EP1416077A2 - Three-dimensional microfibrous fabric with a suede-like effect and method for its preparation - Google Patents

Three-dimensional microfibrous fabric with a suede-like effect and method for its preparation Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1416077A2
EP1416077A2 EP20030024348 EP03024348A EP1416077A2 EP 1416077 A2 EP1416077 A2 EP 1416077A2 EP 20030024348 EP20030024348 EP 20030024348 EP 03024348 A EP03024348 A EP 03024348A EP 1416077 A2 EP1416077 A2 EP 1416077A2
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Prior art keywords
yarns
fabric according
characterized
component
dimensional
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EP20030024348
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1416077A3 (en )
Inventor
Carmine Amato Ammirati
Giuseppe Serravezza
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Alcantara SpA
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Alcantara SpA
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04BKNITTING
    • D04B21/00Warp knitting processes for the production of fabrics or articles not dependent on the use of particular machines; Fabrics or articles defined by such processes
    • D04B21/14Fabrics characterised by the incorporation by knitting, in one or more thread, fleece, or fabric layers, of reinforcing, binding, or decorative threads; Fabrics incorporating small auxiliary elements, e.g. for decorative purposes
    • D04B21/16Fabrics characterised by the incorporation by knitting, in one or more thread, fleece, or fabric layers, of reinforcing, binding, or decorative threads; Fabrics incorporating small auxiliary elements, e.g. for decorative purposes incorporating synthetic threads
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04BKNITTING
    • D04B21/00Warp knitting processes for the production of fabrics or articles not dependent on the use of particular machines; Fabrics or articles defined by such processes
    • D04B21/02Pile fabrics or articles having similar surface features
    • D04B21/04Pile fabrics or articles having similar surface features characterised by thread material
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06NWALL, FLOOR OR LIKE COVERING MATERIALS, e.g. LINOLEUM, OILCLOTH, ARTIFICIAL LEATHER, ROOFING FELT, CONSISTING OF A FIBROUS WEB COATED WITH A LAYER OF MACROMOLECULAR MATERIAL; FLEXIBLE SHEET MATERIAL NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06N3/00Artificial leather, oilcloth or other material obtained by covering fibrous webs with macromolecular material, e.g. resins, rubber or derivatives thereof
    • D06N3/0002Artificial leather, oilcloth or other material obtained by covering fibrous webs with macromolecular material, e.g. resins, rubber or derivatives thereof characterised by the substrate
    • D06N3/0004Artificial leather, oilcloth or other material obtained by covering fibrous webs with macromolecular material, e.g. resins, rubber or derivatives thereof characterised by the substrate using ultra-fine two-component fibres, e.g. island/sea, or ultra-fine one component fibres (< 1 denier)
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06NWALL, FLOOR OR LIKE COVERING MATERIALS, e.g. LINOLEUM, OILCLOTH, ARTIFICIAL LEATHER, ROOFING FELT, CONSISTING OF A FIBROUS WEB COATED WITH A LAYER OF MACROMOLECULAR MATERIAL; FLEXIBLE SHEET MATERIAL NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06N3/00Artificial leather, oilcloth or other material obtained by covering fibrous webs with macromolecular material, e.g. resins, rubber or derivatives thereof
    • D06N3/0002Artificial leather, oilcloth or other material obtained by covering fibrous webs with macromolecular material, e.g. resins, rubber or derivatives thereof characterised by the substrate
    • D06N3/0009Artificial leather, oilcloth or other material obtained by covering fibrous webs with macromolecular material, e.g. resins, rubber or derivatives thereof characterised by the substrate using knitted fabrics
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D06TREATMENT OF TEXTILES OR THE LIKE; LAUNDERING; FLEXIBLE MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06NWALL, FLOOR OR LIKE COVERING MATERIALS, e.g. LINOLEUM, OILCLOTH, ARTIFICIAL LEATHER, ROOFING FELT, CONSISTING OF A FIBROUS WEB COATED WITH A LAYER OF MACROMOLECULAR MATERIAL; FLEXIBLE SHEET MATERIAL NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D06N3/00Artificial leather, oilcloth or other material obtained by covering fibrous webs with macromolecular material, e.g. resins, rubber or derivatives thereof
    • D06N3/007Artificial leather, oilcloth or other material obtained by covering fibrous webs with macromolecular material, e.g. resins, rubber or derivatives thereof characterised by mechanical or physical treatments
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D10INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10BINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLASSES OF SECTION D, RELATING TO TEXTILES
    • D10B2403/00Details of fabric structure established in the fabric forming process
    • D10B2403/01Surface features
    • D10B2403/011Dissimilar front and back faces
    • D10B2403/0111One hairy surface, e.g. napped or raised

Abstract

Three-dimensional, microfibrous fabric with a programmed composition of effect, reinforcing and binding yarns. Said fabric is prepared by means of the three-dimensional weaving of a programmed combination of filaments with a high fineness, filaments with an ordinary fineness and filaments with a high thickness and/or resilience.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a three-dimensional microfibrous suede-like fabric, simulating natural leather, and its preparation method.
