EP1301918B1 - Musical instrument with free reeds - Google Patents

Musical instrument with free reeds Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1301918B1
EP1301918B1 EP20010949576 EP01949576A EP1301918B1 EP 1301918 B1 EP1301918 B1 EP 1301918B1 EP 20010949576 EP20010949576 EP 20010949576 EP 01949576 A EP01949576 A EP 01949576A EP 1301918 B1 EP1301918 B1 EP 1301918B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
opening
reed
air
flow
exhaust
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EP20010949576
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1301918A1 (en
Inventor
Pierre Bonnat
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Pierre Bonnat
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Priority to FR0008295 priority Critical
Priority to FR0008295A priority patent/FR2811128B1/en
Application filed by Pierre Bonnat filed Critical Pierre Bonnat
Priority to PCT/FR2001/002076 priority patent/WO2002001547A1/en
Publication of EP1301918A1 publication Critical patent/EP1301918A1/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10DSTRINGED MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; WIND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACCORDIONS OR CONCERTINAS; PERCUSSION MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; AEOLIAN HARPS; SINGING-FLAME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G10D11/00Accordions, concertinas or the like; Keyboards therefor

Description

  • The present invention relates to the technical field of wind instruments, called "free reed", such as, for example, harmonicas and accordions.
  • These instruments are called free reeds as opposed to wind instruments with pinched reed, such as the clarinet or instruments of the family of saxophones whose reed, at the origin of the sound emitted, is pinched at a level. mouth between the lips of the musician.
  • A free-reed instrument generally comprises a body which encloses a bed base comprising a series of cells defining as many channels of air circulation. The body of the instrument also comprises means for channeling, in the direction of the cell, the air supplied directly or indirectly by the musician. Each reed of the instrument is arranged in relation to a cell in which is inspired or repressed a flow of air vibrating the reed which then emits a sound.
  • In general, the same reed can be solicited by only one direction of flow of the air, so that, for the same note, it is necessary to provide two reeds, one requested by the flow of aspiration, the other solicited by the repressed flow or expiration. Each flow corresponds, in the case of an accordion for example, the filling of the bellows or the emptying of the latter.
  • The need to implement two separate reeds for the same note, in order to be able to transmit the latter at any time, requires having, for the same instrument, twice as many reeds as notes that can be played. This results in obtaining an instrument with a relatively high weight.
  • Moreover, the implementation of two reeds for the emission of the same note can prove to be a musical disadvantage, insofar as it is very difficult to obtain a rigorously identical tuning for the two reeds, so that the music lover or the musician is likely to detect a difference between the note emitted during the aspiration and that emitted during the expiration.
  • It thus appears the need to be able to have means that reduce the weight of the instrument by reducing the number of reeds necessary for the realization of it, and the use of a single reed for the emission a note, this reed can be solicited, both by the suction flow as the flow of expiration.
  • Document DE 104 584 has proposed a musical instrument with free reeds vibrated by a flow of air generated by a reserve of variable capacity. This instrument comprises means for channeling the air flow adapted so that the air flow circulates at each reed always in the same direction, regardless of the flow direction of flow. These channeling means comprise an inlet box open to at least one reed and connected, on the one hand, to the air supply through an opening controlled by a non-return valve oriented to prevent any air circulation through the air. opening from the intake box and secondly to the outside by an opening controlled by a non-return valve oriented to prevent air flow through the opening from the intake box. These channeling means also comprise an exhaust chamber open towards at least one reed and connected, on the one hand, to the reserve by an opening controlled by a non-return valve oriented to prevent any air circulation through the chamber. opening to the exhaust box and secondly to the outside by an opening controlled by a non-return valve oriented to prevent air flow through the opening to the exhaust box. The instrument also comprises a mechanism controlled by the musician and adapted to actuate, in opening or closing, shutters each mounted on the support of a reed, for the purpose of soliciting or not the reeds by the flow of air.
