M and the explosive charge HE, in each instance in contact in planar manner. The initiation of the active charge is effected via the ignition device ZD which is constructed in multiple stages in a known manner.</p>
<p>Since the formation of the projectile is effected in accordance with the principles of the known hollow charge, the parts of the shell arising in succession have differing velocities. This has the result that in the near distance the shell P is still homogeneous, in the medium distance range it begins to separate in the region of its point, and at a greater distance it finally flies in the direction of the target in the form of a particulated shell PP. The velocities in the case of the shell particles range from up to 9000 rn/sec to about 2000 rn/sec in the tail region of the shell.</p>
<p>In connection with the dimensioning of an HL-HELE charge, in contrast to the conventional hollow charge other parameters have a determining influence. In particular, the lining angle a and the wall thickness of the lining diverge from the classical design. Both parameters are chosen to be larger than in the conventional hollow charge.</p>
<p>An angle of 600 and a wall thickness of the lining of about 1.5 nun would be typical in the case of a copper lining. In appropriate circumstances the detonation-wave guide DWL, which has been drawn with a dashed line, may be dispensed with.</p>
<p>Polyethylene, aluminium or glass-fibre-reinforced plastic enter into consideration in known manner for the expanding material AWM, but so do other plastics or metals having low density and low compressibility. For the lining material M, use may be made of known materials such as, for example, copper, tantalum, molybdenum, bismuth and also corresponding alloys. However, with respect to the conventional design guidelines for hollow charges it always has to be ensured that the density of the AWM is lower than that of the lining material, with low compressibility being required at the same time. As a rule, HL-HELE charges are not designed for great depth performances but rather for moderate target thicknesses, though with enhanced lateral effect.</p>
<p>In Figure 3 a variant with respect to Figure 2 is shown wherein the lining of the active charge is subdivided into two segments Ml and M2. It is also entirely possible to use more than two segments. The individual segments may differ both with regard to their material and with regard to their geometry, in particular their wall thickness. The layer of the expanding material AWN in this example leaves the central region of the lining free. This means that in this region the lining behaves like that of a conventional hollow charge. Since the detonation front strikes this region first after the initiation of the active charge, the spike PS that forms -as shown in the right half of Figure 3 -rushes ahead of the actual penetrating shell P. The spike therefore consists only of the lining material N1, whereas the penetrating shell lagging behind is formed from the expanding material AWN and the further lining material M2. Both shells can be optimised in their design with respect to the type of target to be engaged. In the * 11 target the spike PS generates a crater whose diameter is large enough to accept the pursuing penetrating shell without undesirable wall contacts occurring. The pursuing penetrating shell pierces the remaining target thickness and generates the desired lateral effect behind the wall of the target.</p>
<p>A similar configuration of the invention is represented in Figure 4. In addition to the wall thicknesses of the lining, here the angles a1., a2 of the lining are different.</p>
<p>Since both parameters -wall thickness and angles -influence the velocity of the spike and of the penetrating shell, both parameters offer, separately by themselves or, as shown, combined, a flexible option for disintegrating the projectile that is produced into a conventional part forging ahead and a pursuing HL-HELE shell.</p>
<p>An embodiment as represented in Figure 5 on the basis of an HL-HELE charge with a multilayer lining can combine an intensified depth effect and a lateral effect. The lining consists of two lining layers M1 and M2 extending roughly parallel to one another, between which a layer of expanding material AWN is located. This form is to be regarded as an example; extended designs can be realised in accordance with the invention. As a consequence of the initiation of the active charge by means of the ignition device ZD, an extending HL-HELE shell P arises having a central metal core N2 and having an enveloping expanding material AWM and, above that, a further metal jacket Mi. The central core preferably consists of a material having very high density (for example, Ta or W alloys), and it therefore displays high depth performance.</p>
<p>Borrowing from the nomenclature of the PELE charge, with the aid of Figure 6 a hemispherical charge with enhanced lateral effect, called HELE for short (= Nemi-HELE), will be presented in the following. In this charge the lining is shaped like a hollow hemisphere -a design which, with respect to its properties, lies between the hollow charge and the EFP charge. The lining consists of a material layer M, which later forms the jacket of the penetrating shell F, and of the expanding material AWM in contact thereon, which in turn totally contacts the explosive charge HE. The production of the penetrating shell proceeds in a manner very similar to that in the case of the HL-HELE shell described above. For the dimensioning the same guidelines apply as in the case of an HL-HELE shell, for which reason a detailed description of the production and the dimensioning will be dispensed with.</p>
