EP3147418A1 - Light-weight and modular construction system - Google Patents

Light-weight and modular construction system Download PDF

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Publication number
EP3147418A1
EP3147418A1 EP15795812.5A EP15795812A EP3147418A1 EP 3147418 A1 EP3147418 A1 EP 3147418A1 EP 15795812 A EP15795812 A EP 15795812A EP 3147418 A1 EP3147418 A1 EP 3147418A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
panels
structural
closure
lightweight
construction system
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP15795812.5A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP3147418A4 (en
Inventor
Fernando Garate Churruca
Unai ALDAMA ELORZA
Antxon Galiana
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Cidark System Sl
Fiark Internacional Sl
Original Assignee
Cidark System Sl
Fiark Internacional Sl
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to ES201400458 priority Critical
Application filed by Cidark System Sl, Fiark Internacional Sl filed Critical Cidark System Sl
Priority to PCT/ES2015/000069 priority patent/WO2015177385A1/en
Publication of EP3147418A1 publication Critical patent/EP3147418A1/en
Publication of EP3147418A4 publication Critical patent/EP3147418A4/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/02Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements
    • E04B1/14Structures consisting primarily of load-supporting, block-shaped, or slab-shaped elements the elements being composed of two or more materials
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/38Connections for building structures in general
    • E04B1/61Connections for building structures in general of slab-shaped building elements with each other
    • E04B1/6108Connections for building structures in general of slab-shaped building elements with each other the frontal surfaces of the slabs connected together
    • E04B1/6116Connections for building structures in general of slab-shaped building elements with each other the frontal surfaces of the slabs connected together by locking means on lateral surfaces
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/38Connections for building structures in general
    • E04B1/61Connections for building structures in general of slab-shaped building elements with each other
    • E04B2001/6195Connections for building structures in general of slab-shaped building elements with each other the slabs being connected at an angle, e.g. forming a corner

Abstract

Light, modular construction system
The lightweight, modular construction system is an alternative to traditional construction systems, providing advantages such as great flexibility, lightweight components, sustainability and structural strength against stresses such as wind or earthquakes, assembly speed, etc.
This is a construction system made up of five groups or main parts. All the joins between the different groups and elements in the system are made using nuts and bolts.
Starting structure and levelling
The function of the starter structure and the levelling is to get perfect levelling for the building to operate and be assembled and to anchor the structure correctly to the foundation. The main elements are the starter frames and the anchoring plates.
The starter frames are made up of structural galvanised steel tubes welded together whilst the anchoring plates are structural steel parts that are anchored to the foundation by means of threaded rods and to the starter frame.
Structural vertical panels
These panels are composed of an internal steel frame, rockwool insulation in the core and a board on either side as a closure.
The frame is made up of type C galvanised open profiles, welded together. The frames also have perforated holes and rivet nuts to allow subsequent assembly screwing between several panels and elements in the system.
For the closure boards, the materials used as a general rule are fibre-cement, chipboard, cement wood and laminated plaster, with variable thicknesses between 8 and 12 millimetres.
The main joins between vertical structural panels and between the horizontal structural elements are made using 55 mm thick galvanised steel assembly plates.
Horizontal structure and closure
The slab is composed of a main metal structure and a sandwich panel closure screwed to this metal structure using self-tapping screws.
The main metal structure is made up of type C or Z structural steel open profiles.
The closure sandwich panels are composed of two sides of fibre-cement boards and a glued thermal core of thermal-acoustic insulation made of extruded polystyrene or high density rockwool.
Roof sub-structure
The sub-structure forming the roof slope is made up of one-off structural elements, roof trusses or triangulated structures made using rectangular and square tubes welded together, made of cold laminated galvanised steel.
Metal sandwich type panels are used as a closure or final coating on the building roof.
Non structural inner partitions
The inner divisions are based on a system of sandwich panels and upper and lower channels made of galvanised steel profiles.
The technical panels are configured by non structural vertical panels although they house an important set of installation networks that are required for damp and general areas and rooms in the building.

