GB1082128A - Transducer - Google Patents

Transducer

Info

Publication number
GB1082128A
GB1082128A GB1759865A GB1759865A GB1082128A GB 1082128 A GB1082128 A GB 1082128A GB 1759865 A GB1759865 A GB 1759865A GB 1759865 A GB1759865 A GB 1759865A GB 1082128 A GB1082128 A GB 1082128A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
plates
plate
3b
transducers
transducer
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
GB1759865A
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Northrop Grumman Corp
Original Assignee
Northrop Grumman Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US39568464 priority Critical patent/US3403234A/en
Application filed by Northrop Grumman Corp filed Critical Northrop Grumman Corp
Publication of GB1082128A publication Critical patent/GB1082128A/en
Application status is Expired legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04RLOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS
    • H04R19/00Electrostatic transducers
    • H04R19/04Microphones
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D5/00Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable
    • G01D5/12Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means
    • G01D5/14Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means influencing the magnitude of a current or voltage
    • G01D5/24Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable using electric or magnetic means influencing the magnitude of a current or voltage by varying capacitance
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01GWEIGHING
    • G01G3/00Weighing apparatus characterised by the use of elastically-deformable members, e.g. spring balances
    • G01G3/12Weighing apparatus characterised by the use of elastically-deformable members, e.g. spring balances wherein the weighing element is in the form of a solid body stressed by pressure or tension during weighing
    • G01G3/16Weighing apparatus characterised by the use of elastically-deformable members, e.g. spring balances wherein the weighing element is in the form of a solid body stressed by pressure or tension during weighing measuring variations of frequency of oscillations of the body
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L1/00Measuring force or stress, in general
    • G01L1/14Measuring force or stress, in general by measuring variations in capacitance or inductance of electrical elements, e.g. by measuring variations of frequency of electrical oscillators
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L5/00Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes
    • G01L5/14Apparatus for, or methods of, measuring force, work, mechanical power, or torque, specially adapted for specific purposes for measuring the force of explosions; for measuring the energy of projectiles
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04RLOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS
    • H04R19/00Electrostatic transducers
    • H04R19/02Loudspeakers

Abstract

1,082,128. Capacitor transducers. NORTHROP CORPORATION. April 27, 1965 [Sept. 11, 1964], No. 17598/65. Heading H4J. [Also in Division H2] A loud-speaker, hydrophone, microphone (e.g. for blast wave studies) or other transducer comprises opposed elements of electrically conductive material joined by an intermediary of compressible cellular foamed electrically non- conductive material, of uniform thickness, intimately bonded to the confronted surfaces of the elements. The bond is free of voids and the opposed elements are initially unstressed. The foamed material may have open cells, but closed cells permit good response at low frequencies. Suitable foams are of natural rubber, silicone rubber or neoprene. A capacitor microphone 1 (Fig. 1) comprises aluminium plates 2, 3a, 3b maintained in a parallel array by sheets 5, 6 of foamed material. The foamed material is homogeneous and is devoid of air bubbles, wrinkles or gaps at the interfaces. Epoxy resin adhesives, transfer papers, double-sided pressure-sensitive adhesive tape or, for neoprene, a neoprene solution may be used for the bond. Alternatively the foamed material may be intrinsically adhesive. The outer plates 3a, 3b may be larger than the inner plate 2 and the sheets 5, 6 may be coextensive with, or extend beyond, the inner plate 2. The plates 3a, 3b are preferably bonded together by an edge member (3c), Fig. 2 (not shown), of aluminium, copper or conductive epoxy resin. Member (3c) may extend along more than one edge and may frame the plate 2 completely, provided the plates 3a, 3b are able to move parallel to the plate 2 in response to pressure differences. An insulated conductor (7) connected to the plate 2 is brought out through an aperture in the member (3c) and a coaxial shielding conductor (8) is connected to the outer plates 3a, 3b. The transducer may be formed of an inner plate 2 with a single outer plate (3), Fig. 4 (not shown), wrapped around it and joined at the ends to complete the shielding. Foamed material (9) is wrapped around the plate 2 or formed in situ. For omnidirectional response the plates 2, 3 and foamed sheet may be in the form of concentric spheres (Fig. 5, not shown). For greater directionality, e.g. to cover a stage, the plates may be curved, Fig. 6 (not shown). Flat, circular transducers, non-directional below 10 c/s., and directional transducers comprising flat plates 1000 feet by 1 foot are envisaged. Large transducers may be made of small transducers electrically, but not mechanically, connected in parallel. Local circuit.-When used as a microphone, the grid voltage of a triode T is controlled by the capacitance of the transducer 1. A polarizing voltage is applied at terminal B1. The circuit components are selected for optimum performance in the frequency range ¢ c/s. to 5 c/s. Alternatively the transducer is excited by a varying voltage applied across the plates to produce an acoustic output.
GB1759865A 1964-09-11 1965-04-27 Transducer Expired GB1082128A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US39568464 US3403234A (en) 1964-09-11 1964-09-11 Acoustic transducer