  • Non-woven materials whose appearance and characteristics are similar to natural leather, and which also have a mechanical resistance and resistance to chemical agents higher than the natural product, are known in the prior art.
  • These materials are normally produced through a process which comprises the following steps:
    • preparation of a microfiber generally consisting of synthetic polymers, by the co-extrusion of the selected polymer with a second polymer, through a particular spinneret, so that the cross-section of the bi-component fiber appears as a combination of microfibers held together by the co-extruded polymer;
    • preparation of a felt comprising the above microfiber;
    • chemical or mechanical treatment to obtain the separation of the microfiber from the co-extruded component;
    • impregnation with polymeric binders;
    • mechanical treatment to obtain the suede-like effect;
    • dyeing and finishing of the non-woven fabric.
  • Each step, in turn, is effected through a series of complex operations, which makes the process according to the known art extremely laborious.
  • The materials obtained, however, have a feel, appearance and consistency comparable to those of natural leather: these materials are consequently particularly valuable due to the above characteristics and are widely used in the clothing industry and for accessories, unpholstery, and vehicle interiors.
  • The complexity of the operating steps, however, increases costs and reduces the flexibility of the production cycle and the product itself, limiting the possibility of diversifying the end-product and giving it additional specific properties.
  • Furthermore, the use of a polymeric binder, normally polyurethane, makes the manufacturing process more complex and reduces the possibilities of the direct recycling of the final product.
  • For use in the field of upholstery and car interior it may be necessary to combine the material with woven or knitted fabrics with expanded plastic material, in order to provide the required resistance and/or rigidity. This implies a further production step, which involves an additional complication in the embodiment of the process in question.
  • Attempts have been made to overcome the above drawbacks by at least partially substituting the polymeric binder, particularly in the case of polyurethane, with woven materials. In industrial practice, other microfibrous fabrics with a suede-like surface are also known, which are manufactured through a process which includes the following steps:
    • preparation of continuous synthetic yarns made of highly fine filaments, obtained by direct spinning or by the co-extrusion of the selected polymer with a second polymer, through a particular spinneret, so that the cross-section of each filament seems to consist of a group of microfibers held together by the co-extruded polymer;
    • preparation of a fabric wherein the above continuous yarns are possibly combined with continuous yarns having an ordinary fineness;
    • chemical or mechanical treatment to obtain the separation of the microfiber from the co-extruded component;
    • mechanical treatment to obtain the suede-like effect;
    • dyeing and finishing of the fabric.
  • These materials are thus obtained with a simpler manufacturing process, which allows a higher flexibility in the construction, due to the possible combination of the micro-fibrous component with components having an ordinary fineness, with different specific properties, for example elasticity and resistance. These materials, however, are normally less valuable than the previous ones and far from the natural product, in terms of feel, appearance and consistency.
  • In order to enhance the mechanical characteristics of the product, the use of knitting looms, of the type known as a Raschel warp knitting machine which, in its multi-bar form, can allow the production of a three-dimensional fabric, has also been described. According to the relative known art, this device allows a knitted fabric to be obtained through the formation of knitting stitches around two series of needle bars which create the two surfaces of the material of interest, randomly joined.
  • The Applicant has now surprisingly found, and this forms the object of the present invention, that it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional weaving process, by suitably combining highly fine filaments, filaments with an ordinary fineness and filaments with a high thickness and/or resilience, thus obtaining a three-dimensional microfibrous fabric, also object of the present invention, which, after being subjected to a finishing process, forms a material, also object of the present invention, with a feel and appearance similar to those of natural leather.
  • The main object of the present invention therefore relates to a three-dimensional microfibrous fabric, with a programmed composition of effect yarns, reinforcing and binding yarns, obtained through a three-dimensional weaving process, also object of the present invention, which comprises effecting the weaving itself by means of a suitable combination of highly fine filaments, filaments with an ordinary fineness and filaments with a high thickness and/or resilience. A further object of the present invention relates to a three-dimensional microfibrous material with a feel and appearance similar to those of natural leather, obtained by subjecting the above three-dimensional microfibrous material to subsequent processing steps, selected and arranged in relation to the required characteristics of the end-product.
  • According to a preferential embodiment, the three-dimensional weaving process according to the present invention, is effected using a Raschel warp knitting loom of the double needle-bar type with at least four feeding bars: for the sake of simplicity, the present description will refer, hereinafter, to the use of this specific loom, it being understood that this detail is intended for purely illustrative purposes, without limiting the scope of the invention in any way.