  • If such a musical instrument provides a technical solution to the problem posed, this musical instrument is unsatisfactory in practice. Indeed, it should be noted that the intake valve always has a tendency to open and close faster and more precisely than the exhaust valve which tends to react to the airflow with a certain delay, d as much prejudicial to the expression of the musician as his contrary demands (aspiration or expiration of the air) are rapid. Furthermore, in such a musical instrument, the reed is first solicited and then only the exhaust valve is open with the risk of delay to the opening it presents, which is obviously harmful to the game of the musician.
  • The object of the invention is therefore to overcome the disadvantages mentioned above by providing a musical instrument each reed can be solicited as well by a suction flow as a flow of expiration, this musical instrument offering a fast and precise response to the various demands of the musician, in order to obtain a faithful reproduction of his game, as well as a sound just, regular and balanced reeds.
  • In order to achieve this objective, the invention aims at a musical instrument with free reeds vibrated by a flow of air generated by a reserve of variable capacity and able to flow from the reserve in two directions, respectively, suction and expiration, the instrument comprising:
    • means for channeling the air flow adapted so that the biasing flow circulates at each reed always in the same direction, regardless of the flow direction of flow from the reserve (5), the channeling means comprising:
      • an inlet box open towards at least one reed and connected:
        • ◆ on the one hand, the reserve by at least one opening controlled by a non-return valve oriented to prevent any air circulation through the opening from the intake box,
        • ◆ and, on the other hand, in the external environment by at least one opening controlled by a non-return valve oriented to prevent any air circulation through the opening from the intake box,
      • an exhaust box open to at least one reed and connected:
        • ◆ on the one hand to the reserve by at least one opening controlled by a non-return valve oriented to prevent any air circulation through the opening by the exhaust box.
        • ◆ and, on the other hand, to the outside environment by at least one opening controlled by a non-return valve oriented to prevent any air circulation through the opening towards the exhaust box,
    • and a mechanism for actuating shutters, the opening and closing of which allows the reeds to be solicited or not by the air flow
  • According to the invention:
    • the instrument comprises, for at least one reed solicited by the flow of air always in the same direction, an intake box and an exhaust box which are connected by a channel at which the reed is arranged,
    • the check valves of each intake box are coupled so that, when one of the valves is open, the other valve is closed, and conversely,
    • the check valves of each exhaust box are coupled so that when one of the valves is open, the other valve is closed, and conversely,
    • for each of the intake or exhaust boxes associated with at least one reed, at least one shutter is mounted for, in a first position, closing at least one opening of an intake or exhaust box and for, in a second position, leave free said opening,
    • the instrument comprises means for prohibiting the flow of air between the openings of the intake and exhaust chambers when the associated shutter is in the closed position,
    • and the instrument comprises means for modifying the opening and closing positions of at least some of the exhaust valve check valve pairs, this position modification depending on the flow direction of the air flow at from the reserve.
  • The invention also relates to an accordion comprising means for channeling the air flow according to the invention and whose reserve of variable capacity comprises a bellows.
  • The invention also relates to a harmonica comprising channeling means according to the invention and for which the reserve of variable capacity is constituted by the lungs of the user of the harmonica.
  • Various other characteristics appear from the description given below in the accompanying drawings which show, by way of non-limiting examples, embodiments of the subject of the invention.
  • Fig. 1 is a schematic view, in longitudinal section, of an accordion implementing the known principle of solicitation of a reed both by the flow of expiration that the suction flow.
  • Figs. 2 and 3 are two schematic views of an alveolus or engraving of a bed base equipping the accordion according to FIG. 1.
  • Fig. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 1, showing a phase of operation of the accordion.
  • Figs. 5 to 8 illustrate various operating positions of an instrument according to the invention.
  • Fig. 9 is a view of an alternative embodiment of a musical instrument according to the invention.
  • Fig. 10 is a section of a cell of a bed base according to the invention comprising means for tuning the free reed.
  • Fig. 11 is a schematic section showing means for optically converting the vibrations of a free reed into an electrical signal.
  • Figs. 12 to 14 show various alternative embodiments of an optoelectronic device for converting into an electrical signal the vibrational movements of a free reed.