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB1082128A true GB1082128A (en) 1967-09-06

Family

ID=23564060

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB1759865A Expired GB1082128A (en) 1964-09-11 1965-04-27 Transducer

Country Status (3)

Country Link
US (1) US3403234A (en)
DE (1) DE1462179B2 (en)
GB (1) GB1082128A (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2800844A1 (en) * 1977-01-21 1978-07-27 Semperit Gmbh Capacitor and method for performing a measurement of forces
DE10149165A1 (en) * 2001-10-04 2003-04-30 Bircher Ag Beringen Method for producing a sensor element, in particular a switching element
CN102183293A (en) * 2011-03-01 2011-09-14 中国船舶重工集团公司第七一五研究所 Large-area sheet-type vector hydrophone

Families Citing this family (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3881425A (en) * 1973-05-30 1975-05-06 Georgia Tech Res Inst Pump for use in a capsule transport pipeline
NL7512512A (en) * 1975-10-27 1977-04-29 Bernardus Gradus Peters Method and apparatus for the manufacture of an electrostatic speaker.
DE3523104A1 (en) * 1985-06-28 1987-01-22 Leybold Heraeus Gmbh & Co Kg Arrangement having a measuring electrode to which are assigned at fixed distances a first and a second field-generating electrode
US4955059A (en) * 1989-03-29 1990-09-04 Motorola, Inc. Speaker power matching method and apparatus
US5161200A (en) * 1989-08-04 1992-11-03 Alesis Corporation Microphone
US7320457B2 (en) * 1997-02-07 2008-01-22 Sri International Electroactive polymer devices for controlling fluid flow
US7537197B2 (en) * 1999-07-20 2009-05-26 Sri International Electroactive polymer devices for controlling fluid flow
WO1998035529A2 (en) * 1997-02-07 1998-08-13 Sri International Elastomeric dielectric polymer film sonic actuator
US6812624B1 (en) * 1999-07-20 2004-11-02 Sri International Electroactive polymers
US7064472B2 (en) * 1999-07-20 2006-06-20 Sri International Electroactive polymer devices for moving fluid
US7608989B2 (en) * 1999-07-20 2009-10-27 Sri International Compliant electroactive polymer transducers for sonic applications
US8981621B2 (en) 1999-07-20 2015-03-17 Ronald E. Pelrine Electroactive polymer manufacturing
US6911764B2 (en) 2000-02-09 2005-06-28 Sri International Energy efficient electroactive polymers and electroactive polymer devices
US6628040B2 (en) * 2000-02-23 2003-09-30 Sri International Electroactive polymer thermal electric generators
WO2001065615A2 (en) * 2000-02-23 2001-09-07 Sri International Biologically powered electroactive polymer generators
WO2009006318A1 (en) 2007-06-29 2009-01-08 Artificial Muscle, Inc. Electroactive polymer transducers for sensory feedback applications
US8300858B2 (en) * 2007-09-27 2012-10-30 Yamaha Corporation Electrostatic speaker
EP2239793A1 (en) 2009-04-11 2010-10-13 Bayer MaterialScience AG Electrically switchable polymer film structure and use thereof
US9553254B2 (en) 2011-03-01 2017-01-24 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Automated manufacturing processes for producing deformable polymer devices and films
EP2689284A4 (en) 2011-03-22 2014-08-20 Bayer Ip Gmbh Electroactive polymer actuator lenticular system
US9876160B2 (en) 2012-03-21 2018-01-23 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Roll-to-roll manufacturing processes for producing self-healing electroactive polymer devices
WO2013192143A1 (en) 2012-06-18 2013-12-27 Bayer Intellectual Property Gmbh Stretch frame for stretching process
WO2014066576A1 (en) 2012-10-24 2014-05-01 Bayer Intellectual Property Gmbh Polymer diode
US10306352B2 (en) 2013-09-27 2019-05-28 3M Innovative Properties Company Microphone having closed cell foam body

Family Cites Families (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1850855A (en) * 1929-02-16 1932-03-22 Adolph A Thomas Electrostatic loud speaker
US2796467A (en) * 1951-12-12 1957-06-18 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Directional transducer
US3008013A (en) * 1954-07-20 1961-11-07 Ferranti Ltd Electrostatic loudspeakers
US2934612A (en) * 1957-10-24 1960-04-26 Walter O Stanton Electrostatic speaker
NL281549A (en) * 1961-09-25

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2800844A1 (en) * 1977-01-21 1978-07-27 Semperit Gmbh Capacitor and method for performing a measurement of forces
DE10149165A1 (en) * 2001-10-04 2003-04-30 Bircher Ag Beringen Method for producing a sensor element, in particular a switching element
CN102183293A (en) * 2011-03-01 2011-09-14 中国船舶重工集团公司第七一五研究所 Large-area sheet-type vector hydrophone

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DE1462179B2 (en) 1970-05-27
DE1462179A1 (en) 1969-02-13
US3403234A (en) 1968-09-24

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