EP3166123B1 - Electrical switch - Google Patents

Electrical switch Download PDF

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Publication number
EP3166123B1
EP3166123B1 EP15193656.4A EP15193656A EP3166123B1 EP 3166123 B1 EP3166123 B1 EP 3166123B1 EP 15193656 A EP15193656 A EP 15193656A EP 3166123 B1 EP3166123 B1 EP 3166123B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
downstream
upstream
electric switch
contact
actuator
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
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Application number
EP15193656.4A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP3166123A1 (en
Inventor
Vito Carrea
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
MICROPRECISION ELECTRONICS HOLDING SA
Original Assignee
Microprecision Electronics Holding SA
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Application filed by Microprecision Electronics Holding SA filed Critical Microprecision Electronics Holding SA
Priority to EP15193656.4A priority Critical patent/EP3166123B1/en
Priority to US15/346,244 priority patent/US10199185B2/en
Publication of EP3166123A1 publication Critical patent/EP3166123A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP3166123B1 publication Critical patent/EP3166123B1/en
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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H13/00Switches having rectilinearly-movable operating part or parts adapted for pushing or pulling in one direction only, e.g. push-button switch
    • H01H13/02Details
    • H01H13/12Movable parts; Contacts mounted thereon
    • H01H13/14Operating parts, e.g. push-button
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H3/00Mechanisms for operating contacts
    • H01H3/02Operating parts, i.e. for operating driving mechanism by a mechanical force external to the switch
    • H01H3/12Push-buttons
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H13/00Switches having rectilinearly-movable operating part or parts adapted for pushing or pulling in one direction only, e.g. push-button switch
    • H01H13/02Details
    • H01H13/04Cases; Covers
    • H01H13/06Dustproof, splashproof, drip-proof, waterproof or flameproof casings
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H13/00Switches having rectilinearly-movable operating part or parts adapted for pushing or pulling in one direction only, e.g. push-button switch
    • H01H13/02Details
    • H01H13/12Movable parts; Contacts mounted thereon
    • H01H13/14Operating parts, e.g. push-button
    • H01H13/18Operating parts, e.g. push-button adapted for actuation at a limit or other predetermined position in the path of a body, the relative movement of switch and body being primarily for a purpose other than the actuation of the switch, e.g. door switch, limit switch, floor-levelling switch of a lift
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H13/00Switches having rectilinearly-movable operating part or parts adapted for pushing or pulling in one direction only, e.g. push-button switch
    • H01H13/50Switches having rectilinearly-movable operating part or parts adapted for pushing or pulling in one direction only, e.g. push-button switch having a single operating member
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H13/00Switches having rectilinearly-movable operating part or parts adapted for pushing or pulling in one direction only, e.g. push-button switch
    • H01H13/50Switches having rectilinearly-movable operating part or parts adapted for pushing or pulling in one direction only, e.g. push-button switch having a single operating member
    • H01H13/52Switches having rectilinearly-movable operating part or parts adapted for pushing or pulling in one direction only, e.g. push-button switch having a single operating member the contact returning to its original state immediately upon removal of operating force, e.g. bell-push switch
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H2223/00Casings
    • H01H2223/002Casings sealed