  • Fig. 1 illustrates an accordion, designated as a whole by the reference 1 comprising a series of reeds each of which ensures, alone, the emission of a note. However, this is only a preferred, but not exclusive, application of the invention that can be implemented for any other type of wind instrument with free reeds, such as, for example, example, a harmonica.
  • Conventionally, the accordion 1 comprises two half-bodies 2 and 3, connected in a substantially sealed manner by a bellows 4 which defines a reserve 5, of variable capacity, depending on the relative position of the two half-bodies 2 and 3 .
  • Each half-body 2, 3 comprises at least one bed base 10 which has a series of engravings or cells which each form an air circulation channel in relation to which is disposed a free reed. Figs. 2 and 3 show an exemplary embodiment of a cell 11, in relation to which is disposed a free reed 12. It clearly appears that the cell 11 forms a channel inside which the air circulation is controlled by a valve 13 whose opening and closing is controlled by a mechanism, not shown, in connection with a keyboard operated by the user of the accordion. When the valve 13 is controlled in opening, as illustrated in FIG. 3, the free reed 12 is apt to be vibrated only if the flow of air flows in the direction of the arrow F 1 .
  • So that a same reed 12 can be solicited by suction or expiration flows corresponding to filling or emptying phases of the bellows 4, the accordion 1 comprises means 15 for channeling the air flow, adapted so that the biasing flux flows at each reed, always in the same direction F 1 , regardless of the flow direction of flow from the reserve 5.
  • In the example illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 4, making it possible to understand the operation of the accordion of the mono-reed type, the accordion 1 comprises such means 15 for channeling the air flow in relation to each of the two half-bodies 2 and 3.
  • The channeling means 15 comprise a box 16, said intake or upstream relative to the direction of flow F 1 of the biasing flow at at least one reed 12. The box 16 is open to the reeds of the bed 10 to which it is preferably connected substantially sealingly. The inlet box 16 is connected, on the one hand, to the reserve 5 by at least one opening 17 controlled by a nonreturn valve 18 oriented to prevent any air flow through the opening 17 from the housing admission 16 to reserve 5.
  • According to the illustrated example, the box 16 is connected by a single opening 17 to the reserve 5. However, it could be envisaged to implement several openings 17 for connection to the reserve 5.
  • The intake box 16 is, on the other hand, connected by at least one opening 19 to the outside environment E. This opening 19 is then also controlled by a non-return valve 20, oriented to prevent any air circulation through the outside . opening 19 from the intake box or upstream 16 to the outside environment E.
  • It should be noted that, according to the illustrated example, the intake box 16 comprises three openings 19 for connection to the external environment, each of these openings being controlled by a non-return valve 20. Of course, it could be envisaged to implement only one opening 19 for connecting the exhaust box to the outside environment E.
  • The channeling means 15 further comprises a box 25, said exhaust or downstream depending on its position relative to the reed and the direction F 1 of the biasing flow of the latter.
  • The exhaust box 25 is, of course, open towards the reeds 12. The exhaust box 25 is, moreover, connected to the reserve 5 by at least one opening 26 controlled by a nonreturn valve 27 oriented to prevent any flow of air from the reserve 5 through the opening 26 to the exhaust box 25. According to the illustrated example, the exhaust box 25 is connected to the reserve 5 by two openings 26 each controlled by a Non-return valve 27. Of course, the exhaust box 25 could be connected to the reserve by more than two openings 26 or, again, by a single opening 26.
  • The exhaust box 25 is further connected by at least one opening 28 to the outside environment E. This opening 28 is then controlled by a nonreturn valve 29 oriented to prevent any air circulation from the medium. outside the opening 28 to the exhaust chamber or downstream 25. According to the example shown, there is only one opening 28 of communication between the exhaust box and the outside environment E. Of course, it could be provided several openings 28, each controlled by a nonreturn valve 29.
  • The accordion thus formed operates in the following manner.
  • In the filling phase of the reserve 5, also called suction, when the two half-bodies are biased so as to move in the direction of the arrows F 5 , the air coming from the external medium E engages, as illustrated by the arrow F 6 , in the intake box 16 through the openings 19, the valves 20 being open, while the opening 17 is closed by the valve 18.