  • With reference therefore to a three-dimensional weaving process based on the use of a Raschel warp knitting loom with a double needle-bar, the construction of the three-dimensional fabric is effected by means of the following steps for the formation of knitting stitches:
    • one or more feeding bars, threaded to form together a full set of yarns, called effect yarns, overlap the first needle bar, creating the upper surface of the fabric;
    • one or more feeding bars, threaded to form together a full set of yams, called reinforcing yarns, overlap the second needle bar, creating the lower surface of the fabric;
    • two or more feeding bars, threaded to form together a full set of yarns, called binding yarns, overlap both needle bars, creating at the same time the binding and spacing between the two surfaces of the fabric.
  • The appropriate selection of the components allows a high flexibility in the specific designing of the mechanical characteristics, thickness, consistency, appearance and elasticity and enables suitable properties to be obtained, for use in the various fields of application without having to resort to supplementary production steps. Finally, the fabric, object of the invention, is characterized by a zero or negligible content of polymeric binders with a consequent recycling simplicity.
  • Continuous textured polyester yarns with a nominal count of 33 to 344 dtex, can be used as reinforcing yarns. For example, a textured polyester yarn with a nominal count of 78 dtex and with 36 filaments, can be used. Although the choice of continuous polyester yarns is preferable, polyamide yarns, both textured and drawn, can be alternatively used and possibly also synthetic, artificial or natural continuous yarns or spun yarns from synthetic, artificial or natural short fibers.
  • The ratio between the weight of the reinforcing yarns and the total weight of the three-dimensional fabric varies from 5 to 60%.
  • Effect yarns which can be used are continuous bi-component yarns from synthetic polymers, obtained by the co-extrusion of two polymers so that the cross-section of each of the filaments forming the yarn appears to consist of smaller sections of the two different polymers which can be separated into two components by means of mechanical or chemical treatment. The nominal count of these yarns can vary from 50 to 344 dtex, the ratio between the two polymers can range from 85/15 to 50/50, the count of the single filaments after separation into the two components, ranges from 0.001 to 1.0 dtex. The first polymer, present in a quantity equal to or greater than the second, is preferably polyester. Alternatively, it can be polyamide. The second polymer is a polymer which has a poor compatibility with the first polymer or is easily soluble in solvents which do not attack the first polymer.
  • Although the selection of bi-component continuous yarns is preferable, it is also possible to alternatively use cotton or woolen spun yarns; carded, semi-combed or combed yarns, yarns from bi-component short fibres obtained by the co-extrusion of two polymers so that the cross-section of each of the fibers appears to consist of smaller sections of the two different polymers which can be separated into the two components by means of mechanical or chemical treatment.
  • The count of the fibres can vary from 1 to 13 dtex and their length from 25 to 150 mm, the ratio between the two polymers can vary from 85/15 to 50/50, the count of the fibres obtained after separation into the two components ranges from 0.001 to 1.0 dtex. The first polymer, present in a quantity equal to or greater than the second, is preferably polyester. Alternatively, it can be polyamide. The second polymer is a polymer which has a poor compatibility with the first polymer or is easily soluble in solvents which do not attack the first polymer.
  • In a subsequent alternative, continuous mono-component polyester yarns can be used, both drawn and textured, with a count of the single filaments varying from 0.2 to 5 dtex, or also continuous polyamide yarns, both drawn and textured, or possibly also other continuous synthetic, artificial or natural yarns or spun yarns from synthetic, artificial or natural short fibers.
  • The yarns described in the previous paragraphs can be previously combined in one of the spinning process phases, or subsequently by doubling and twisting, air interlacing or covering, with drawn or textured continuous synthetic yarns having an ordinary fineness.
  • The ratio between the weight of the effect yarns and the total weight of the three-dimensional fabric varies from 10 to 70%.
  • It has been observed that the selection of binding yarns allows the desired characteristics of the end-product to be regulated. Using continuous yams from mono-filament synthetic polymers, with a count ranging from 22 to 156 dtex, it is possible to obtain three-dimensional fabrics which are well spaced and with a high resilience. The choice of continuous mono-filament polyester yarns is preferable, but alternatively, drawn, textured or partially oriented continuous yarns can be used, with one or more filaments made of polyester, polyamide or other thermoplastic polymers.
  • Continuous yarns from polyurethane elastomers wet or dry spun, with a count ranging from 11 to 230 dtex, can be used for providing greater compactness and elasticity.
  • Alternatively, bi-component continuous yarns can be used with a count ranging from 33 to 240 dtex consisting of several filaments each of which having a cross-section which appears to consist of two adjacent sections of two different polymers characterized by different shrinkage. It is preferable for both polymers to be of a polyester nature but other thermoplastic polymers can be alternatively used.
