FR2689564A1 - Rotary i.c. engine combustion chamber - comprises cavity in front wall of one of two adjacent pistons, linked to main chamber by convergent and tangential channel - Google Patents

Rotary i.c. engine combustion chamber - comprises cavity in front wall of one of two adjacent pistons, linked to main chamber by convergent and tangential channel Download PDF

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Publication number
FR2689564A1
FR2689564A1 FR9204231A FR9204231A FR2689564A1 FR 2689564 A1 FR2689564 A1 FR 2689564A1 FR 9204231 A FR9204231 A FR 9204231A FR 9204231 A FR9204231 A FR 9204231A FR 2689564 A1 FR2689564 A1 FR 2689564A1
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FR
France
Prior art keywords
cavity
combustion chamber
chamber
enclosure
rotation
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
FR9204231A
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French (fr)
Inventor
Les Procedes Spilog
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SPILOG PROCEDES
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SPILOG PROCEDES
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Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by SPILOG PROCEDES filed Critical SPILOG PROCEDES
Priority to FR9204231A priority Critical patent/FR2689564A1/en
Publication of FR2689564A1 publication Critical patent/FR2689564A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B53/00Internal-combustion aspects of rotary-piston or oscillating-piston engines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B55/00Internal-combustion aspects of rotary pistons; Outer members for co-operation with rotary pistons
    • F02B55/14Shapes or constructions of combustion chambers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/12Improving ICE efficiencies

Abstract

The i.c. engine combustion chamber, formed between an outer shell (1, 2) and two adjacent pistons (3, 6) which are set at a variable angle to one another, comprises an open cavity (13) adjacent to the outer edge (14) of one piston, whose volume is basically that of the combustion chamber at the end of its compression phase. The cavity is made in the front face of one piston (3) in the direction of its rotation, while the facing piston (6) has a peak (18) which partially closes the combustion chamber at the end of the compression phase. The peak has a notch which maintains communication between the cavity and an injector or igniter (16) in the wall of the outer shell. The cavity is also linked to the main chamber (12) by a channel (17). ADVANTAGE - Improved filling with fuel and subsequent combustion.