Description

    AIM OF THE INVENTION
  • As expressed in the statement for this design brief, this invention refers to a light, industrialised, modular construction system that is easy to assemble without requiring any special or large machinery. It comprises elements of building structure and general closure, both façades and indoor divisions, plus a new definition and integration of the cable and network laying for indoor installations required for the building to operate.
  • The aim of the invention is to achieve simple, fast, dry assembly, not requiring large or special machinery, of a building composed of permanent industrialised manufacturing parts that can reach up to four storeys and be used for different purposes abiding by different conditioning factors both from the environment and the project.
  • BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION
  • Construction technology is currently going through many changes and developing new and existing prefabricated and industrialised systems as an alternative to traditional building methods and in order to reduce consequential times and costs. Within these systems, there are three main groups: containers, Light Steel Framing and sheet steel sandwich panels.
  • The first group have three main disadvantages such as standard rigidity (given that the building configuration can only be the sum of the containers), limitations related to transporting sections and the need for auxiliary equipment and special machinery for assembly.
  • On the other hand, Light Steel Framing construction systems are solutions that make great inroads towards optimising transport of the different parts to the job site and also provide design flexibility. However, much less industrialisation and pre-fabricating is required and assembly work is longer and more laborious. In addition, the type of joins and profiles do not normally allow buildings to be constructed higher than two storeys.
  • Finally, constructions made of sheet steel sandwich panels are unstable constructions with little structural solidity. This explains why it is rare to see them on buildings more than one storey high and they offer very limited levels of comfort, efficiency and sustainability, more characteristic of temporary or emergency constructions. This solution is widely used in warehouses or industrial and fanning stores.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The prefabricated and industrialised construction system in the invention is presented as a solution to the majority of the weaknesses identified in the background section, and as an alternative to traditional construction systems, providing advantages such as:
    • Great flexibility to provide custom-built designs and extensions both vertically and horizontally.
    • Light components, in order to facilitate and optimise transport and assembly.
    • Dry construction, without requiring significant water resources or cement/concrete.
    • Great sustainability and structural strength against the wind and seismic activity.
    • Fast assembly by using screwed joins and assemblies.
    • Significant percentage of component reuse.
    • Good levels of energy efficiency and comfort.
    • Possibility of incorporating systems to use solar, wind and geothermal energy.
    • Minimum waste generation in the manufacturing and site assembly process.
    • Use of new and recycled environmentally-friendly materials.
  • This is a construction system composed of five groups or main parts: the starter structure and levelling, vertical structural panels, structure and horizontal slab closure, substructure and roof closure, non structural inner panels for partitions and installations. All joins between the different groups and elements in the system are made using high strength fasteners and self-tapping screws, thereby making the assembly and dismantling process easier without requiring a highly specialised workforce.
  • It should be highlighted that this type of construction can be adapted to a wide variety of terrains and foundations that might be surface, deep, semi-deep, prefabricated or made in situ.
  • Given the light weight of the building parts, significantly less stresses and loads are transmitted through the constructions to the ground compared to traditional systems.
  • The different aforementioned main groups and their component parts are listed below:
  • STARTER STRUCTURE AND LEVELLING:
  • The function of the starter structure and the levelling is to get perfect levelling for the building to operate and be assembled and to anchor the structure correctly to the foundation.
  • Depending on the existing conditioning factors for each project and the type of building, the starter structure can be raised and braced to a greater or lesser extent. As a general rule, a starter structure and ground floor mezzanine will be used that are sufficiently raised to easily lay general networks for building installations and maintenance, in addition to providing greater insulation from the earth.
  • The main elements of the invention for this group are the starter frames identified with number (2) and the anchoring plates, identified as number (1). The starter frames (2) are composed of structural steel tubes that have been cold laminated and galvanised, welded together and with rivet nuts required to connect up with other elements in the system. The thickness of the steel and the galvanising characteristics might vary depending on the conditioning factors of the building and its environment.
  • The anchoring plates (1) are rectangular elements, also made of cold laminated, galvanised structural steel, that are anchored to the foundation by means of threaded rods or bolts and to the starter frame (2) by high strength screws. Some of these plates are fitted independently and others are welded to the starter frames (2) to streamline assembly and general layout. The starter structure is levelled by using a nut and locknut on the threaded rods.