  • According to a further preferential aspect of the process of the present invention, the density of the three-dimensional fabric can be increased and a greater consistency conferred, typical of natural leather, by previously combining the above yarns with micro-filament bi-component continuous yarns of the same type as those described as effect yarns. The combining is effected by air interlacing or by simple covering or preferably by double covering. In the case of interlacing, from 30 to 120 false knots are applied per meter using known technologies and machines. In the case of covering, the core yarn is covered, using technologies and machines known in the field, by a first yarn to which from 100 to 1000 twists are applied per meter in the direction S or z and optionally by a second yarn to which the same number of twists are applied in the opposite direction.
  • Although the selection of bi-component continuous yarns is preferable for the combining, drawn or textured, mono-component polyester continuous yarns, can also be alternatively used, with a count of the single filaments varying from 0.2 to 5 dtex, or also polyamide continuous yarns, drawn or textured, or optionally also synthetic, artificial or natural continuous yarns or yarns from synthetic, artificial or natural short fibers.
  • Again for the purpose of increasing the density of the three-dimensional fabric, although covered binding yarns are preferable, it is possible to alternatively use cotton or woolen core-spun yarns produced using, as core, drawn, textured or partially oriented yarns with one or more filaments made of polyester, polyamide or other thermoplastic polymers which are covered during the spinning process by bi-component short fibers that can be separated into highly fine elementary fibers, by means of the twisting of the latter. In this case, the overall count of the yarn ranges from Ne 60/1 to Ne 12/1 and the content of core yarn in the core-spun yarn is lower than or equal to 60%.
  • The ratio between the weight of the binding yarns and the total weight of the three-dimensional fabric varies from 10 to 80%.
  • The three-dimensional weaving is preferably effected using a Raschel warp knitting loom with a double needle bar having a fineness of 6 to 34 needles per inch. The thickness of the fabric is regulated up to 60 millimeters by varying the distance between the needle bars. The upper surface of the fabric has a structured appearance, with up to 34 columns of stitches per inch in an orthogonal direction to that of the machine and up to 44 stitches per inch in the direction of the machine. Alternatively, the upper surface can be characterized by columns with pile loops.
  • The lower surface can be produced with both an open appearance and with a structured appearance. The possible openings can be more or less large as for usual warp knitted fabrics.
  • In a variation of the invention described, the three-dimensional woven structure obtained with the programmed combination of effect, reinforcing and binding yarns is further combined with a non-woven structure obtained using bi-component short fibers from synthetic polymers, obtained by the co-extrusion of two polymers so that the cross-section of each of the fibers appears to consist of smaller sections of the two different polymers, which can be separated into two components by means of mechanical or chemical treatment. The count of the fibers can vary from 1 to 13 dtex and their length from 25 to 150 mm, the ratio between the two polymers can vary from 85/15 to 50/50, the count of the fibers obtained after the separation into the two components from 0.001 to 1.0 dtex. The first polymer, present in a quantity equal to or greater than the second, is preferably polyester. Alternatively, it can be polyamide. The second polymer is a polymer which has a poor compatibility with the first or is easily soluble in solvents which do not attack the first polymer
  • Although the choice of bi-component fibers is preferable, synthetic, artificial or natural mono-component fibers can also be alternatively used, with a count ranging from 0.5 to 13 dtex and a length of 25 to 150 mm.
  • The ratio between the weight of the non-woven structure and the weight of the three-dimensional woven structure can vary form 10 to 70%.
  • In a preferred embodiment, the combination between the woven and non-woven structures is obtained by directly feeding to the machine which effects the three-dimensional weaving, one or more webs consisting of the above fibers. The webs can be formed mechanically, aerodynamically, hydro-dynamically or with a die, with methods known in the field.
  • Alternatively, one or more webs can be previously mechanically subjected to cohesion, by adhesion, shrinkage or sewing. The non-woven structure thus obtained is subsequently combined with the three-dimensional fabric described above by adhesion, sewing or with other methods known in the art.
  • The raw fabric thus obtained must be subjected to subsequent processing phases, to obtain the microfibrous material which is a further object of the present invention.
    • I. separation of the microfiber
      A dissolution or swelling of one or the two components can be effected using, depending on the characteristics, organic solvents (halogenated hydrocarbons, aromatics, alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, phenols) or acid, neutral or alkaline aqueous solutions. Alternatively a thermal or mechanical treatment can be effected or high pressure water jets can be used;
    • II: mechanical grinding of the upper surface;
    • III. dyeing with groups of dyes suitable for the type of yarns used;
    • IV. application of finishing agents (softeners, antistatic agents, fire retardants, antibacterial agents, deodorants, perfumers).