  • The air passes through, in the direction of the arrow F 1 , the bed 10 to which is connected, substantially sealed, the inlet chamber 16. The air passes at the cells whose valve 13 is open to join the exhaust chamber 25 which is also connected substantially sealingly to the bed base 10. The air then leaves the exhaust chamber 25 to fill the reserve 5 through openings 26 whose valves 27 are open. It should be noted that during this phase, the opening 28 is closed by the valve 29.
  • In emptying phase, when the half-bodies 2 and 3 are biased in the direction of arrows F 7 , in order to bring them together, as shown in FIG. 4, the flow of air F 8 passes from the reserve 5 to the inlet chamber 16 through the opening 17 , the valve 18 is open, while the openings 19 are closed by their valve 20.
  • From the intake box 16, the flow of air passes through the bed 10, in the direction of the arrow F 1 , to join the exhaust box 25. The air then leaves the exhaust box 25 through the opening 28 in the direction of the arrow F 8 . The valve 29 is then open, while the valves 27 of the openings 26 are closed.
  • It therefore appears that the channeling means 15 make it possible to ensure a circulation of air at the level of the bed base 10 and the reeds 12 that it carries, always in the same direction F 1 , so that it is possible to solicit these reeds regardless of the direction of air circulation at the reserve 5. Thus, the same reed can be played, both in the suction phase in the expiration phase.
  • According to the example illustrated above, the means 15 for channeling the air flow comprise two caissons 16 and 25, between which is disposed at least one bed base carrying the reeds.
  • According to the invention illustrated in FIGS. 5 to 8, the channeling means 15 comprise, for at least one reed 12, an intake box 16 and an exhaust box 25 which are connected by a channel 30 at which the reed 12 is arranged. intake and exhaust are integral part of the bed base 10, which has the advantage of not requiring a complex circuit of air circulation in the accordion as described above, so that the bed base, integrating the caissons intake and exhaust, can be implemented on an accordion classic invoice.
  • According to the invention, the nonreturn valves 18, 20 of each intake box 16 are coupled to one another via a connecting rod 35, so that when one of the valves is open, the other flap is closed, and vice versa. Similarly, the nonreturn valves 27, 29 of each box exhaust 25 are coupled by a connecting rod 36, so that when one of the valves is open, the other valve is closed, and vice versa.
  • According to the invention, the operation of the reed 12 is controlled by a valve or a shutter 13 disposed in the example illustrated in FIGS. 5 to 8, at the opening 17 of the intake chamber 16 facing the reserve 5. The shutter 13 then ensures, in the closed position, as illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 7, closing the opening 17 of the inlet box 16 and, in the open position, the free passage of air through the opening 17.
  • According to another characteristic of the invention, the instrument 1 comprises means for prohibiting the flow of air between the openings 17, 19 of an intake box 16 and the openings 26, 28 of the exhaust box 25. associated, when the shutter 13 associated is in the closed position. In the illustrated example, the opening 17 of the intake box is closed by the shutter 13, while the opening 19 of the inlet box is closed by the non-return valve 20 which is blocked in this position to With the aid of the shutter 13. In order to block the pair of valves 18, 20, each shutter 13 is provided, in the illustrated example, with a control rod 37, in order to bring the check valve. return 20 in the closed position of the opening 19. In contrast, in the open position of the shutter 13, as illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 8, the operation of the valves 18 and 20 of the inlet box 16 is free.
  • According to another characteristic of the invention, the instrument 1 comprises means making it possible to modify the opening and closing positions of at least some of the pairs of nonreturn valves 27, 29 of the exhaust boxes. The position change of the nonreturn valves 27, 29 depends on the direction of flow of the air flow from the reserve 5. In the example illustrated in FIGS. 5 to 8, these modification means are produced by the flow of air flow from the reserve 5. It should be noted that it could be provided to achieve these means of modification by means of mechanical connection means subjected to movements generating air circulation. For example, some of the check valves of the exhaust boxes 25 may be connected by a mechanical connection to the bellows, the half-body of the accordion or the hand of the musician. It should be noted that these position modification means are independent of the shutter 13.