  • STRUCTURAL VERTICAL PANELS
  • This is the main and most singular element of the system as it represents both the vertical supporting structure and the building closure and insulation. These panels are composed of an internal steel frame, rockwool insulation in the core and a board on either side as closure ( figure 9 ).
  • The frame is made up of C type open profiles, made of cold laminated, galvanised structural steel, type S28GD or similar. The galvanising thickness will depend on climatic conditions and on the environment where the building is located which can vary its characteristics in each project and even substitute this galvanising for protection using paint.
  • The profiles are joined together by welding, riveting and screwing, thereby making a rectangular structure. The frames also have perforated holes and rivet nuts to allow subsequent assembly screwing between several panels and elements in the system. The welding is protected with zinc-rich paint to avoid any possible metal oxidation processes.
  • The choice of the rockwool density will depend above all on acoustic requirements determined by the customer and the type of building. Insulation material can also vary: polyurethane, extruded and expanded polystyrene, rockwool or ecological insulation such as sheep's wool, cork or cellulose.
  • For the closure boards, the materials used are generally fibre-cement, chipboard, cement wood and laminated plaster, with thicknesses varying between 8 and 12 millimetres. In any case, these materials have to be weather resistant so that they can be used as external final finishes.
  • In terms of fastening the boards to the metal frame, the system is designed so they can be fitted using screws, rivets or glue. Screwing will use self-tapping zinc-plated or galvanised screws with a sealing perimeter using neutral elastic silicon or a self-adhesive impermeable tape.
  • It is important to mention that the panels are shaped in the factory so they are delivered as a finished set, ready for assembly.
  • The structural vertical panels can be classified by their function and by their geometry ( figure 10 ). Due to its function and location within the building, the system has structural façade panels and structural partition panels; and thanks to its geometry, the system includes blind panels (11), window panels (12), door panels (13) or hatch panels (14).
  • Panels come with the framework and glass fitted and sealed from the factory. Aluminium frames and tempered or safety glass is used to minimise breakages in assembly and transport.
  • These panels are also used as technical installation elements, housing the necessary elements for laying and connecting electricity, water, sewage and telecommunications installations; this reduces assembly time on site and improves quality control from the factory. Each project will determine the degree of pre-installation required in the panels.
  • Parts are assembled within the system by screwed joins. The main structural elements are assembled using high strength 12 mm metric screws, washers and nuts.
  • The main joins between vertical structural panels and between the horizontal structural elements are made using 55 mm thick galvanised steel assembly plates. These parts are used as a nexus between the structural elements, joining them and getting them to work together in the building as a whole ( figure 11 , 12 and 13 ).
  • Finally, regarding the set of elements making up the group of structural and vertical panels, the horizontal and vertical intermediate seal generated between them has been arranged to assemble the structural panels. This seal is a fundamental part of the system preventing damp from entering using a silicon self-adhesive strip. This part provides thermal and acoustic insulation and also reduces the general transmission of vibrations between the different metal parts in the construction system.
  • HORIZONTAL STRUCTURE AND CLOSURE
  • The horizontal structure is based on a dry construction solution, in other words it does not require hydraulic materials such as mortar, cement, concrete or plaster. This allows greater pre-fabrication, light weight and modulation.
  • The slabs are composed of a main metal structure and a sandwich panel closure screwed to this metal structure using self-tapping screws. The false ceiling and the floor coatings or finishes are secondary elements of the mezzanine package. They vary according to each project's requirements ( figure 3 , 5 and 7 ).
  • The main metal structure is composed of type C or Z S280 GD galvanised structural steel open profiles. The sheet metal is between 1.5 mm and 3mm thick and with edges between 120mm and 250 mm, depending on structural needs. These profiles are die-cut on the ends to be able to connect them using joins screwed to the vertical structural panel join plates ( figure 12 ). Their structural operation will involve a bi-articulated beam that will mainly transmit axial and cutting forces on both ends.
  • The closure sandwich panels are composed of two sides of fibre-cement boards and a glued thermal core of thermal-acoustic insulation made of extruded polystyrene or high density rockwool. These elements have the structural capacity to resist and transmit forces generated between beams and they are screwed to the main metal structure in order to avoid falling during assembly and to get better joint behaviour and the right transmission of forces.
  • SUB-STRUCTURE AND ROOF CLOSURE