      The different processing phases indicated above do not necessarily have to follow the order given but this can be varied by experts in the field in relation to the specific technologies used and the desired characteristics of the end-product.
      An impregnation phase with polyurethane can also be optionally included during the processing, under the following conditions:
    • V. optional impregnation with polyurethane.
  • According to a preferred embodiment, the polyurethane used can be in a solution of an organic solvent or dispersed in water. Polymers containing aromatic or aliphatic isocyanates, and also polyols of the polyethers, polyester, polycarbonate and acrylic type, can be used. For polymers dispersed in water, it is possible to use external emulsifying agents (anionic, cationic or non-ionic surface-active agents) or internal emulsifying agents (co-monomers) of the anionic or cationic type. In both cases, the polymers are extended with aliphatic, aromatic amines or with aliphatic or aromatic glycols. The subsequent coagulation of the polyurethane takes place in solutions of organic solvent or water with a concentration of the solvent of up to 50% and temperatures up to 50°C and subsequent drying in an oven. Alternatively, the product can be fixed by means of direct drying in an oven. In order to optimize the distribution of polyurethane in aqueous dispersion, the drying process can be carried out in suitable micro-wave heaters and can be preceded by a vaporizing step in an oven, fed with saturated vapour. The drying and coagulation process can be followed by high temperature thermal treatment to allow the cross-linking of the polyurethane.
  • The finished fabric thus obtained is suitable for use in various fields of application:
    • in the apparel industry for the production of items of garments, inserts or applications;
    • in the field of accessories, including bags, suitcases and footwear;
    • for car interiors;
    • in the furniture industry, for upholstery, for the production of heavy or darkening curtains or as wall covering;
    • for the production of heat and/or sound insulation panels;
    • as supporting or reinforcing structures;
    • for the production of gas or liquid filtering devices;
    • as an absorbing material.
  • The invention will appear more evident from the following examples which are provided for a more detailed description of the invention but which in no way limit its scope.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • A three-dimensional fabric with a suede-like effect is prepared using a Raschel double-bar warp knitting loom with the technology described above.
  • A textured continuous polyester yarn is used as reinforcing yarn, with the following characteristics:
    • Total nominal count: 78 dtex;
    • Number of filaments: 36;
    • Nominal count of the single filament: 2.17 dtex;
    • Section: round;
    • Tensile strength > 3.6 cN/dtex;
    • Elongation < 35%.
  • A bi-component micro-filament continuous yarn consisting of 80% of polyester and 20% of polyamide, is used as effect yarn. The cross-section of each filament appears to consist of 8 elementary portions of polyester held together by a polyamide matrix. The yarn has a nominal count of 83 dtex and is initially made up of 75 filaments. During the separation treatment, each of the filaments is subsequently divided into 8 portions obtaining an overall number of 600 filaments having an indicative fineness equal to 0.14 dtex.
  • A continuous polyester mono-filament of the type easily available on the market, is used as binding yarn, with:
    • Total nominal count: 33 dtex;
    • Number of filaments: 1;
    • Section: round;
    • Tensile strength > 3.6 cN/dtex;
    • Elongation < 35%.
  • Both the lower and upper surfaces of the fabric are produced with 28 stitches per inch in the direction of the machine and 28 columns of stitches per inch in an orthogonal direction to that of the machine. The thickness is 3 mm and the unitary weight higher than 200 gr/m2. The fabric thus obtained is subjected to scouring treatment in an alkaline aqueous solution and in the presence of detergents to eliminate the finishing oils present on the looped yarns.
  • The upper surface of the fabric is then subjected to mechanical grinding treatment to allow the separation of the microfiber and to obtain the suede-like effect.
  • The fabric is then dyed with dispersed dyestuffs at 130°C for 60 minutes.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • The same process is adopted as described in Example 1, but with the difference that a bi-component polyethyleneterephthalate micro-filament yarn and a polyester copolymer easily soluble in alkaline solution are used as effect yarn. The yarn has a nominal count of 85 dtex and consists of 36 filaments each of which having a cross-section which appears to consist in turn of polyethyleneterephthalate elementary filaments, dispersed in a matrix of the copolymer, like islands in the sea. In this case, the separation of the microfiber takes place with a treatment in alkaline solution, obtained at a temperature of 98°C, for 20' with a concentration of sodium hydroxide of up to 2% by weight with respect to the fabric. The fabric is then emerised and dyed with dispersed dyes.
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • The same process is adopted as described in Example 2, but with the difference that a composite yarn is used as binding yarn, obtained by combining, by means of covering in the direction S, a continuous polyester yarn having a count and characteristics analogous to those of Example 1, with a bi-component micro-filament continuous yarn of the same type as that used as effect yarn. The covering is effected according to a known technique using hollow spindle twisters of the type normally used for the covering of elastomeric yarns. The number of twists per meter of covering yarn is less than 800 tpm.