  • The operation of the reeds 12 is in accordance with the general principle described in relation to FIGS. 1 to 4. Thus, in the closed position of a shutter 13 (FIG 5, 7), the associated reed 12 does not vibrate because the two openings 17, 19 of the inlet box 16 are closed. The pair of nonreturn valves 27, 29 of the exhaust chamber 25 is displaced as a function of the direction of flow of the air flow depending on the phase of emptying or compression of the reserve 5 (FIG. filling or vacuum phase of the reserve 5 (Figure 7). Similarly, in the open position of a shutter 13 (FIGS.6 and 8), the associated reed 12 vibrates under the action of the air passing through it, between the openings 17 and 28, in the direction of the arrow F 1 for the emptying phase of the reserve 5 (FIG 6) and, between the openings 19, 26, in the direction of the arrow F 1 for the filling phase of the reserve 5 (FIG 8). It should be noted that when the shutter 13 is in the open position, the movement of the pair of nonreturn valves 18, 20 is free.
  • According to the invention, it should be noted that the exhaust box 25 is automatically in the example illustrated in FIGS. 5 to 8, by the clearance of the free piston, in "compression" or "depression" configuration, depending on the filling or emptying phase of the reserve 5, and that the shutter 13 , when placed in position open (Figs 6 and 8), simultaneously place the intake box in the desired configuration ("depression" or "compression") and solicit the associated reed 12 . In other words, the object of the invention allows to predetermine the direction of stress of the reed 12 by the air flow, prior to the opening of the closure 13 by the musician. This results in a comfort and precision of play for the musician, as well as an improvement of the acoustic characteristics of the instrument 1.
  • In the example described above, the shutter 13 is placed on the opening 17 of the inlet box 16 communicating with the reserve 5. Of course, it can be provided to implement one or more shutters 13 mounted ( s) on one and / or the other box of a pair of intake and exhaust boxes associated with a reed 12.
  • Fig. 9 illustrates an alternative embodiment of the invention for which a shutter 13 is mounted in relation to the openings 17 and 26 of the caissons 16 and the exhaust inlet 25. The shutter 13 thus constitutes the means for preventing the air circulation between the openings of the intake and exhaust chambers when the shutter 13 is, of course, placed in the closed position. According to this alternative embodiment, a pair of nonreturn valves 18, 20 of an intake box 16 is mounted integral with the pair of nonreturn valves 27, 29 of the exhaust box 25 associated with said intake box. Thus, the connecting rods 35, 36 of the valve pairs are interconnected by a connecting bar 39, offset from the reed 12, so as not to disturb its vibration. It should be noted that the coupling between the two pairs of nonreturn valves 18, 20 and 27, 29 is of the inverted type, that is to say when, for example, an opening 26 of communication with the reserve 5 , the exhaust chamber 25 is closed, then the opening 17 of communication with the reserve 5, the inlet box 16 is open. In this position illustrated in FIG. 9, the openings 19 and 28 of the intake boxes 16 and exhaust 25 are respectively closed and open, taking into account the coupling of the non-return valves by the connecting rods 35, 36. In the other characteristic position check valves, the closed openings become open and the open openings become closed.
  • In this embodiment, the position of the non-return valves is modified, not by the flow of air flow, but by means of mechanical means subject to the movements generating the flow of air as already explained. Thus, these check valves can be connected by a mechanical connection to the bellows, the half-body of the accordion or the hand of the musician, so that their movements are not simply dependent on the air. In this embodiment, it should be noted that the check valves of the exhaust and intake chambers are positioned correctly, so that, as soon as the shutter 13 is opened , the corresponding reed can vibrate. As indicated above, it should be noted that, when the shutter 13 is in the open position, the mechanical means subjected to the movements generating the air circulation can be disengaged, so that the pairs of nonreturn valves 18, 20 and 27, 29 are free.