Definitions

  • the present invention relates to an electrical switch comprising an actuator movable axially inside the switch housing.
  • One of the possible sensors consists of an electrical switch actuated by a push button and positioned to detect a limit state of a given device.
  • One of the possible applications may for example consist in detecting the opening and closing of an electromagnetic brake. This is done by placing an electrical switch so that it is operated in the middle of the air gap of the electromagnetic brake. When the brake closes, the air gap also closes, thus activating the switch. When the brake is opened, the switch is actuated when the opening of the air gap is beyond the point of release of the switch.
  • the electrical switches used in this type of application generally operate on the principle of a snap closure in which the push button, by pressing a spring, changes the position of a movable electrical contact.
  • the document DE 25 51 858 A1 discloses a switch according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • the present invention therefore aims to provide an electrical switch does not have the drawbacks of snap action electrical switches and allowing by means of a single switch to monitor both the opening of the air gap and brake wear.
  • the electrical switch of the present invention will have many advantages over abrupt electric switches.
  • Thirdly, the opening or closing of the electrical circuits will occur systematically for the same values of external thrust exerted on the actuator.
  • it can easily adapt to the needs of users because of the use of a single contact block bringing together the pair of movable electrical contacts. Thus, by changing the spacing between these movable electrical contacts, that is to say the axial width of the oblong opening formed inside said contact block, it will be possible to change the stroke to move from the position opening the first electrical circuit to the closed position.
  • This electrical switch 10 is formed of a hollow cylindrical casing 11 open at its lower ends 11i and 11j and delimiting an inner cavity 12 of circular section.
  • the cavity 12 may obviously have a rectangular cross section or any other suitable form.
  • the upper and lower adjectives are used with reference to the X-axis as shown in the figures 2 and 3 .
  • the X axis is directed from the upper end of the housing towards its lower end.
  • upstream and downstream terms are defined with respect to the direction of the X axis, which corresponds to the direction of movement, within the cavity, of the actuator which will be defined in the rest of this presentation.
  • the outer periphery of the housing 11 is advantageously provided with a thread 13 over almost its entire length so as to facilitate its attachment to a support structure by screwing.
  • a plastic sleeve 14 of substantially tubular shape.
  • Bushing 14 defines an inner housing 15 within which an actuator 16 is slidably received.
  • this inner housing 15 is delimited, on the one hand, by an upper annular shoulder 18 which limits the movement of the actuator 16 in the upstream direction, and, on the other hand, by a cap 19 attached to the lower end of the sleeve 14, said cap 19 limiting the movement of the actuator 16 in the downstream direction.
  • the actuator 16 is in the form of two parts, namely an upper part 16j, protruding from the housing 11 at its upper end 11j, and a lower part 16i which slides inside the inner housing 15 of the sleeve 14.
  • the upper part 16j of the actuator 16 is completely covered by an elastic membrane 17 whose edges are clamped between the upper end 11j of the housing 11 and the upper annular shoulder 18 of the sleeve 14, said membrane 17 thus preventing any infiltration of dust or liquid inside the housing 11.
  • the actuator 16 is configured to modify the operating state of the switch 10 as a function of the axial thrust exerted on the upper part 16j of said actuator. Indeed, depending on the intensity of this axial thrust, the actuator 16 can move downstream or upstream, thereby triggering the opening or closing of electrical circuits.
  • These electrical circuits are formed in particular by fixed electrical contacts and by movable electrical contacts intended to come into contact with said fixed electrical contacts when the actuator 16 is in a so-called opening position and to no longer be in contact with said contacts. when the actuator is in a so-called closing position.
  • the electrical switch 10 comprises two fixed electrical contacts, namely an upstream fixed electrical contact 21 and a fixed downstream electrical contact 22, which are arranged in a manner offset in the axial direction inside the housing 11.
  • these fixed electrical contacts 21, 22 are installed in the thickness of the sleeve 14 and are each in the form of a rod L-shaped metal of which one of the segments 21r or 22r extends radially and the other segment 21a or 22a extends axially.
  • the sleeve 14 comprises a plurality of radial channels 23r and axial 23a, formed in its thickness, said channels being intended to accommodate at least partially said radial segments 21r, 22r and axial 21a, 22a of the electrical contacts 21, 22.
  • the segments radials 21r, 22r of the electrical contacts 21, 22 open into a central recess 24 of the actuator 16 in two axially offset positions, the radial segment 21r of the upstream fixed electrical contact 21 being positioned upstream of the radial segment 22r of the downstream fixed electrical contact 22.
  • the electrical switch 10 also comprises two movable electrical contacts, namely an upstream movable electrical contact and a downstream movable electrical contact, which are arranged in an offset manner in the axial direction inside the housing 11.
  • the downstream and upstream mobile electrical contacts are united within a same contact block 25 slidably housed inside the central recess 24 of the actuator 16 and are respectively in the form of conductive zones upstream 25j and downstream 25i disposed at the axial ends of an oblong opening 26 formed inside said contact block 25.
  • the contact block 25 is arranged in such a way that the radial segments 21r, 22r of the electrical contacts 21, 22 open out.
  • the contact block 25 will consist entirely of a conductive material.
  • the contact block 25 is in the form of a parallelepiped block having two opposite lateral faces 25a, 25b which are perpendicular to the radial segments 21r, 22r of the fixed electrical contacts 21, 22.
  • the oblong opening 26 crosses each of said lateral faces 25a, 25b of so that each of the fixed electrical contacts 21, 22 can lead into the oblong opening 26 from a different side face.
  • the contact block 25 slides inside the central recess 24 under the combined actions of an upstream spring 27 and a downstream spring 28.
  • the upstream spring 27 bears at its lower end on the upper face of the block contact 25 and at its upper end on an upper stop element 29j integral with the actuator 16.
  • this upper stop element 29j is constituted by the bottom of the central recess 24.
  • the contact block 25 will remain stationary on the fixed contact 21 under the effect of the spring 27, while the actuator 16 will produce an additional race.
  • the downstream spring 28 is supported at its upper end on the lower face of the contact block 25 and at its lower end on a lower abutment member 29i integral with the bushing 14, and therefore the housing 11.
  • this element lower stop 29i is constituted by an inner face of the cap 19, which is recessed in the middle so as to receive said lower end.
  • the downstream spring 28 exerts an axial thrust on the assembly formed by the actuator 16 and the contact block 25 so that it tends to move this assembly to a downstream contact position, in which the conductive zone downstream 25i is in contact with the downstream fixed electrical contact 22.
  • this assembly will be completely formed of conductive metal.
  • the stiffness of the upstream and downstream springs 27, 28 have been chosen so that the contact block 25 is in its downstream contact position when the actuator 16 is not subjected to any external axial thrust, as illustrated on the figure 2 .
  • the stiffness of the upstream spring 27 will advantageously be greater than the stiffness of the downstream spring 28 so as to prevent, during the passage from the downstream contact position to the upstream contact position, the upstream spring 27 is previously compressed before the contact block 25 starts moving. This prior compression could in fact delay the opening of the electrical circuit which includes the downstream electrical contact 22, which would not immediately detect an external axial thrust exerted on the actuator.
  • the stiffness of the upstream and downstream springs 27, 28 will advantageously be chosen so that the upstream spring 27 begins its compression when the contact block 25 is in its upstream contact position, as illustrated in FIG. figure 3 , and that the actuator 16 is subjected to an additional external axial thrust.
  • an additional displacement of the actuator 16 in the downstream direction from the position represented on the figure 3 it will not generate an additional displacement of the contact block 25 in the downstream direction, but simply a compression of the upstream spring 27, thus avoiding a deterioration of the upstream fixed electrical contact 21.
  • the embodiment variant represented on the Figures 1 to 4 is obviously not limiting for the invention. It is only one of the possibilities of realizing the invention. However, it differs from other possibilities in the choice to use two perfectly separate subassemblies, namely a first subassembly formed by the housing only, and a second subassembly formed by the plastic bushing in which were arranged the actuator, the movable contact block, the pair of fixed electrical contacts and the upstream and downstream springs.
  • the assembly and disassembly of the electrical switch will be easily executable by simply inserting the second subset within the first subset. The user can easily change the electrical switch by changing only the second subset without changing the first subset.