Description

 The present invention relates to rotary combustion engines with split pistons, that is to say engines in which the chambers of variable volume are delimited in an enclosure of revolution (cylindrical or partially spherical) by partitions (pistons) which rotate in this enclosure at an identical average speed but which have a relative cylindrical movement of beat.
This flapping is ensured by a mechanical connection of the partitions between them produced by means of toothed pinions with a primitive curve different from a circle.
 This type of engine is described in numerous documents. Reference will be made to document US-A-3,730,654 and document WO 86/05548. To date, however, it has never been built because the mechanical control of the pistons between them has never been fully satisfactory.
For a few years now, it has been known to make mechanical couplings of this type which are satisfactory since they have the same qualities of torque transmission, capacity, continuity in driving and resistance as circular gears with conventional straight or helical teeth with profile in involute of circle.
 The invention relates to a combustion chamber for a rotary engine with split pistons whether or not it is with spark ignition. This chamber being delimited by a stationary enclosure of revolution around an axis and by two rotary partition pistons, spaced from one another in the enclosure of an angular sector of volume varying cyclically during the rotation of the pistons around the axis of the enclosure. According to the invention at least one of the movable walls of the chamber comprises, in the vicinity of the enclosure, an open cavity whose volume substantially determines the volume of the combustion chamber at the end of compression. This thus creates a volume of confinement of the combustible mixture to be ignited which on the one hand is very collected therefore which can be quickly traversed by the front of the flame during the ignition and which on the other hand the shape is controlled in order to print both under compression and during the combustion phase, a gas movement favoring the homogeneity of the mixture and the spread of inflammation. One thus eliminates one of the major drawbacks of these pistons which is due to the shape of the combustion chamber in angular sector whose tip located near the axis of rotation of the pistons is distant from the ignition member and therefore is not easily reached by the flame front. This unfavorable form of combustion chamber generates a production of unburnt materials which is no longer admissible because of its polluting nature.
 Preferably, the cavity is formed near an outer edge of the piston, its opening on the main combustion chamber being disposed substantially in place of this edge. By this embodiment, the cavity has an opening immediately in the vicinity of the stationary wall of the enclosure, that is to say of that which carries either the ignition member, the operation of which will be controlled on the spark-ignition engines, or injector for others when the opening passes near it.
 Preferably, the cavity is formed in the front wall of the chamber in the direction of rotation of the motor.
In this case the other piston, devoid of cavity, can be extended by a partial closure spout of this opening at the end of compression.
 This spout may be provided with a notch preserving a communication between the internal volume of the chamber and the ignition or injection member, the length of this notch being such that the communication between the internal volume of the chamber and this organ is preserved for a sufficiently long time, regardless of the speed of rotation of the motor.
 In order to improve the penetration of the fuel inside the cavity, the latter may comprise one or more nozzles established between the main part of the combustion chamber and the cavity, these nozzles being of convergent section in the direction of the cavity and being directed substantially tangentially to the internal surface of the cavity and in scanning of the opening of the first opening in the same direction as that of rotation of the pistons. The role of these nozzles is to create a entrainment of the gases inside the cavity and vortex, in order to improve the filling of the latter and to create a turbulence of homogenization of the mixture at the end of the compression phase.
 In a simple embodiment, the cavity is cylindrical, that is to say parallel to the axis of rotation of the pistons, which makes it possible to easily cover its internal wall with a refractory jacket to limit the heating of the pistons whose cooling will require special constructive arrangements.
 Finally, an alternative embodiment will be mentioned in which the combustion chamber has two cavities each formed in a piston in the vicinity of its outer edge and the engine comprising, if it is with spark ignition, two angularly distant ignition members, one on the other to ignite the fuel contained in each of the cavities.
 Other characteristics and advantages will emerge from the description of exemplary embodiments given below without implied limitation.
Reference will be made to the accompanying drawings in which
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an engine according to the prior art to which the invention applies,
FIGS. 2 to 7 are schematic views of the combustion chamber according to the invention in various configurations before the end of the compression phase which corresponds to FIG. 6 and after this compression phase as illustrated in FIG. 7.
FIG. 8 is a diagram showing an alternative embodiment with two cavities per combustion chamber,
In Figure 1 there is shown schematically a volumetric machine which can be, in accordance with the prior art cited in the preamble above, used as an internal combustion engine. This machine comprises a cylindrical enclosure delimited by the mixed lines 1 and 2 symbolizing a fixed casing inside which the sectors 3, 4, 5 and 6 are housed. Each solid sector carries in a sealed manner on the peripheral and front walls of the enclosure. Sectors 3 and 4 are integral, opposite one another, with a first shaft 7 which opens out through a wall of the enclosure. Sectors 5 and 6 are integral with 'a second shaft 8 which is shown coaxial with the shaft 7 and housed therein. Sectors 3 to 6 constitute partitioning elements of the enclosure 1, 2 dividing the latter into four chambers 9, 10, 11 and 12. By making one of the shafts oscillate relative to the other, it is possible to vary the volume of the rooms; the diametrically opposite chambers 9 and 11 vary in the same direction and in the opposite direction to chambers 10 and 12.
 One of the shafts can be fixed and the other oscillating with respect to this fixed shaft or the shafts are both rotating, the oscillation being relative in this overall rotating movement. It is then a beat, each of the shafts having a variable speed around the average speed of rotation of the assembly. This variable speed of each of the shafts can be identical to that of the other shaft but out of phase with respect to the latter by a value determined by the coupling mechanism which connects the two shafts 7 and 8. It will be noted that the elements partitions have recesses 3a, 3b such that when two consecutive elements are adjacent to each other, there remains a residual volume which constitutes, as in the case of document FR-A-1,005,309 the volume at the end of compression phase of a combustion chamber.