  • The sub-structure (figure 7) to form the roof slope is made up of one-off structural elements, roof trusses or triangulated structures made using rectangular and square tubes welded together, made of cold laminated galvanised steel with S280GD structural quality, between 1.5 and 3 mm thick. This sub-structure is screwed to the structural vertical panels using steel joining plates with similar quality and screwed joins using bolts or high strength 12 mm metric screws.
  • To receive the final coating and closure for the roof, C and Z type straps are used, screwed to the aforementioned sub-structure using intermediate join parts and 12 mm metric high strength screws.
  • As closure or final coating for the building roof, metal sandwich panels are used, made up of two pre-lacquered, corrugated steel sheets 0.6 mm thick and a low density polyurethane core between 30 and 50 mm thick. These panels are screwed to the straps using 6 mm metric self-tapping screws. In order to avoid damp and rainwater filtrations inside the building, 0.6 mm thick pre-lacquered sheet steel finishes are fitted on ridges, eves, drain pipes and capstones.
  • This type of sub-structure and roof solution can give the construction system different shapes and slopes, thereby providing roofs with single, double or quadruple pitches, and variable slopes according to the project and site needs.
  • NON STRUCTURAL INDOOR PANELS FOR PARTITIONS AND INSTALLATIONS.
  • For indoor partitions, the construction system presented here uses two different solutions. The first, described below, is used for simple indoor divisions and the second is a specific solution to house common water, sewage and electricity installations for the building and for wet rooms such as bathrooms, toilets and kitchens.
  • The simple interior divisions solution (9) is based on a system of self-supporting partitions, made up of sandwich panels and upper and lower channels made of cold laminated, galvanised steel profiles. The sandwich panels are similar to those described for horizontal closures and can vary in overall thickness due to project requirements. In addition, they can hold protection ducts, register boxes and consumption points for electricity and telecommunications installations inside or on their surface. These panels have channelled, tongue and grooved edges to be able to slot them into the aforementioned lower and upper profiles screwed together. These profiles are firstly screwed both to the slab and to the false ceiling by means of self-tapping screws. This system does not require vertical continuity between floors ( figure 7 ).
  • The second system mentioned, known as the technical panel system (10), is configured by non structural vertical panels although housing an important set of installation networks that are required for damp and general areas and rooms in the building. Technical panels are manufactured in the workshop and they comprise an inner structure made up of open profiles made of cold laminated, galvanised steel, similar to those used in self-supporting structures for partitions made of laminated plaster, fibre-cement closure boards, inner rockwool insulation and inner installations for hydraulics, electricity, telecommunications or ventilation and air conditioning.
  • It is an almost obligatory architectonic design condition in buildings with several storeys that there should be vertical continuity between these technical panels, to improve assembly and maintenance plus connections for the different general installation networks. Designing these panels from slab to false ceiling or from slab to slab facilitates these connections.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • In order to aid better comprehension of the invention's features, an integral part of this description includes a series of drawings that, illustratively and non-exhaustively, represent the following:
    • Figure 1 - Shows a representation from the perspective of the anchoring plates on a building's foundation, according to the construction system used in the invention.
    • Figure 2 - Shows a similar representation to above where the building starter and levelling phase has begun.
    • Figure 3 - Shows the assembly of the first slab and horizontal structure on the ground floor.
    • Figure 4 - Shows the assembly of the vertical structural panels (3) that configure the façade closure and structural inner divisions on the ground floor and also the non structural (9) and installation (10) vertical divisions.
    • Figure 5 - Shows the assembly of the slab on the first floor that will be similar to figure 3.
    • Figure 6 - Shows the assembly of the vertical structural panels shaping the façade closure and structural inner divisions on the first floor and also the non structural and installation vertical divisions.
    • Figure 7 - Shows the assembly of the slab for the second floor or the low roof that will be similar to figures (3, 5) and the metal sub-structure of the roof.
    • Figure 8 - Shows a representation of the sample building completed with its main elements and with the finished roof coating
    • Figure 9 - Shows the breakdown of a standard structural vertical panel (3).
    • Figure 10 - Shows a geometric classification of the vertical structural panels (3) between which there are blind panels (11), window panels (12), door panels (13) or hatch panels (14).
    • Figure 11 - Shows a steel plate that is used as a join between four vertical structural panels.
    • Figure 12 - Shows a steel plate that is used as a join between four vertical structural panels and a beam from the slab horizontal metal structure.
    • Figure 13 - Shows a steel plate that is used as a join between four vertical structural panels forming a corner with a 90° angle.
    • Figure 14 - Shows a standard steel profile, of variable length, that forms part of the main horizontal steel structure of horizontal slabs.