Description

Domaine techniqueTechnical area

La présente invention concerne un interrupteur électrique comprenant un actionneur déplaçable axialement à l'intérieur du boîtier de l'interrupteur.The present invention relates to an electrical switch comprising an actuator movable axially inside the switch housing.

Etat de la techniqueState of the art

Il existe actuellement une gamme relativement étendue de capteurs pouvant être utilisés dans des installations de contrôle automatisées de processus. Un des capteurs possibles consiste en un interrupteur électrique actionnable par un bouton-poussoir et positionné de manière à détecter un état limite d'un dispositif donné. Une des applications envisageables peut par exemple consister à détecter l'ouverture et la fermeture d'un frein électromagnétique. Cela se fait en plaçant un interrupteur électrique de telle manière qu'il soit actionné au milieu de l'entrefer du frein électromagnétique. Quand le frein se ferme, l'entrefer se ferme aussi, actionnant ainsi l'interrupteur. Lors de l'ouverture du frein, l'interrupteur est actionné quand l'ouverture de l'entrefer est au-delà de point de relâchement de l'interrupteur. Les interrupteurs électriques utilisés dans ce type d'application, fonctionnent généralement sur le principe d'une fermeture à action brusque dans lequel le bouton-poussoir, en appuyant sur un ressort, modifie la position d'un contact électrique mobile. Ces interrupteurs à action brusque se caractérisent toutefois par un mouvement différentiel du ressort, qui engendre un phénomène d'hystérésis. En effet, lorsque le dispositif revient à son état d'origine, le bouton-poussoir de l'interrupteur à action brusque relâche sa pression sur le ressort, ce qui modifie la position du contact électrique mobile. Mais, du fait du mouvement différentiel du ressort lors de cette phase de relâchement, la fermeture ou l'ouverture des premier et deuxième circuits électriques ne se produit pas pour les mêmes états limites que durant la phase de compression du ressort. Il en résulte donc un manque de fiabilité de ce type d'interrupteurs électriques qui ne permettent pas de détecter avec précision la variation d'un entrefer de petite taille.There is currently a relatively wide range of sensors that can be used in automated process control facilities. One of the possible sensors consists of an electrical switch actuated by a push button and positioned to detect a limit state of a given device. One of the possible applications may for example consist in detecting the opening and closing of an electromagnetic brake. This is done by placing an electrical switch so that it is operated in the middle of the air gap of the electromagnetic brake. When the brake closes, the air gap also closes, thus activating the switch. When the brake is opened, the switch is actuated when the opening of the air gap is beyond the point of release of the switch. The electrical switches used in this type of application, generally operate on the principle of a snap closure in which the push button, by pressing a spring, changes the position of a movable electrical contact. These snap action switches, however, are characterized by a differential movement of the spring, which generates a hysteresis phenomenon. Indeed, when the device returns to its original state, the push button of the snap action switch releases its pressure on the spring, which changes the position of the movable electrical contact. But, due to the differential movement of the spring during this release phase, closing or opening of the first and second electrical circuits does not occur for the same limit states as during the compression phase of the spring. This results in a lack of reliability of this type of electrical switches that do not accurately detect the variation of a small air gap.

Par ailleurs, les fabricants de frein ont intérêt à contrôler l'usure du frein qui se traduit par une augmentation de l'entrefer. Ce contrôle nécessite l'utilisation d'un deuxième interrupteur en action brusque.In addition, brake manufacturers have an interest in controlling brake wear, which results in an increase in the air gap. This control requires the use of a second switch in sudden action.

Le document DE 25 51 858 A1 décrit un interrupteur selon le préambule de la revendication 1.The document DE 25 51 858 A1 discloses a switch according to the preamble of claim 1.

La présente invention vise donc à fournir un interrupteur électrique ne présentant pas les inconvénients des interrupteurs électriques à action brusque et permettant au moyen d'un seul interrupteur de surveiller à la fois l'ouverture de l'entrefer et l'usure du frein.The present invention therefore aims to provide an electrical switch does not have the drawbacks of snap action electrical switches and allowing by means of a single switch to monitor both the opening of the air gap and brake wear.

Divulgation de l'inventionDisclosure of the invention

A cet effet, conformément à l'invention, il est proposé un interrupteur électrique comprenant :

  • un boîtier cylindrique creux délimitant une cavité,
  • un actionneur disposé au moins partiellement dans ladite cavité de manière à pouvoir coulisser à l'intérieur de ladite cavité le long d'une direction axiale définie par le boîtier,
  • un bloc de contact apte à se déplacer sous l'action dudit actionneur le long de ladite direction axiale entre deux positions spécifiques, à savoir une position de contact amont et une position de contact aval, ledit bloc de contact comportant au moins deux zones conductrices, respectivement une zone conductrice amont et une zone conductrice aval, disposées aux deux extrémités d'une ouverture oblongue formée à l'intérieur dudit bloc de contact, lesdites extrémités étant positionnées de manière décalée selon ladite direction axiale,
  • une paire de contacts électriques, respectivement un contact électrique amont et un contact électrique aval, débouchant dans ladite ouverture oblongue,
dans lequel ladite zone conductrice amont, respectivement aval, et ledit contact électrique amont, respectivement aval, sont reliés électriquement dans la position de contact amont, respectivement aval, dudit bloc de contact, fermant ainsi un premier circuit électrique, respectivement un second circuit électrique.For this purpose, according to the invention, there is provided an electrical switch comprising:
  • a hollow cylindrical housing delimiting a cavity,
  • an actuator disposed at least partially in said cavity so as to be able to slide inside said cavity along an axial direction defined by the housing,
  • a contact block able to move under the action of said actuator along said axial direction between two specific positions, namely an upstream contact position and a downstream contact position, said contact block comprising at least two conductive zones, respectively an upstream conductive zone and a downstream conductive zone, disposed at both ends of an oblong opening formed inside said contact block, said ends being positioned offset in said axial direction,
  • a pair of electrical contacts, respectively an upstream electrical contact and a downstream electrical contact, opening into said oblong opening,
wherein said upstream, respectively downstream, conductive zone and said upstream, respectively downstream electrical contact, are electrically connected in the upstream contact position respectively downstream of said contact block, thereby closing a first electrical circuit, respectively a second electrical circuit.