  • EXAMPLE 4
  • The same process is adopted as described in Example 3, but with the difference that a composite yarn is used as binding yarn, obtained by combining, by means of double covering, a continuous polyester mono-yarn with two ends of a bi-component micro-filament continuous yarn of the same type as that used as effect yarn. The first of the two yarn-ends is spiraled in the direction S and the second in the direction Z.
  • EXAMPLE 5
  • The same process is adopted as described in Example 4, but with the difference that a textured polybutyleneterephthalate yarn with a nominal count of 78 dtex, is used as reinforcing yarn. The scouring treatment allows the development of the retraction capacity of the polybutyleneterephthalate. A fabric is obtained, with analogous characteristics to that of Example 4 and with an elasticity of up to 20% in a longitudinal direction, i.e. in the machine direction.
  • EXAMPLE 6
  • The same process is adopted as described in Example 4, but with the difference that a textured polytrimethyleneterephthalate yarn is used, with a nominal count of 78 dtex.
  • EXAMPLE 7
  • The same process is adopted as described in Example 4, but with the difference that before the dyeing operation, the fabric is impregnated in an aqueous solution of polyurethane and subsequently dried and thermo-set. The end-fabric has a polyurethane content of up to 10% by weight with respect to the fabric itself.
  • EXAMPLE 8
  • A three-dimensional fabric with a shammy appearance was prepared by using a Raschel double-bar ladder-proof knitting loom, as in the previous examples.
  • As appearance yarn, a polyethylene terephthalate microfilament and a polyester copolymer easily soluble in alkali were used, in combination with high shrinkage polyester yarns.
  • As carrier yarn, use was made of a bicomponent continuous microfilament yarn constituted by polyethylene terephthalate and a polyester copolymer easily alkali soluble.
  • As binding yarn, use was made of a bicomponent continuous microfilament yarn constituted by polyethylene terephthalate and a polyester copolymer easily alkali soluble.
  • The obtained fabric is shown in figure 1. The thickness was 1 mm, the unit weight was 450 g/m2. It was subjected to a purge treatment in a 2% alkaline aqueous solution at the temperature of 100 °C, such to obtain the intermediate fabric shown in figure 2.
  • Subsequently , the fabric upper surface was subjected to a mechanical emerising treatment to allow the separation of the microfibre and the achievement of the shammy appearance.
  • The obtained product is shown in figure 3.
  • Then the product was subjected to dying with dispersed dyes at 130 °C for 60 minutes.

Claims (31)

  1. A three-dimensional microfibrous fabric with a programmed composition of effect, reinforcing and binding yarns.
  2. The fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the reinforcing yarns are selected from:
    drawn, textured or twisted continuous polyester yarns;
    drawn, textured or twisted continuous polyamide yarns;
    continuous yarns from other synthetic polymers;
    spun yarns from synthetic, natural or artificial short fibers.
  3. The fabric according to the previous claim, characterized in that the ratio between the weight of the reinforcing yarns and the overall weight of the three-dimensional fabric varies from 5 to 60%.
  4. The fabric according to claim 1, characterized in that the effect yarns are selected from:
    bi-component continuous yarns from synthetic, drawn or textured polymers;
    cotton or woolen spun yarns; carded, semi-combed or combed, from bi-component short fibres;
    drawn or textured, mono-component polyester or polyamide continuous yarns;
    continuous yarns from other synthetic polymers;
    artificial or natural continuous yarns;
    spun yarns from synthetic, natural or artificial short fibers.
  5. The fabric according to claim 4, wherein the continuous yarns or bi-component fibers are obtained by the co-extrusion of two polymers.
  6. The fabric according to claim 5, wherein the cross-section of each fiber or continuous filament appears to consist of smaller sections of the two different polymers.
  7. The fabric according to claim 4, wherein the effect yarns have been previously combined by doubling and twisting, air interlacing or covering, with drawn or textured continuous synthetic yarns having an ordinary fineness.
  8. The fabric according to claim 4, characterized in that the ratio between the weight of the effect yarns and the overall weight of the three-dimensional fabric varies from 10 to 70%.
  9. The fabric according claim 1, characterized in that the binding yarns are selected from: drawn, textured, partially oriented, or twisted continuous polyester yarns; consisting of one or more filaments;
    drawn, textured, partially oriented, or twisted continuous polyamide yarns; consisting of one or more filaments;
    continuous yarns from other thermoplastic polymers;
    continuous yarns from wet or dry spun polyurethane elastomers;
    bi-component continuous yarns consisting of two different synthetic polymers with different shrinkage.
  10. The fabric according to claim 9, characterized in that the binding yarns have been previously combined by air interlacing or covering, simple or double, with bi-component continuous yarns from synthetic, drawn or textured polymers.