Claims (9)

  1. Industrialised, prefabricated, lightweight and modular system envisaged for buildings up to four storeys or more that is characterised by constituting a metal anchoring structure (1), starter and levelling (2), some vertical structural panels (3) as a closure and thermal and acoustic insulation on the façade and partitioning, with the specific feature that these panels are screwed together and to the rest of the system's structural elements by means of intermediate steel plates (4) and screwed joins using high strength screws making articulated joins but which together give a uniform, wall-like shape to these panels (3). These panels (3) transmit the stresses or loads from the slab and the use of the building to the foundations, plus any deriving from environmental conditioning factors such as wind, snow or earthquakes. The slabs will not use hydraulic materials such as concrete and they are made up of a main horizontal metal structure (5), and a top closure using sandwich panel (6) with a variable configuration, screwed to the horizontal metal structure (5). It has a roof with the capacity to adopt different shapes and slopes thanks to a metal sub-structure (7) and a closure and coating using a metal sandwich panel (8) with variable thicknesses, qualities and materials, screwed to this sub-structure (7).
  2. Industrialised, prefabricated, lightweight and modular construction system, according to claim 1, characterised because all its component parts are dry and do not require hydraulic materials such as concrete or cement.
  3. Industrialised, prefabricated, lightweight and modular construction system, according to claim 1, characterised by the fact its anchoring elements (1) can be fixed to any type of foundation, permitting appropriate levelling to help assembly and improve the building's structural behaviour.
  4. Industrialised, prefabricated, lightweight and modular construction system, according to previous claims, characterised by the starter and levelling structure (2), is used as an element to transmit forces to the anchoring (1) and foundations, and it is screwed to this and to the remaining structural elements by means of screwed joins and intermediate steel plates (4) and it can vary in height to allow passage and assembly of installations between the ground floor and the foundations.
  5. Industrialised, prefabricated, lightweight and modular construction system, according to previous claims, characterised because the vertical structural panels (3) play a structural role, a thermal and acoustic insulation role, a sealing role and a room closing role. In addition, they are able to adopt different dimensions in terms of height, width and thickness and different compositions regarding boards for closing, inner insulation and inner structural profiles. As they can be screwed together using intermediate steel plates (4), these panels can also house hydraulic, electrical, Telecom and gas installations.
  6. Industrialised, prefabricated, lightweight and modular construction system, according to previous claims, characterised by the horizontal slab structure being composed of a main metal structure of steel profiles (5) with variable geometry and screwed to the vertical structural panels (3) by means of intermediate steel plates (4) and by a horizontal closure using sandwich panels (6) with variable composition in terms of geometry, closing boards and inner insulation.
  7. Industrialised, prefabricated, lightweight and modular construction system, according to previous claims, characterised by having self-supporting non structural inner divisions (9) that can adopt both the solution explained in the invention description and a typical self-supporting partition made of laminated plaster.
  8. Industrialised, prefabricated, lightweight and modular construction system, according to previous claims, characterised by having self-supporting, non structural inner divisions (10) with the function of housing the main networks for the hydraulic, sewage, electrical, Telecom and gas installations, for special or damp premises and for the whole building.
  9. Industrialised, prefabricated, lightweight and modular construction system, according to previous claims, characterised because the roof can be made according to different geometric shapes, thanks to a metal substructure (7) made up of one-off or linear elements like roof trusses and steel profile straps, screwed together and to the vertical structural panels.
EP15795812.5A 2014-05-23 2015-05-25 Light-weight and modular construction system Withdrawn EP3147418A4 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
ES201400458 2014-05-23
PCT/ES2015/000069 WO2015177385A1 (en) 2014-05-23 2015-05-25 Light-weight and modular construction system

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EP3147418A1 true EP3147418A1 (en) 2017-03-29
EP3147418A4 EP3147418A4 (en) 2018-02-21

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107217736A (en) * 2017-06-27 2017-09-29 浙江绿筑集成科技有限公司 The construction method of modular architectural mechanism and building block
CN113006269A (en) * 2021-03-05 2021-06-22 兰州有色冶金设计研究院有限公司 Construction method of sandwich earth wall house structure system

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
AT507179B1 (en) * 2008-07-31 2011-04-15 Walter Boesch Gmbh & Co Kg ARRANGEMENT WITH AT LEAST ONE FIRST COMPONENT
WO2011061414A1 (en) * 2009-11-23 2011-05-26 Jimenez, Michel Support structure

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107217736A (en) * 2017-06-27 2017-09-29 浙江绿筑集成科技有限公司 The construction method of modular architectural mechanism and building block
CN113006269A (en) * 2021-03-05 2021-06-22 兰州有色冶金设计研究院有限公司 Construction method of sandwich earth wall house structure system

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