D'autres configurations avantageuses de la présente invention sont définies dans les revendications dépendantes 2 à 15.Other advantageous configurations of the present invention are defined in dependent claims 2 to 15.

Ainsi configuré, l'interrupteur électrique de la présente invention présentera de nombreux avantages par rapport aux interrupteurs électriques à action brusque. Premièrement, il sera facilement réalisable du fait de sa faible complexité structurelle. Il en résultera donc un faible coût de fabrication. Deuxièmement, contrairement aux interrupteurs à action brusque, il ne produira pas le phénomène d'hystérésis mentionné précédemment. Des détections précises seront donc possibles du fait de l'absence de ce phénomène d'hystérésis. Troisièmement, l'ouverture ou la fermeture des circuits électriques se produira systématiquement pour les mêmes valeurs de poussée externe exercée sur l'actionneur. Quatrièmement, il pourra facilement s'adapter aux besoins des utilisateurs du fait de l'utilisation d'un seul bloc de contact réunissant la paire de contacts électriques mobiles. Ainsi, en modifiant l'espacement entre ces contacts électriques mobiles, c'est-à-dire la largeur axiale de l'ouverture oblongue formée à l'intérieur dudit bloc de contact, il sera possible de modifier la course pour passer de la position d'ouverture du premier circuit électrique à la position de fermeture.Thus configured, the electrical switch of the present invention will have many advantages over abrupt electric switches. First, it will be easily achievable because of its low structural complexity. This will result in a low manufacturing cost. Secondly, unlike snap action switches, it will not produce the aforementioned hysteresis phenomenon. Precise detections will therefore be possible due to the absence of this hysteresis phenomenon. Thirdly, the opening or closing of the electrical circuits will occur systematically for the same values of external thrust exerted on the actuator. Fourth, it can easily adapt to the needs of users because of the use of a single contact block bringing together the pair of movable electrical contacts. Thus, by changing the spacing between these movable electrical contacts, that is to say the axial width of the oblong opening formed inside said contact block, it will be possible to change the stroke to move from the position opening the first electrical circuit to the closed position.

Brève description des dessinsBrief description of the drawings

D'autres caractéristiques et avantages de la présente invention seront mieux compris à la lecture d'un mode particulier de réalisation de l'invention et en référence aux dessins dans lesquels :

  • la figure 1 est une vue en perspective partiellement arrachée d'un interrupteur selon l'invention ;
  • la figure 2 est une vue en coupe axiale de l'interrupteur représenté sur la figure 1, dans une première position d'utilisation de l'interrupteur, le premier circuit électrique étant ouvert et le second circuit électrique étant fermé;
  • la figure 3 est une vue similaire à la figure 2, mais dans une deuxième position d'utilisation de l'interrupteur, le premier circuit électrique étant fermé et le second circuit électrique étant ouvert;
  • la figure 4 est une vue en coupe suivant la ligne A-A de la figure 2.
Other features and advantages of the present invention will be better understood on reading a particular embodiment of the invention and with reference to the drawings in which:
  • the figure 1 is a partially cutaway perspective view of a switch according to the invention;
  • the figure 2 is an axial sectional view of the switch shown on the figure 1 in a first use position of the switch, the first electrical circuit being open and the second electrical circuit being closed;
  • the figure 3 is a view similar to the figure 2 but in a second position of use of the switch, the first electric circuit being closed and the second electric circuit being open;
  • the figure 4 is a sectional view along line AA of the figure 2 .

Description détaillée d'un mode d'exécution de l'inventionDetailed description of an embodiment of the invention

En référence aux figures 1 à 4, il est représenté un interrupteur électrique conforme à l'invention. Cet interrupteur électrique 10 est formé d'un boîtier cylindrique creux 11 ouvert à ses extrémités inférieure 11i et supérieure 11j et délimitant une cavité interne 12 de section circulaire. Selon d'autres exemples de réalisation, la cavité 12 pourra évidemment présenter une section transversale rectangulaire ou toute autre forme adaptée.With reference to Figures 1 to 4 , there is shown an electrical switch according to the invention. This electrical switch 10 is formed of a hollow cylindrical casing 11 open at its lower ends 11i and 11j and delimiting an inner cavity 12 of circular section. According to other exemplary embodiments, the cavity 12 may obviously have a rectangular cross section or any other suitable form.

Dans le présent exposé, sauf précision contraire, une direction axiale est une direction parallèle à l'axe principal X de la cavité. En outre, une direction radiale est une direction perpendiculaire à l'axe principal X de la cavité et coupant cet axe. Sauf précision contraire, les adjectifs et adverbes axial, radial, axialement et radialement sont utilisés en référence aux directions axiale et radiale précitées. De la même manière, un plan axial est un plan contenant l'axe principal X de la cavité et un plan radial est un plan perpendiculaire à cet axe. De même, une coupe axiale est une coupe selon un plan axial, et une coupe radiale est une coupe selon un plan radial.In the present description, unless otherwise specified, an axial direction is a direction parallel to the main axis X of the cavity. In addition, a radial direction is a direction perpendicular to the main axis X of the cavity and intersecting this axis. Unless stated otherwise, the adjectives and adverbs axial, radial, axially and radially are used with reference to the aforementioned axial and radial directions. In the same way, an axial plane is a plane containing the main axis X of the cavity and a radial plane is a plane perpendicular to this axis. Similarly, an axial section is a section along an axial plane, and a radial section is a section along a radial plane.