 Figures 2 to 7 include some of the elements described with reference to Figure 1 and in particular sector 3 and sector 6. The common direction of rotation of all the sectors is noted by the arrow A in the figures. The combustion chamber is formed by the space 12 separating the sector 3 from the sector 6 to which is added a cavity 13 formed in the sector 3 which, like the residual space defined by the recesses 3a and 3b of the Figure 1, constitutes an incompressible volume and independent of the relative position of sectors 3 and 6. This cavity 13 is formed in sector 3 in the vicinity of its rear upper edge, the location of which is noted 14 in the figures (if this edge existed again), the cavity 13 opening precisely onto the main part 12 of the combustion chamber through an opening 15 which is substantially in place of this edge 14. The opening 15 is rather turned towards the stationary enclosure 1,2 so as to be immediately opposite an ignition member 16 which comprises, in known manner, the stationary enclosure 1,2. In the case of a diesel engine, the ignition member is replaced by an injector. Thus in the following figures, for a diesel cycle engine, the ignition member or spark plug will be replaced by an injector.
Furthermore, under the opening 15, in the partition of the sector 3 which separates the cavity 13 from the main part 12 of the combustion chamber, one or more openings 17 are provided to ensure communication between this part 12 and the cavity 13 these openings 17 being in the form of a nozzle whose section is convergent in the direction of the cavity 13, and are oriented so as to end up substantially tangentially to the wall of this cavity 13 so that the gas which flows through them from the part 12 of the combustion chamber during the reduction of volume of this chamber during the phase of compression of the gaseous mixture which it contains, opens into the chamber tangentially in order to create a rotary turbulence in the direction B marked in FIGS. 1 to 6 and which is identical to the meaning
A of rotation of the mobile assembly, and of sweeping the outlet of the opening 15 in the cavity 13 in order to create at the location of this opening a phenomenon of entrainment of the gases which come from the main part 12 of the combustion chamber to engulf them in the cavity 13 against the restraint formed by the friction of these gases on the internal surface of the stationary enclosure 1,2.
 Figure 2 is a schematic illustration of the state of the combustion chamber according to the invention around the compression phase of the cycle of this engine, and this 250 of average angle of rotation of the entire crew mobile before the moment when this mobile equipment is in an end of compression phase position (fig. 6.). The mean angle of rotation indicates in the figures the median radial plane of the combustion chamber. At this time, the ignition member 16 is not yet discovered by the sector 3. On the other hand in FIG. 3, that is to say 50 of rotation later, the spark plug 16 comes into action which corresponds to an ignition advance of approximately 20, a conventional value on many internal combustion engines. The initially ignited part of the mixture is driven as shown in FIG. 4 rather inside the cavity 13 by the currents of gases which result from the reduction in volume of the main part 12 of the combustion chamber since one is always during the compression phase.
 In FIG. 4, the position shown corresponds to 150 before the maximum compression, the ignition member 16 starting to be isolated by a spoiler 18 which comprises the sector 6 in the vicinity of its upper front edge in the direction A of its rotation . This spoiler 18 has the function of closing the cavity 13 as much as possible when we arrive at the final instant of the compression phase (which corresponds to the top dead center of a conventional reciprocating engine).
The advantage of this spoiler is to isolate the wall of the stationary enclosure from the high temperatures prevailing in the combustion chamber and to confine the compressed volume as much as possible during the initial combustion phase. To take into account, however, the need to keep a sufficient ignition time (in the case of a spark ignition engine), in particular at high engine speed, the spoiler 18 may include a notch 19 which preserves the communication between the combustion - essentially the cavity 13 -, and the ignition member 16, to perfect this ignition.
 FIG. 5 illustrates the relative position of sectors 3 and 6, 100 before the "top dead center of the engine". FIG. 6 is the image of the relative position of the sectors 3 and 6 in the stationary enclosure at the end of the compression phase, the ignition being at this time completely achieved and the combustion practically completed inside the cavity 13 , combustion greatly improved by the turbulent movements which were generated at the end of the compression phase of the mixture.
 Figure 7 is an illustration of the relative position of the rotating elements 300 after the "top dead center" the combustion chamber then undergoing expansion of the burnt gases.
 Insofar as the entire engine is of identical cross section, the cavity 13 can be produced by a cylindrical drilling of each of the sectors (or pistons) of the engine in the vicinity of its rear edge. The realization is therefore extremely simple and simple is also the lining of this cavity by a refractory sleeve 20 forming an insulation screen between the cavity 13 and the piston which is known to be a difficult part to cool the engine.
 Alternatively, it is entirely possible to provide on each of the sectors or pistons of the engine two combustion chambers, one 13 in the vicinity of its rear upper edge and the other 23 in the vicinity of its front upper edge. The cavity 23, during the compression of the gas mixture, has a much more natural tendency than the cavity 13 to collect the gases which will be engulfed therein by a natural movement swirling in the opposite direction to the turbulence produced in the chamber 13. The sharing of the gas flows as shown in FIG. 8 during the compression phase and for a spark-ignition engine involves preferably using two ignition members 16 and 21, the member 21 serving to ignite the mixture which will finally be contained in cavity 23.
 Figure 8 illustrates this arrangement schematically, while the movable elements are in a position corresponding to 200 before the end of the compression phase.
 In particular in the case of a double cavity 13 and 23 per combustion chamber, it is possible to reduce the length of each cavity which would only extend over part of the thickness of each piston in which it is hollowed out.
 One of the main interests of this cavity where most, if not all, of the combustion of the mixture takes place, resides in the fact that it suppresses the production of unburnt materials which would not fail to occur if one was trying to create combustion in a chamber with a part distant from the ignition member and narrow, in which the flame front could not propagate correctly.
 The cavity 13 is described above as being substantially cylindrical. This definition is not strictly mandatory and to generalize the application of the invention to motors in which the fixed enclosure is not itself cylindrical but for example formed by a portion of a sphere, the cavity may not have a rectilinear generator while retaining substantially circular cross sections so that the combustible gases during the compression phase and during the expansion phase are animated by rotary turbulence.