  • It should be noted that in the example illustrated in FIGS. 5 to 8, each non-return valve is represented by a rigid element moving in its plane and thus forming a valve. Of course, it can be expected to achieve, in a different way, the check valves. Thus, as illustrated in FIG. 9, each non-return valve can be made by a rigid articulated element forming a valve. It can also be envisaged to make the check valves by flexible elements.
  • As can be seen from the foregoing description, the object of the invention makes it possible, in a very advantageous manner, to reduce, with registers and / or numbers of equivalent octaves, the number of reeds necessary to play, at the same time during the aspiration and expiration phases of the air flow from the reserve 5. This reduction in weight and space can then be used to, for example, equip a mattress tuning device 40 for each of the reeds.
  • Fig. 10 illustrates an example of such a tuning device 40 which comprises, at the fixed end 41 of the reed 12, a jaw 42 which grips the reed 12. The tuning device further comprises opposite to the jaw of the free end 43 of the reed 12, a system of two rollers 44, 45 between which the tail or the fixed end of the reed 12 is pinched. These rollers 44, 45 are integral with two gears which meshing with one another. One of the pinions cooperates with a worm 46, so that the rotation of the screw allows to adjust the extension or the vibrating length of the reed relative to the jaw or rollers. This device then makes it possible to grant, in a reversible manner, the note emitted by the reed during its solicitation.
  • The reduction of the number of reeds of an accordion according to the invention also makes it possible to envisage using devices making it possible to convert the movements of each reed into an electrical signal.
  • According to a preferred embodiment of such an optoelectronic device illustrated in FIG. 11 and designated as a whole by the reference 50, the movements of the reed are transformed into an electrical signal by means of an optical system which involves at least one emitter of a light ray or at least one light source 51 oriented towards the free end 43 of the reed 12 and at least one receiver 52 arranged to capture the light 53 emitted by the transmitter and reflected on the free end 43 of the reed 12. It should be noted that, so preferred, the light source 51 is placed towards the fixed end 41 of the reed 12, while the receiver 52 is disposed towards the free end 43 of the reed. This provision makes it possible to obtain, the vibration of the reed, a displacement of the reflected light signal 53 R on either side of the position of this signal when the reed does not vibrate.
  • Source 51 may be of any suitable nature, such as a light-emitting diode emitting infrared or visible light. The light source 51 may also be constituted by a light guide connected to a centralized light source. The receiver 52 may also be made in any suitable manner, such as, for example, by one or more photodiodes or photoresistors. The receiver 52 and the transmitter 51 are connected to means 54 which control the source 51 and process the information received from the receiver 52 so as to deliver an image signal of the vibrations of the reed. The processing means 54 may, moreover, be connected to an electronic system 55 for amplifying or processing the sounds emitted by the instrument.
  • In order to take into account the amplitude of the displacement of the reflected light beam 53 R , the receiver 52 consists of several sensors 56 substantially aligned and coplanar.
  • Of course, the sensors 56 constituting the receiver 52 could be placed differently.
  • Thus, FIG. 12 shows an exemplary embodiment of the optical device 50 for which the sensors 56 constituting the receiver 52, are arranged in line, along a curve which takes into account the location of reflection of the light signal 53 R from the transmitter 51, in function of the position of the free end 43 of the reed 12. This variant embodiment has the following advantages: to respect the physical and acoustic constraints of realization of the boxes, especially in terms of internal dimensions and choice of materials, not to lose the reflection signal on the whole race of the reed 12, thus avoiding the use of computer modeling at the level of the processing means 54.
  • It may also be provided to interpose an optical system between the reed 12 and the receiver 52, so as to concentrate the light reflected by the free end of the reed on the receiver. Fig. 13 shows an exemplary embodiment for which the optical system 57 is a concave mirror, while FIG. 14 shows another embodiment for which the optical system 57 is a convergent lens.
  • In the foregoing description, it has been mentioned that a reed 12 producing a single note is associated with an intake box 16 and an exhaust box 25. Of course, it should be understood that mounting in a couple of intake boxes 16 and exhaust 25, several reeds 12, always biased by a flow of air in the same direction F 1 , regardless of the flow direction of the air flow from the reserve 5, s within the scope of the present invention.