En outre, sauf précision contraire, les adjectifs supérieur et inférieur sont utilisés en référence au sens de l'axe X tel qu'il est représenté sur les figures 2 et 3. Ainsi, l'axe X est dirigé de l'extrémité supérieure du boîtier vers son extrémité inférieure.Furthermore, unless otherwise stated, the upper and lower adjectives are used with reference to the X-axis as shown in the figures 2 and 3 . Thus, the X axis is directed from the upper end of the housing towards its lower end.

Enfin, les termes amont et aval sont définis par rapport à la direction de l'axe X, qui correspond au sens de déplacement, à l'intérieur de la cavité, de l'actionneur qui sera défini dans la suite de cet exposé.Finally, the upstream and downstream terms are defined with respect to the direction of the X axis, which corresponds to the direction of movement, within the cavity, of the actuator which will be defined in the rest of this presentation.

La périphérie externe du boîtier 11 est avantageusement munie d'un filetage 13 sur presque toute sa longueur de manière à faciliter sa fixation sur une structure support par vissage. A l'intérieur de la cavité 12 a été insérée une douille plastique 14 de forme sensiblement tubulaire. La douille 14 définit un logement interne 15 à l'intérieur duquel est reçu de manière coulissante un actionneur 16. Comme représenté sur la figure 3, ce logement interne 15 est délimité, d'une part, par un épaulement annulaire supérieur 18 qui limite le déplacement de l'actionneur 16 dans le sens amont, et, d'autre part, par un chapeau 19 fixé à l'extrémité inférieure de la douille 14, ledit chapeau 19 limitant le déplacement de l'actionneur 16 dans le sens aval. Comme représenté sur la figure 2, l'actionneur 16 se présente sous la forme de deux parties, à savoir une partie supérieure 16j, qui dépasse du boîtier 11 au niveau de son extrémité supérieure 11j, et une partie inférieure 16i, qui coulisse à l'intérieur du logement interne 15 de la douille 14. La partie supérieure 16j de l'actionneur 16 est complètement recouverte par une membrane élastique 17 dont les bords sont pris en étau entre l'extrémité supérieure 11j du boîtier 11 et l'épaulement annulaire supérieur 18 de la douille 14, ladite membrane 17 empêchant ainsi toute infiltration de poussière ou de liquide à l'intérieur du boîtier 11.The outer periphery of the housing 11 is advantageously provided with a thread 13 over almost its entire length so as to facilitate its attachment to a support structure by screwing. Inside the cavity 12 has been inserted a plastic sleeve 14 of substantially tubular shape. Bushing 14 defines an inner housing 15 within which an actuator 16 is slidably received. As shown in FIG. figure 3 , this inner housing 15 is delimited, on the one hand, by an upper annular shoulder 18 which limits the movement of the actuator 16 in the upstream direction, and, on the other hand, by a cap 19 attached to the lower end of the sleeve 14, said cap 19 limiting the movement of the actuator 16 in the downstream direction. As shown on the figure 2 the actuator 16 is in the form of two parts, namely an upper part 16j, protruding from the housing 11 at its upper end 11j, and a lower part 16i which slides inside the inner housing 15 of the sleeve 14. The upper part 16j of the actuator 16 is completely covered by an elastic membrane 17 whose edges are clamped between the upper end 11j of the housing 11 and the upper annular shoulder 18 of the sleeve 14, said membrane 17 thus preventing any infiltration of dust or liquid inside the housing 11.

L'actionneur 16 est configuré pour modifier l'état de fonctionnement de l'interrupteur 10 en fonction de la poussée axiale exercée sur la partie supérieure 16j dudit actionneur. En effet, selon l'intensité de cette poussée axiale, l'actionneur 16 pourra se déplacer vers l'aval ou vers l'amont, déclenchant ainsi l'ouverture ou la fermeture de circuits électriques. Ces circuits électriques sont notamment formés par des contacts électriques fixes et par des contacts électriques mobiles destinés à venir en contact avec lesdits contacts électriques fixes lorsque l'actionneur 16 est dans une position dite d'ouverture et à ne plus être en contact avec lesdits contacts électriques fixes lorsque l'actionneur est dans une position dite de fermeture.The actuator 16 is configured to modify the operating state of the switch 10 as a function of the axial thrust exerted on the upper part 16j of said actuator. Indeed, depending on the intensity of this axial thrust, the actuator 16 can move downstream or upstream, thereby triggering the opening or closing of electrical circuits. These electrical circuits are formed in particular by fixed electrical contacts and by movable electrical contacts intended to come into contact with said fixed electrical contacts when the actuator 16 is in a so-called opening position and to no longer be in contact with said contacts. when the actuator is in a so-called closing position.