<p>Figure 7 shows a further embodiment of an active charge for producing a penetrating shell according to the invention.</p>
<p>This embodiment is also given a corresponding designation, borrowing from the nomenclature relating to the PELE charge. Derived from the conventional EFP charge, it is designated as an EFP charge with enhanced lateral effect, EFFELE for short. The EFPELE charge represents, at 1500-2000 m/sec, the lower velocity segment of the penetrating shells according to the invention and consequently constitutes a transition to the known PELE projectiles.</p>
<p>The realisation of an EFPELE charge based on the known EFF charge is shown in Figure 7. To the conventional EFP lining M the layer of expanding material AWM has been added in accordance with the invention. A detonation-wave guide DWL may optionally be employed.</p>
<p>The design of the active charge has to be effected in such a way that the expanding material AWM is integrated coaxially within the projectile P which is produced. By virtue of the reshaping process or inverting process known from EFP technology, in this type of charge the desired EFFELE projectile is formed in the manner as indicated in Figure 7 at the consecutive points in time t1, t2 and t3.</p>
<p>What has already been said above applies to the design and the selection of the materials in the case of the EFFELE charge. The EFF lining materials AWM may be selected, analogously to the HL, taking the EFF and PELE technology * 13 into consideration. Typical EFP materials M are pure iron (Armco iron), copper and tantalum, combined with the aforementioned AWN materials having low density and low compressibility.</p>
<p>A further variant according to the invention consists, in accordance with the representation sketched in Figure 8, in that a further lining layer M1 is inserted between the explosive charge HE and the expanding material AWN. As a result, after the initiation of the active charge an EFPELE projectile arises which additionally exhibits a core projectile. For this, use is preferably made of a material having high density, such as, *for example, bismuth, depleted uranium or corresponding alloys. As a result, a combination of high depth performance, with the aid of the core projectile, and enhanced lateral effect, by means of the enveloping PELE projectile, is obtained.</p>
<p>A further advantageous configuration of the EFPELE charge is reproduced in simplified manner in Figures 9 and 10.</p>
<p>The concentric core of the PELE penetrating shell P consisting of expanding material AWN may be supplemented by further structures. Proposed are, for example, four bars or rods S embedded in the expanding material AWN in symmetrical arrangement, as can be readily discerned in the view A-A in Figure 9. These structures additionally contribute as sub-projectiles to the depth performance of the penetrating shell P. By integration of rod-shaped metal structures S of such a type into the rear AWN lining, as shown in Figure 10 in the form of an embodiment, it can be ensured that after the detonative reshaping these structures are likewise embedded in a symmetrical manner in the core of the expanding material AWM of the EFFELE projectile. Arbitrary structural shapings of arrangements of such a type are conceivable, which result in the formation of differing sub-projectiles. * 14</p>
<p>A new embodiment of an active charge producing a penetrating shell is represented in Figures 11 to 14 on the basis of exemplary embodiments, without the realisation according to the present invention being restricted solely thereto. Borrowing from the nomenclature used hitherto, the sandwich active charge described here is called a sandwich charge with enhanced lateral effect, SELE for short.</p>
<p>In igure 11 a first embodiment of a different type is shown in the form of a sandwich charge. The active charge L which has been drawn in two dimensions may be configured as a rotationally symmetrical, oval, pyramidal or even grooved planar active charge. As a rule, the aperture angle of the lining M is smaller than in the PELE charges or HELE charges presented hitherto.</p>
<p>Here the expanding material AWN is arranged as an independent structural member B on the axis of symmetry and axis of fire of the lining M, and is fastened in the centre of the lining N. Depending on the design of the active charge L, the structural member B is shaped as a rod or as a plate having finite but arbitrary depth. The metallic lining N is likewise constructed either as a round cap or in the form of two plates. The explosive charge HE extends substantially parallel to the lining M and exhibits at the vertex an igniter ZD. After triggering of the igniter, the detonation front spreads out along the flanks of the active charge, as represented in the Figure by a dashed line and arrows.</p>