  11. The fabric according to claim 10, wherein the bi-component continuous yarns are produced by the co-extrusion of two polymers so that the cross-section of the fiber appears to consist of smaller sections of the two different polymers.
  12. The fabric according to claim 9, characterized in that the ratio between the weight of the binding yarns and the overall weight of the three-dimensional fabric varies from 10 to 80%.
  13. The three-dimensional microfibrous fabric according to one or more of the claims from 1 to 12, further combined with a non-woven structure consisting of short fibers.
  14. The fabric according to claim 13, characterized in that the short fibers are selected from:
    bi-component fibers produced by the co-extrusion of two polymers so that the cross-section of the fiber appears to consist of smaller sections of the two different polymers;
    synthetic, artificial or natural mono-component fibers.
  15. The fabric according to claim 14, characterized in that the combination between the woven and non-woven structures is obtained by directly feeding to the machine which effects the three-dimensional weaving, one or more webs consisting of the above fibers.
  16. The fabric according to claim 15, characterized in that the web is formed in one of the following ways:
    mechanically;
    aerodynamically;
    hydro-dynamically;
    from a die.
  17. The fabric according to claim 14, characterized in that the non-woven structure is combined with the three-dimensional fabric in a subsequent processing phase.
  18. The fabric according to claim 17, characterized in that the combination is effected by adhesion or sewing.
  19. The fabric according to claim 13, characterized in that the ratio between the weight of the non-woven structure and the weight of the three-dimensional woven structure varies from 10 to 70%.
  20. The fabric according to claim 6 or claim 11 or claim 14, wherein the two different polymers forming the yarns or fibers can be separated into the two components by means of mechanical or chemical treatment so as to produce elementary filaments having a fineness ranging from 0.001 to 1.0 dtex.
  21. The fabric according to claim 9, characterized in that the binding yarns are core-spun cotton or woolen spun yarns produced using as core, drawn, textured or partially oriented continuous yarns, with one or more filaments made of polyester, polyamide or other thermoplastic polymers.
  22. The fabric according to claim 21, wherein the thermoplastic polymer filaments are covered during the spinning process by bi-component short fibers which can be separated into highly fine elementary fibers, by means of the twisting of the latter.
  23. The fabric according to one or more of the previous claims, characterized in that the cross-section of the bi-component yarns or fibers appears:
    to consist of sections of one component separated by the second component "like petals in a flower"; or
    to consist of elementary filaments of one component separated by a matrix of the second component "like islands in the sea"; or
    to consist of rectangular sections alternately made up of the two components.
  24. The fabric according to one or more of the previous claims, characterized in that the ratio between the two components of the bi-component yarns or fibers ranges from 15/85 to 50/50
  25. The fabric according to one or more of the previous claims, characterized in that the first of the two components of the bi-component yarns or fibers is one of the following synthetic polymers:
    polyethyleneterephthalate;
    polytrimethyleneterephthalate,
    polyamide 6;
    polyamide 6/6.
  26. The fabric according to claim 25, characterized in that the second of the two components of the bi-component yarns or fibers is one of the following synthetic polymers:
    polyamide;
    polystyrene;
    copolyester soluble in alkaline solutions having the basic structure of polyethyleneterephthalate and modified by the introduction of isophthalic acid 5 sodium sulfonate.
  27. A process for the preparation of a three-dimensional microfibrous fabric according to one or more of the previous claims, comprising the three-dimensional weaving of a programmed combination of filaments with a high fineness, filaments with an ordinary fineness and filaments with a high thickness and/or resilience.
  28. The process for the preparation of a three-dimensional microfibrous fabric according to the previous claim, characterized in that the weaving is effected using a Raschel double needle-bar, warp knitting loom.
  29. The process for the preparation of a three-dimensional microfibrous fabric according to the previous claim, characterized in that a Raschel double needle-bar, warp knitting loom and at least four feeding bars, is used.
  30. The process for the preparation of a three-dimensional microfibrous fabric according to the previous claim, characterized in that a Raschel double needle-bar loom with a fineness of 6 to 34 needles per inch.
  31. A three-dimensional microfibrous material with a feel and appearance similar to natural leather obtained by subjecting the three-dimensional microfibrous fabric according to one or more of the claims from 1 to 26, to processing comprising the following operations:
    chemical or mechanical treatment for the separation of the microfiber;
    mechanical treatment of the upper surface to create the suede-like effect;
    dyeing of the fabric;
    application of finishing agents;
    optional impregnation with polyurethane.