Dans la variante de réalisation représentée sur les figures 1 à 4, l'interrupteur électrique 10 comprend deux contacts électriques fixes, à savoir un contact électrique fixe amont 21 et un contact électrique fixe aval 22, lesquels sont disposés de manière décalée selon la direction axiale à l'intérieur du boîtier 11. De manière avantageuse, ces contacts électriques fixes 21, 22 sont installés dans l'épaisseur de la douille 14 et se présentent chacun sous la forme d'une tige métallique en forme de L dont l'un des segments 21r ou 22r s'étend radialement et l'autre segment 21a ou 22a s'étend axialement. A cet effet, la douille 14 comporte plusieurs canaux radiaux 23r et axiaux 23a, formés dans son épaisseur, lesdits canaux étant destinés à loger au moins partiellement lesdits segments radiaux 21r, 22r et axiaux 21a, 22a des contacts électriques 21, 22. Les segments radiaux 21r, 22r des contacts électriques 21, 22 débouchent dans un évidement central 24 de l'actionneur 16 selon deux positions décalées axialement, le segment radial 21r du contact électrique fixe amont 21 étant positionné en amont du segment radial 22r du contact électrique fixe aval 22.In the variant embodiment shown on the Figures 1 to 4 the electrical switch 10 comprises two fixed electrical contacts, namely an upstream fixed electrical contact 21 and a fixed downstream electrical contact 22, which are arranged in a manner offset in the axial direction inside the housing 11. Advantageously, these fixed electrical contacts 21, 22 are installed in the thickness of the sleeve 14 and are each in the form of a rod L-shaped metal of which one of the segments 21r or 22r extends radially and the other segment 21a or 22a extends axially. For this purpose, the sleeve 14 comprises a plurality of radial channels 23r and axial 23a, formed in its thickness, said channels being intended to accommodate at least partially said radial segments 21r, 22r and axial 21a, 22a of the electrical contacts 21, 22. The segments radials 21r, 22r of the electrical contacts 21, 22 open into a central recess 24 of the actuator 16 in two axially offset positions, the radial segment 21r of the upstream fixed electrical contact 21 being positioned upstream of the radial segment 22r of the downstream fixed electrical contact 22.