<p>The process of formation of a penetrating shell P proceeds otherwise than in the case of the collapse of a hollow charge or in the case of a reshaping or inversion, as in an EFP charge. Rather, in this case the process of so-called cladding is employed, wherein two corresponding plates or comparable structures are shot at one another at high velocity at a predetermined angle by means of initiation of the explosive charge HE. At the time of the collision, a * 15 narrow and well adhering connection arises at the surface of contact, since a local hydrodynamic interf lowing of the materials takes place by reason of the high pressures that are generated. This process takes place in like manner also in the case of rotationally symmetrical linings, for</p>
<p>example.</p>
<p>As an alternative to the grazing propagation of the detonation front along the lining, which is shown in Figure 11, a planar triggering ZF of a detonation front, as shown in Figure 12, may also be employed. For this, an appropriate planar initiation system is required such as has become known from the so-called plane-wave generator.</p>
<p>By virtue of the collision of the parts of the lining material on the central structural member B consisting of the expanding material AWM, the two are intimately connected to one another either to form a rod-shaped SELE penetrating shell in the rotationally symmetrical version or to form an SELE plate in the planar version, and by means of the axial velocitycomponent are simultaneously given a high velocity in the direction of the target. The level of this velocity v (see Figure 1) can be chosen and adjusted via the angle a of the sandwich charge. With regard to the selection of the lining material M, the same principles apply as in the variants presented above.</p>
<p>An example of an advantageous configuration of a SELE charge is reproduced in Figure 13. In this case it is proposed to manufacture the central structural member B from a material H1 of high density, in order by this means to obtain in the penetrating shell P that is produced a core that has a greater depth effect in the target. The expanding material AWM and the material M2 for the production of the jacket of the penetrating shell P are provided as layers of the lining of the sandwich charge which are arranged in parallel. The active charge itself is advantageously initiated, like the example in Figure 12, by means of a planar initiation system ZF.</p>
<p>Figure 14 shows a further variant of the proposed sandwich charges. In this case the central structural member B is stepped in two or more, here three, regions. The thickness of the lining layer is constructed in reciprocally matching, correspondingly stepped manner M1, M2, M3. The expanding layers AWM13 correspond. In which direction the gradation is effected, or which materials are to be employed for the expanding material AWM in the particular case, or whether instead of a gradation a continuous change in thickness is more favourable, is left to the decision of a person skilled in the art. It also lies within the scope of expert activity to combine details of the embodiments proposed as examples skilfully with one another.</p>

Claims (1)

  1. <p>Claims 1. A penetrating shell with, in its operative state, a
    rod-shaped core consisting of a material (AWM) having low compressibility and with at least one jacket (H) radially surrounding the core and consisting of a further material that is ballistically effective in the target, the materials of the core and of the jacket differing in density, characterj3ed in that the shell further includes an active charge (HE), and the core (AWM, B) of the penetrating shell (P), consisting initially of a first part (AWM) of a lining of an active charge, and the jacket of the penetrating shell (F), consisting of at least one further part (N, Ml, M2) of the lining arranged adjacent to the first part, are adapted to be shaped and connected to one another by means of the triggering of the active charge.</p>
    <p>2. A penetrating shell according to claim 1, in which the first part (AWM) of the lining bears completely against the explosive charge (HE) of the active charge.</p>
    <p>3. A penetrating shell according to claim 1 or 2, in which at least one further part (M2) of the lining forming the jacket in the initial state partially overlaps the first part (AWN) of the lining.</p>
    <p>4. A penetrating shell according to any preceding claim, in which the further part of the lining consists of segments or sectors CS).</p>
    <p>5. A penetrating shell according to claim 4, in which the segments or sectors (S) consist of differing materials.</p>
    <p>6. A penetrating shell with a rod-shaped core consisting of a material (AWM) having low compressibility and with at least one jacket CM) radially surrounding the core and consisting of a further material that is ballistically effective in the target, the materials of the core and of the jacket differing in density, characterised in that the shell also includes an active charge (L) and in the initial state a structural member (B) aligned in the direction of propagation of the detonating active charge and destined to form the core (AWM) in the penetrating shell is arranged in the centre of a lining of the active charge (L), and in that the jacket (M) of the penetrating shell, formed initially by at least a part of the lining of the active charge, is adapted to be shaped and connected to the core (AWM) when the active charge (L) is triggered.</p>