EP20030024348 2002-10-28 2003-10-24 Three-dimensional microfibrous fabric with a suede-like effect and method for its preparation Withdrawn EP1416077A3 (en)

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ITMI20022291 2002-10-28

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GB2431857A (en) * 2005-11-01 2007-05-09 Michael John O'conner Footwear
US7892993B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2011-02-22 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8178199B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-05-15 Eastman Chemical Company Nonwovens produced from multicomponent fibers
US8216953B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-07-10 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8512519B2 (en) 2009-04-24 2013-08-20 Eastman Chemical Company Sulfopolyesters for paper strength and process
US8840757B2 (en) 2012-01-31 2014-09-23 Eastman Chemical Company Processes to produce short cut microfibers
US9273417B2 (en) 2010-10-21 2016-03-01 Eastman Chemical Company Wet-Laid process to produce a bound nonwoven article
US9303357B2 (en) 2013-04-19 2016-04-05 Eastman Chemical Company Paper and nonwoven articles comprising synthetic microfiber binders
US9598802B2 (en) 2013-12-17 2017-03-21 Eastman Chemical Company Ultrafiltration process for producing a sulfopolyester concentrate
US9605126B2 (en) 2013-12-17 2017-03-28 Eastman Chemical Company Ultrafiltration process for the recovery of concentrated sulfopolyester dispersion

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GB1541774A (en) * 1976-07-12 1979-03-07 Mitsubishi Rayon Co Suede-like sheet materials and method of producing same
GB2003521A (en) * 1977-08-03 1979-03-14 Teijin Ltd Process for the preparation of suede-like raised woven or knitted fabric
EP0990726A1 (en) * 1997-04-17 2000-04-05 Malden Mills Industries, Inc. Three-dimensional knit spacer fabric
EP1013810A2 (en) * 1998-12-23 2000-06-28 Trevira GmbH &amp; Co KG Suede like textile fabric

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1541774A (en) * 1976-07-12 1979-03-07 Mitsubishi Rayon Co Suede-like sheet materials and method of producing same
GB2003521A (en) * 1977-08-03 1979-03-14 Teijin Ltd Process for the preparation of suede-like raised woven or knitted fabric
EP0990726A1 (en) * 1997-04-17 2000-04-05 Malden Mills Industries, Inc. Three-dimensional knit spacer fabric
EP1013810A2 (en) * 1998-12-23 2000-06-28 Trevira GmbH &amp; Co KG Suede like textile fabric

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US8513147B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2013-08-20 Eastman Chemical Company Nonwovens produced from multicomponent fibers
US7892993B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2011-02-22 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8148278B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-04-03 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8158244B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-04-17 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8163385B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-04-24 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8178199B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-05-15 Eastman Chemical Company Nonwovens produced from multicomponent fibers
US8216953B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-07-10 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
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US8236713B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-08-07 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8247335B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-08-21 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8257628B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-09-04 Eastman Chemical Company Process of making water-dispersible multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
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US8273451B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-09-25 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
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US8314041B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2012-11-20 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
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US8398907B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2013-03-19 Eastman Chemical Company Process of making water-dispersible multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8435908B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2013-05-07 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8444896B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2013-05-21 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8444895B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2013-05-21 Eastman Chemical Company Processes for making water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8691130B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2014-04-08 Eastman Chemical Company Process of making water-dispersible multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
US8557374B2 (en) 2003-06-19 2013-10-15 Eastman Chemical Company Water-dispersible and multicomponent fibers from sulfopolyesters
GB2431857B (en) * 2005-11-01 2010-05-19 Michael John O'connor Footwear
GB2431857A (en) * 2005-11-01 2007-05-09 Michael John O'conner Footwear
US8512519B2 (en) 2009-04-24 2013-08-20 Eastman Chemical Company Sulfopolyesters for paper strength and process
US9273417B2 (en) 2010-10-21 2016-03-01 Eastman Chemical Company Wet-Laid process to produce a bound nonwoven article
US8840758B2 (en) 2012-01-31 2014-09-23 Eastman Chemical Company Processes to produce short cut microfibers
US8871052B2 (en) 2012-01-31 2014-10-28 Eastman Chemical Company Processes to produce short cut microfibers
US8882963B2 (en) 2012-01-31 2014-11-11 Eastman Chemical Company Processes to produce short cut microfibers
US8906200B2 (en) 2012-01-31 2014-12-09 Eastman Chemical Company Processes to produce short cut microfibers
US9175440B2 (en) 2012-01-31 2015-11-03 Eastman Chemical Company Processes to produce short-cut microfibers
US8840757B2 (en) 2012-01-31 2014-09-23 Eastman Chemical Company Processes to produce short cut microfibers
US9303357B2 (en) 2013-04-19 2016-04-05 Eastman Chemical Company Paper and nonwoven articles comprising synthetic microfiber binders
US9617685B2 (en) 2013-04-19 2017-04-11 Eastman Chemical Company Process for making paper and nonwoven articles comprising synthetic microfiber binders
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