Claims (9)

 1. Combustion chamber for rotary engine with retractable pistons (3,6), delimited by a stationary enclosure (1,2) of revolution about an axis and by two rotary partition pistons (3,6), separated in the enclosure (1,2) of an angular sector (12) of variable volume cyclically during the rotation of the pistons about the axis of the enclosure, characterized in that at least one of the movable walls (3 ) of the chamber comprises, in the vicinity of the enclosure (1,2), an open cavity (13) whose volume substantially determines the volume of the combustion chamber at the end of the compression phase.
 2. Combustion chamber according to claim 1, characterized in that the cavity (13) is adjacent to an edge (14) outside of the piston (3), its opening (15) on the main part (12) of the chamber combustion being arranged substantially in place of this edge (14).
 3. Combustion chamber according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that the cavity is formed in the front wall (3) of the combustion chamber in the direction of rotation of the engine.
 4. Combustion chamber according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the piston (6) devoid of cavity is extended by a spout (18) for partially closing the opening (15) of the cavity (13) at the end of compression.
 5. Combustion chamber according to claim 4, characterized in that the spout (18) is provided with a notch (19) preserving a communication between the internal volume of the combustion chamber and an ignition member (16) or injection system permanently installed in the enclosure (1,2).
 6. Combustion chamber according to claim 2, characterized in that the cavity (13) is connected to the main chamber (12) by at least one nozzle (17) of converging section in the direction of the cavity, and directed substantially tangentially to the internal surface of the cavity and in scanning of the opening of the first opening (15) in the same direction (B) as that (A) of rotation of the pistons.
 7. Combustion chamber according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the cavity (13) is substantially cylindrical, with an axis substantially parallel to the axis of rotation of the engine.
 8. Combustion chamber according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it comprises a second cavity (23) formed in the rear wall of the chamber, in the direction of rotation of the engine.
 9. Combustion chamber according to claim 8, characterized in that the enclosure (1,2) which delimits it has a second ignition member (21) intended to ignite mainly the mixture rushing into the second cavity (23 ).
FR9204231A 1992-04-07 1992-04-07 Rotary i.c. engine combustion chamber - comprises cavity in front wall of one of two adjacent pistons, linked to main chamber by convergent and tangential channel Pending FR2689564A1 (en)

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FR9204231A FR2689564A1 (en) 1992-04-07 1992-04-07 Rotary i.c. engine combustion chamber - comprises cavity in front wall of one of two adjacent pistons, linked to main chamber by convergent and tangential channel

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FR9204231A FR2689564A1 (en) 1992-04-07 1992-04-07 Rotary i.c. engine combustion chamber - comprises cavity in front wall of one of two adjacent pistons, linked to main chamber by convergent and tangential channel

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5722361A (en) * 1993-07-26 1998-03-03 Huschang Sabet Internal combustion engine with pistons that rotate about a center line
WO2009000844A2 (en) * 2007-06-26 2008-12-31 Mariano Manganaro Rotary piston combustion engine

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3256866A (en) * 1962-09-21 1966-06-21 Jordan V Bauer Internal combustion engine
US3304921A (en) * 1965-03-23 1967-02-21 Prochazka Jindrich Rotary combustion engine
US3990405A (en) * 1975-01-16 1976-11-09 Joseph Kecik Rotary internal combustion engine
US4010716A (en) * 1974-07-12 1977-03-08 Karlis Minka Rotary engine
DE2611775A1 (en) * 1976-03-19 1977-09-22 August Paul Dipl Ing Dr H C Combustion engine with angular oscillating piston - has combustion space shaped so that turbulence is induced in gases just before ignition takes place

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3256866A (en) * 1962-09-21 1966-06-21 Jordan V Bauer Internal combustion engine
US3304921A (en) * 1965-03-23 1967-02-21 Prochazka Jindrich Rotary combustion engine
US4010716A (en) * 1974-07-12 1977-03-08 Karlis Minka Rotary engine
US3990405A (en) * 1975-01-16 1976-11-09 Joseph Kecik Rotary internal combustion engine
DE2611775A1 (en) * 1976-03-19 1977-09-22 August Paul Dipl Ing Dr H C Combustion engine with angular oscillating piston - has combustion space shaped so that turbulence is induced in gases just before ignition takes place

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5722361A (en) * 1993-07-26 1998-03-03 Huschang Sabet Internal combustion engine with pistons that rotate about a center line
WO2009000844A2 (en) * 2007-06-26 2008-12-31 Mariano Manganaro Rotary piston combustion engine
WO2009000844A3 (en) * 2007-06-26 2009-03-05 Mariano Manganaro Rotary piston combustion engine
US8408179B2 (en) 2007-06-26 2013-04-02 Valmax S.R.L. Rotary piston combustion engine

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