  • The invention is not limited to the examples described and shown because various modifications can be made without departing from its scope.

Claims (14)

  1. A musical instrument with free reeds (12) which are caused to vibrate by a flow of air generated by a store (5) of variable capacity and able to circulate from the store in two directions, called drawing and blowing respectively, where the instrument has:
    • resources (15) for channelling the airflow designed so that the airflow circulates via each reed always in the same direction (F1), independently of the direction of flow of the air from the store (5), and where the channelling resources (15) include:
    - an intake channel (16) which is open to at least one reed (12) and coupled:
    * firstly, to the store (5) by at least one opening (17) controlled by a non-return valve (18) which is oriented to prevent any flow of air via the opening (17) from the intake channel (16),
    * and, secondly, to the outside atmosphere (E) by at least one opening (19) which is controlled by a non-return valve (20) oriented to prevent any flow of air via the opening (19) from the intake channel (16),
    - an exhaust channel (25) open to at least one reed (12) and coupled:
    * firstly to the store (5) via at least one opening (26) controlled by a non-return valve (27) oriented to prevent any flow of air via the opening to the exhaust channel (25).
    * and, secondly, to the outside atmosphere by at least one opening (28) controlled by a non-return valve (29) oriented to prevent any flow of air via the opening (28) to the exhaust channel (25),
    • and a mechanism for the operation of shutters (13), the opening and closing of which is used to move or not move the reeds (12) with the flow of air,
    characterised in that
    • the instrument includes, for at least one reed (12) driven by the flow of air always in the same direction (F1), an intake channel (16) and an exhaust channel (25) which are coupled via a canal (30) in which the reed (12) is located,
    • the non-return valves (18, 20) of each intake channel (16) are coupled in such a manner that, when one of the valves is open, the other valve is closed, and vice versa,
    • the non-return valves (27, 29) of each exhaust channel (25) are coupled in such a manner that, when one of the valves is open, the other valve is closed, and vice versa,
    • for each of the intake (16) or exhaust (25) channels associated with at least one reed (12), at least one shutter (13) is fitted so that, in a first position, it closes at least one opening (17, 19, 26, 28) of one intake (16) or exhaust (25) channel and so that, in a second position, it leaves the said opening free,
    • the instrument includes resources to prevent the circulation of the air between the openings of the intake (16) and exhaust (25) channels when the associated shutter (13) is in the closed position,
    • and the instrument includes resources to change the opening and closing positions of at least some of the pairs of non-return valves (27, 29) of the exhaust (25) channels, where this change of position depends on the direction of flow of the air from the store.
  2. A musical instrument according to claim 1, characterised in that at least some of the pairs of non-return valves (27, 29) of the exhaust channels are permanently connected together.
  3. A musical instrument according to claim 1 or 2, characterised in that one pair of non-return valves (18, 20) of at least one intake channel (16) is attached to the pair of non-return valves (27, 29) of the exhaust channel (25) associated with the said intake channel.
  4. A musical instrument according to claim 1, characterised in that the resources to prevent the circulation of the air are provided by the shutter (13) which, in the closed position of a channel opening, is used to block the non-return valve of the other opening of the said channel in the closed position.
  5. A musical instrument according to claim 1, characterised in that the resources to prevent the circulation of the air are provided by the shutter (13) which performs the closure of one opening of an exhaust channel (25) and of one opening of an intake channel (16), and in that one pair of non-return valves (18, 20) of an intake channel is attached, in a reverse manner, to the pair of non-return valves (27, 28) of the exhaust channel (25) associated with the said intake channel.
  6. A musical instrument according to claim 1, characterised in that the resources for changing the opening and closing positions are implemented by the flow of air from the store (5) or by mechanical linking resources slaved to the movements generating the air flow.
  7. A musical instrument according to claim 1, characterised in that each intake channel (16) internally delimits a volume that is more or less equal to the volume delimited by the associated exhaust channel (25).
  8. A musical instrument according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterised in that the intake channels (16) and the exhaust (25) channels form an integral part of a backplate (10).