Par ailleurs, l'interrupteur électrique 10 comprend également deux contacts électriques mobiles, à savoir un contact électrique mobile amont et un contact électrique mobile aval, lesquels sont disposés de manière décalée selon la direction axiale à l'intérieur du boîtier 11. Dans la variante illustrée, les contacts électriques mobiles aval et amont sont réunis au sein d'un même bloc de contact 25 logé de manière coulissante à l'intérieur de l'évidement central 24 de l'actionneur 16 et se présentent respectivement sous la forme de zones conductrices amont 25j et aval 25i disposées aux extrémités axiales d'une ouverture oblongue 26 formée à l'intérieur dudit bloc de contact 25. Le bloc de contact 25 est disposé de telle manière que les segments radiaux 21r, 22r des contacts électriques 21, 22 débouchent à l'intérieur de ladite ouverture oblongue 26, la zone conductrice amont 25j étant positionnée en amont du segment radial 21r et la zone conductrice aval 25i étant positionnée en aval du segment radial 22r. De manière avantageuse, le bloc de contact 25 sera totalement constitué d'un matériau conducteur. Dans la variante illustrée, le bloc de contact 25 se présente sous la forme d'un bloc parallélépipédique possédant deux faces latérales opposées 25a, 25b qui sont perpendiculaires aux segments radiaux 21r, 22r des contacts électriques fixes 21, 22. L'ouverture oblongue 26 traverse chacune desdites faces latérales 25a, 25b de sorte que chacun des contacts électriques fixes 21, 22 peut déboucher dans l'ouverture oblongue 26 depuis une face latérale différente. Le bloc de contact 25 coulisse à l'intérieur de l'évidement central 24 sous les actions combinées d'un ressort amont 27 et d'un ressort aval 28. Le ressort amont 27 prend appui à son extrémité inférieure sur la face supérieure du bloc de contact 25 et à son extrémité supérieure sur un élément de butée supérieur 29j solidaire de l'actionneur 16. Dans la variante représentée, cet élément de butée supérieur 29j est constitué par le fond de l'évidement central 24. Ainsi configuré, la poussée axiale externe exercée sur l'actionneur 16 tend à déplacer le bloc de contact 25 par l'intermédiaire du ressort amont 27 vers une position de contact amont, dans laquelle la zone conductrice amont 25j est en contact avec le contact électrique fixe amont 21. En augmentant la poussée axiale externe sur l'actionneur 16 à partir de cette position contact amont, le bloc de contact 25 restera immobile sur le contact fixe 21 sous l'effet du ressort 27, alors que l'actionneur 16 produira une course additionnelle. Le ressort aval 28 prend appui à son extrémité supérieure sur la face inférieure du bloc de contact 25 et à son extrémité inférieure sur un élément de butée inférieur 29i solidaire de la douille 14, et donc du boîtier 11. Dans la variante représentée, cet élément de butée inférieur 29i est constitué par une face interne du chapeau 19, lequel est évidé en son milieu de manière à recevoir ladite extrémité inférieure. Ainsi configuré, le ressort aval 28 exerce une poussée axiale sur l'ensemble formé par l'actionneur 16 et le bloc de contact 25 de telle manière qu'il tend à déplacer cet ensemble vers une position de contact aval, dans laquelle la zone conductrice aval 25i est en contact avec le contact électrique fixe aval 22. De manière avantageuse, cet ensemble sera totalement formé en métal conducteur. Dans la variante représentée, les raideurs des ressorts amont et aval 27, 28 ont été choisies de manière à ce que le bloc de contact 25 soit dans sa position de contact aval lorsque l'actionneur 16 n'est soumis à aucune poussée axiale externe, comme illustré sur la figure 2. Par ailleurs, la raideur du ressort amont 27 sera avantageusement supérieure à la raideur du ressort aval 28 de manière à éviter que, lors du passage de la position de contact aval à la position de contact amont, le ressort amont 27 ne soit préalablement comprimé avant que le bloc de contact 25 ne débute son déplacement. Cette compression préalable pourrait en effet retarder l'ouverture du circuit électrique dont fait partie le contact électrique aval 22, ce qui ne permettrait pas de détecter immédiatement une poussée axiale externe exercée sur l'actionneur. Par ailleurs, les raideurs des ressorts amont et aval 27, 28 seront avantageusement choisies de manière à ce que le ressort amont 27 débute sa compression lorsque le bloc de contact 25 est dans sa position de contact amont, comme illustré sur la figure 3, et que l'actionneur 16 est soumis à une poussée axiale externe supplémentaire. Ainsi, un déplacement supplémentaire de l'actionneur 16 dans le sens aval depuis la position représentée sur la figure 3 n'engendrera pas un déplacement supplémentaire du bloc de contact 25 dans le sens aval, mais simplement une compression du ressort amont 27, évitant ainsi une détérioration du contact électrique fixe amont 21.Furthermore, the electrical switch 10 also comprises two movable electrical contacts, namely an upstream movable electrical contact and a downstream movable electrical contact, which are arranged in an offset manner in the axial direction inside the housing 11. In the variant illustrated, the downstream and upstream mobile electrical contacts are united within a same contact block 25 slidably housed inside the central recess 24 of the actuator 16 and are respectively in the form of conductive zones upstream 25j and downstream 25i disposed at the axial ends of an oblong opening 26 formed inside said contact block 25. The contact block 25 is arranged in such a way that the radial segments 21r, 22r of the electrical contacts 21, 22 open out. within said oblong opening 26, the upstream conductive zone 25j being positioned upstream of the radial segment 21r and the conductive zone a val 25i being positioned downstream of the radial segment 22r. Advantageously, the contact block 25 will consist entirely of a conductive material. In the variant shown, the contact block 25 is in the form of a parallelepiped block having two opposite lateral faces 25a, 25b which are perpendicular to the radial segments 21r, 22r of the fixed electrical contacts 21, 22. The oblong opening 26 crosses each of said lateral faces 25a, 25b of so that each of the fixed electrical contacts 21, 22 can lead into the oblong opening 26 from a different side face. The contact block 25 slides inside the central recess 24 under the combined actions of an upstream spring 27 and a downstream spring 28. The upstream spring 27 bears at its lower end on the upper face of the block contact 25 and at its upper end on an upper stop element 29j integral with the actuator 16. In the variant shown, this upper stop element 29j is constituted by the bottom of the central recess 24. Thus configured, the thrust external axial exerted on the actuator 16 tends to move the contact block 25 through the upstream spring 27 to an upstream contact position, wherein the upstream conductive zone 25j is in contact with the upstream fixed electrical contact 21. In increasing the external axial thrust on the actuator 16 from this upstream contact position, the contact block 25 will remain stationary on the fixed contact 21 under the effect of the spring 27, while the actuator 16 will produce an additional race. The downstream spring 28 is supported at its upper end on the lower face of the contact block 25 and at its lower end on a lower abutment member 29i integral with the bushing 14, and therefore the housing 11. In the variant shown, this element lower stop 29i is constituted by an inner face of the cap 19, which is recessed in the middle so as to receive said lower end. Thus configured, the downstream spring 28 exerts an axial thrust on the assembly formed by the actuator 16 and the contact block 25 so that it tends to move this assembly to a downstream contact position, in which the conductive zone downstream 25i is in contact with the downstream fixed electrical contact 22. Advantageously, this assembly will be completely formed of conductive metal. In the variant shown, the stiffness of the upstream and downstream springs 27, 28 have been chosen so that the contact block 25 is in its downstream contact position when the actuator 16 is not subjected to any external axial thrust, as illustrated on the figure 2 . Moreover, the stiffness of the upstream spring 27 will advantageously be greater than the stiffness of the downstream spring 28 so as to prevent, during the passage from the downstream contact position to the upstream contact position, the upstream spring 27 is previously compressed before the contact block 25 starts moving. This prior compression could in fact delay the opening of the electrical circuit which includes the downstream electrical contact 22, which would not immediately detect an external axial thrust exerted on the actuator. Furthermore, the stiffness of the upstream and downstream springs 27, 28 will advantageously be chosen so that the upstream spring 27 begins its compression when the contact block 25 is in its upstream contact position, as illustrated in FIG. figure 3 , and that the actuator 16 is subjected to an additional external axial thrust. Thus, an additional displacement of the actuator 16 in the downstream direction from the position represented on the figure 3 it will not generate an additional displacement of the contact block 25 in the downstream direction, but simply a compression of the upstream spring 27, thus avoiding a deterioration of the upstream fixed electrical contact 21.

La variante de réalisation représentée sur les figures 1 à 4 n'est évidemment pas limitative pour l'invention. Elle n'est qu'une des possibilités de réaliser l'invention. Toutefois, elle se démarque des autres possibilités par le choix d'utiliser deux sous-ensembles parfaitement distincts, à savoir un premier sous-ensemble formé par le boîtier uniquement, et un deuxième sous-ensemble formé par la douille plastique dans laquelle ont été disposés l'actionneur, le bloc de contact mobile, la paire de contacts électriques fixes et les ressorts amont et aval. Ainsi configuré, le montage et le démontage de l'interrupteur électrique sera facilement exécutable par simple insertion du deuxième sous-ensemble à l'intérieur du premier sous-ensemble. L'utilisateur pourra donc facilement modifier l'interrupteur électrique en changeant uniquement le deuxième sous-ensemble sans changer le premier sous-ensemble.The embodiment variant represented on the Figures 1 to 4 is obviously not limiting for the invention. It is only one of the possibilities of realizing the invention. However, it differs from other possibilities in the choice to use two perfectly separate subassemblies, namely a first subassembly formed by the housing only, and a second subassembly formed by the plastic bushing in which were arranged the actuator, the movable contact block, the pair of fixed electrical contacts and the upstream and downstream springs. Thus configured, the assembly and disassembly of the electrical switch will be easily executable by simply inserting the second subset within the first subset. The user can easily change the electrical switch by changing only the second subset without changing the first subset.