    <p>7. A penetrating shell according to claim 6, in which the structural member (B) exhibits the shape of a rod or a plate.</p>
    <p>8. A penetrating shell according to claim 6 or 7, in which for the purpose of shaping the core (AWM) and the jacket (M) of the penetrating shell (F) at least one part of the active charge (L) is capable of being triggered.</p>
    <p>9. A penetrating shell according to any of claims 6 to 8, in which at least one further part (M2) of the lining forming the jacket in the initial state of the active charge is arranged adjacent to the first part (AWM) of the lining.</p>
    <p>10. A penetrating shell according to claim 9, in which the further part CM2) of the lining consists of segments or sectors of the same material or of differing materials. * 19</p>
    <p>11. A penetrating shell according to any of claims 6 to 10, in which the shape of the surface of the structural member (B) is formed in a manner matching the contour of the lining (Mi, M2, M3) corresponding to the structural member (B).</p>
    <p>12. A process for producing a penetrating shell consisting of differing materials using an active charge with a lining that exhibits at least two layers of material, of which the layer facing away from the explosive charge (HE) consists of a first material (M) that is suitable for target penetration and the layer adjacent to the explosive charge (HE) consists of a second material (AWM) that has low compressibility and lower density than the first material and that is largely ineffective in the target, wherein by means of initiation of the active charge the shell (F) is shaped in such a manner that the first material (N) surrounds and binds to the second material (AWN), the shaping of the shell, beginning from the centre of the lining, includes the entire lining material, and the charge energy is used for the purpose of accelerating the shell to velocities within the range 1500 rn/sec to 9000 in/sec.</p>
    <p>13. A process for producing a penetrating shell, in particular according to claim 12, in which a conical, pyramidal or roof-shaped lining is used for the detonative shaping of the penetrating shell.</p>
    <p>14. A process according to claim 12 or 13, characterised in that the first material (M) surrounds a part of the second material (AWM).</p>
    <p>15. A process for producing a penetrating shell consisting of differing materials using an active charge (L) with a shaped lining that exhibits at least one layer CM) of a first material that is suitable for target penetration and also a structural member (B) fastened in the region of the central axis of the lining and * 20 consisting of a second material (AWM) that is largely ineffective in the target and that is distinguished by low compressibility and lower density than the first material, wherein by means of initiation of the active charge (L) the shell (P) is shaped detonatively in such a way that the first material (M) surrounds and binds to the second material (AWM), wherein the shaping of the shell, beginning from the centre of the lining, includes the entire lining material, and the charge energy is used for the purpose of accelerating the shell to velocities within the range from 1500 m/s to 9000 rn/s.</p>
    <p>16. A process according to claim 15, in which the structural member (B) is in the form of a rod or a plate.</p>
    <p>17. A process according to claim 15 or 16, in which the lining is conical or pyramidal or grooved.</p>
    <p>18. A process according to any of claims 15 to 17, in which at least one further layer (M1) consisting of a further material that is suitable for target penetration is introduced between the second material and the explosive charge.</p>
    <p>19. A shell subnsantially as described with reference to any of the attached drawings.</p>
GB0624032A 2005-12-01 2006-11-30 Penetrating shell and process Active GB2432896B (en)

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DE102006061445B4 (en) 2006-12-23 2008-09-18 TDW Gesellschaft für verteidigungstechnische Wirksysteme mbH penetration Levels

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US6659013B1 (en) * 1997-01-08 2003-12-09 Futurec Ag C/O Beeler + Beeler Treuhand Ag Projectile or war-head

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DE3144354C1 (en) * 1981-11-07 1991-01-03 Rheinmetall Gmbh Insert for an explosive charge to form an essentially rod-shaped projectile
DE3638101C1 (en) * 1986-11-07 1999-03-18 Diehl Stiftung & Co Projectile and splitter forming charge
DE3638798C1 (en) * 1986-11-13 2002-02-28 Diehl Stiftung & Co Multi-layer insert for shaped charges against concrete targets, in particular flight runways
FR2655719B1 (en) * 1989-12-07 1994-05-06 Etat Francais Delegue Armement Explosive charge generating multiple cores and / or jets.
FR2681677B1 (en) * 1991-09-20 1995-01-27 Thomson Brandt Armements Explosive charge with coating with distributed mechanical properties.
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GB2432896B (en) 2009-08-05
GB0624032D0 (en) 2007-01-10
FR2894331A1 (en) 2007-06-08
DE102005057254A1 (en) 2007-06-06
FR2894331B1 (en) 2012-05-25
DE102005057254B4 (en) 2007-07-26

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