  9. A musical instrument according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterised in that some at least of the reeds (12) are associated with a tuning device that includes a system of two rollers between which the fixed end of the reed (12) is clamped, these being attached to two gears that fit into and mesh with an endless screw (46), so that rotation of the screw causes the vibrating length of the reed to be adjusted.
  10. A musical instrument according to one of claims 1 to 9, characterised in that some at least of the reeds (12) are each associated with an opto-electronic device (50) for converting the vibrations of the reed into an electrical signal, and which includes:
    • at least one light source (51) oriented toward the free end of the reed,
    • and at least one receiver (52) positioned to receive the light (53) emitted by the source (51) and reflected on the free end (43) of the reed (12).
  11. A musical instrument according to claim 10, characterised in that the receiver (52) is composed of a series of sensors (56) aligned on a curve so as to gather the light reflected by the free end of the reed.
  12. A musical instrument according to claim 10, characterised in that the opto-electronic device includes an optical system (57) placed between the reed (12) and the receiver (52), in order to concentrate the light reflected by the free end of the reed onto the receiver (52).
  13. A musical instrument according to one of claims 1 to 12 characterised in that it forms an accordion (1), and in that the store of variable capacity 10 includes a bellows (4).
  14. A musical instrument according to one of claims 1 to 12, characterised in that it forms a harmonica, and in that the store of variable capacity is composed of the lungs of the user of the harmonica.
EP20010949576 2000-06-28 2001-06-28 Musical instrument with free reeds Not-in-force EP1301918B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0008295 2000-06-28
FR0008295A FR2811128B1 (en) 2000-06-28 2000-06-28 Free reed music instrument
PCT/FR2001/002076 WO2002001547A1 (en) 2000-06-28 2001-06-28 Musical instrument with free reeds

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1301918A1 EP1301918A1 (en) 2003-04-16
EP1301918B1 true EP1301918B1 (en) 2006-05-17

Family

ID=8851785

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP20010949576 Not-in-force EP1301918B1 (en) 2000-06-28 2001-06-28 Musical instrument with free reeds

Country Status (7)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1301918B1 (en)
CN (1) CN1220969C (en)
AT (1) AT326753T (en)
AU (1) AU7070401A (en)
DE (1) DE60119738D1 (en)
FR (1) FR2811128B1 (en)
WO (1) WO2002001547A1 (en)

Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2410118B (en) * 2004-01-15 2005-12-28 Edward Jay Reed system for a free reed instrument
CN101042858A (en) * 2007-04-28 2007-09-26 徐一渠 Multi-tone high tone mouth organ
CN102708845A (en) * 2012-06-18 2012-10-03 廖万侦 Eastern pipe organ
FR3017741A1 (en) * 2014-02-14 2015-08-21 Philippe Imbert Improvement to an instrument of music with free reeds such as an accordion or similar
CN106571128A (en) * 2016-02-02 2017-04-19 顾震夷 Double air chamber accordion sounding system

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE104584C (en) *
US2662440A (en) * 1951-09-10 1953-12-15 Gasero Charles De Single reed cell block
DE2622523A1 (en) * 1976-05-20 1977-12-08 Ernst Zacharias Remote tuning of organ - uses individual reeds which may be tuned by moving clamping roller slide with small DC motor
DE8802598U1 (en) * 1988-02-27 1988-06-16 Lemmer, Andreas, 4154 Toenisvorst, De
DE19507863C2 (en) * 1995-03-08 1999-09-16 Siegfried Koppold Accordion or harmonica
AU2676900A (en) * 1999-02-12 2000-08-29 Active Link Trading Ltd Method and device for monitoring an electronic or computer system by means of a fluid flow

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
FR2811128B1 (en) 2002-11-08
CN1220969C (en) 2005-09-28
EP1301918A1 (en) 2003-04-16
FR2811128A1 (en) 2002-01-04
AT326753T (en) 2006-06-15
CN1444760A (en) 2003-09-24
AU7070401A (en) 2002-01-08
WO2002001547A1 (en) 2002-01-03
DE60119738D1 (en) 2006-06-22

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