Claims (15)

  1. Electric switch (10) comprising:
    - a hollow cylindrical casing (11) delimiting a cavity (12),
    - an actuator (16) that can slide inside said cavity (12) along an axial direction (X) defined by the casing (11), said actuator (16) comprising at least one upper part (16j) positioned at least partially outside the casing (11) and at least one lower part (16i) positioned inside said cavity (12), and
    - a contact block (25) which is movable under the action of said actuator (16) along said axial direction (X) between two specific positions, namely an upstream contact position and a downstream contact position,
    characterized in that said contact block (25) has at least two conductive areas (25i, 25j), namely an upstream conductive area (25j) and a downstream conductive area (25i) respectively, positioned at the two ends of an oblong opening (26) formed inside said contact block (25), said ends being positioned in an offset manner along said axial direction (X),
    and in that the electric switch further comprises a pair of electrical contacts (21, 22), namely an upstream electrical contact (21) and a downstream electrical contact (22) respectively, projecting into said oblong opening (26),
    wherein said upstream (25j) or downstream (25i) conductive area, respectively, and said upstream (21) or downstream (22) electrical contact, respectively, are electrically connected in the upstream or downstream contact position, respectively, of said contact block (25), thus closing a first electrical circuit or a second electrical circuit respectively.
  2. Electric switch (10) according to claim 1, wherein said actuator (16) has a central void (24) inside which the contact block (25) is slidably housed.
  3. Electric switch (10) according to claim 2, wherein the contact block (25) slides inside said central void (24) under the combined actions of an upstream spring (27) and a downstream spring (28), said upstream spring (27) being configured to move the contact block (25) towards its upstream contact position and said downstream spring (28) being configured to move the contact block (25) towards its downstream contact position.
  4. Electric switch (10) according to claim 3, wherein the stiffness of the upstream spring (27) is greater than the stiffness of the downstream spring (28) .
  5. Electric switch (10) according to either of claims 3 and 4, wherein the upstream spring (27) bears at its upper end on an upper stop element (29j) fixed to the actuator (16) and at its lower end on an upper face of the contact block (25).
  6. Electric switch (10) according to claim 5, wherein the upper stop element (29j) is formed by an inner face of the actuator (16), which defines the end of the central void (24).
  7. Electric switch (10) according to any of claims 3 to 6, wherein the downstream spring (28) bears at its lower end on a lower stop element (29i) fixed to the casing (11) and at its upper end on a lower face of the contact block (25).
  8. Electric switch (10) according to claim 7, wherein the lower stop element (29i) is formed by an inner face of a cap (19) fastened to the lower end of a plastic bush (14) of substantially tubular shape, inserted into the casing (11), said cap (19) being centrally recessed so as to receive the lower end of the downstream spring (28).
  9. Electric switch (10) according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the contact block (25) is formed entirely of metal.
  10. Electric switch (10) according to claim 9 when dependent on one of claims 7 and 8, wherein the downstream spring (28) and the lower stop element (29i) are formed entirely of metal.
  11. Electric switch (10) according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the contact block (25) is in its downstream contact position when the actuator (16) is not subjected to any external axial force.
  12. Electric switch (10) as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, wherein each of the electrical contacts (21, 22) takes the form of an L-shaped metal rod having at least a first segment (21r, 22r) extending perpendicularly to the axial direction (X) defined by the housing (11) and at least a second segment (21a, 22a) extending parallel to said axial direction (X).
  13. Electric switch (10) according to claim 12 when dependent on claim 8, wherein the plastic bush (14) has one or more channels (23a, 23r) formed in its thickness, said channels (23a, 23r) being designed to house at least partially said first and/or second segments (21a, 22a, 21r, 22r) of said metal rods.
  14. Electric switch (10) according to any of the preceding claims, wherein an elastic membrane (17) completely covers the upper part (16j) of the actuator (16), thus preventing infiltration of dust or liquid into the casing (11).
  15. Electric switch (10) according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the casing (11) has at least one threaded area (13) on its periphery.
EP15193656.4A 2015-11-09 2015-11-09 Electrical switch Active EP3166123B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP15193656.4A EP3166123B1 (en) 2015-11-09 2015-11-09 Electrical switch
US15/346,244 US10199185B2 (en) 2015-11-09 2016-11-08 Electric switch

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP15193656.4A EP3166123B1 (en) 2015-11-09 2015-11-09 Electrical switch

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EP3166123A1 EP3166123A1 (en) 2017-05-10
EP3166123B1 true EP3166123B1 (en) 2018-05-02

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Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP15193656.4A Active EP3166123B1 (en) 2015-11-09 2015-11-09 Electrical switch

Country Status (2)

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US (1) US10199185B2 (en)
EP (1) EP3166123B1 (en)

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112466697A (en) 2020-11-27 2021-03-09 科都电气股份有限公司 Electric switch

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2551858C2 (en) * 1975-11-19 1986-09-18 Honeywell Gmbh, 6000 Frankfurt Limit switch
US7318313B2 (en) * 2003-01-31 2008-01-15 Freni Brembo S.P.A. Switch
DE502005007754C5 (en) * 2005-09-16 2012-08-23 Zf Friedrichshafen Ag Electric switch
ITVI20060145A1 (en) * 2006-05-15 2007-11-16 Pizzato Elettrica Srl POSITION SWITCH WITH MOBILE CONTACTS WITH FORCED DRIVE

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
None *

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EP3166123A1 (en) 2017-05-10
US10199185B2 (en) 2019-02-05
US20170133176A1 (en) 2017-05-11

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