The invention relates to a keying system for an aerophone and an aerophone comprising such a keying system. It applies more particularly to woodwind musical instruments, whether classical, traditional or ethnic such as flutes, clarinets, oboes, bassoons, saxophones, bombardes, quénas for give some non-limiting examples. The aerophones produce a sound by vibrating a column of air contained in a tube. The fundamental frequency corresponding to this sound is inversely proportional to the length of the tube.
Figure 1, according to an exemplary embodiment known from the prior art, an aerophone (100) consists of a tubular body extending axially between a mouth (110) and a end (120) often flag-shaped. The action of the air blown into the tube through the mouth (110) produces a pressure fluctuation by means varying according to the type of instrument. This pressure fluctuation propagates in the tube between the mouth (110) and the end (120), vibrating the air column contained in the tube between these two ends. The fundamental frequency, or pitch, of the sound produced is given by f = C / kL where f is the frequency in Hertz, L is the length of the tube expressed in meters and C is the speed of sound in the air in m.s- '. The coefficient k depends on the acoustic nature of the tube and in particular the shape of its bore and is approximately 2 for flutes, oboes, bassoons and saxophones and 4, for example, for clarinets. Traditionally, for single-tube instruments in the woodwind family, this frequency corresponds to the lowest note that the instrument can play. To play other notes, more acute, using only one tube, two techniques are mainly used: - the division of the tube, to obtain chromatic or diatonic degrees on the same register; - harmonic registers, especially for octave changes.
The division of the tube is obtained by practicing radial orifices (130) in the body (140) of the instrument. Thus, when an orifice (130) of sufficient diameter (d) facing the bore diameter (D) is formed in the body (140) at a distance L, from the mouth, the aerophone (100) behaves as if it had an effective length Li. If, for example, LI is equal to half of L, then the fundamental frequency f, of the sound emitted when the orifice (130) is open, is equal to half of the frequency f of the sound emitted when the orifice (130) is closed, that is to say that the sound emitted is higher by an octave. The orifice (130) can be closed by the fingers of the instrumentalist or by devices known in the prior art, including buffers and possibly resonators, which devices can be operated directly by the fingers or by systems. levers, themselves controlled by keys. The harmonic registers are obtained by forcing the breath and / or by opening small diameter orifices near the mouth (110), either by means of keys or by only partially blocking an orifice near the mouth. These techniques are known from the prior art and are not more detailed, they make it possible to obtain game registers in a harmonic relationship with the fundamental register. The harmonic ratio depends on the nature of the bore, conical or cylindrical. Most of the woodwind instruments can thus be played in three or more registers: - the fundamental register, called "torch" for clarinets; - the first harmonic register, octave (harmonic ratio 1/2), or the twelfth (harmonic ratio 1/3), said register "clarion" for the clarinet; - the second, see third harmonic register said "suraigu".
The elevation of the pitch of the notes produced from one register to the other is done to the detriment of the richness of the timbre of the instrument. The first harmonic register generally behaves as the fundamental register vis-à-vis the response of the aerophone to the closing or opening of the orifices to vary the length of the air column. Super-sharp registers behave differently and require special fingerings, called forked, to adjust the pitch of sounds. Thus, an aerophone with an amplitude of play of one octave in its fundamental register, must have 11 radial orifices to allow the play of a chromatic range on this amplitude, and 7 orifices, if the game is limited to a diatonic range on this same amplitude. However, if the orifices are clogged with the fingers, the instrumentalist can control only 10 of them directly. Thus, to be able to perform a chromatic game on a single-tube aerophone, two techniques, using fingerings combining several fingers, are used according to the prior art. The first, used on old or traditional instruments such as the recorder, is to drill the body of 7 small diameter holes facing the bore. These 7 orifices make it possible to obtain a diatonic range. Chromatisms are obtained by fork fillings that is to say by closing both a first hole closer to the mouth and a second hole not contiguous to the first and closer to the flag. This effect works only if the orifices are of sufficiently small diameter relative to the bore. The forked shutter changes the emission frequency spectrum of the instrument producing a timbre sound different from the diatonic sound and sometimes making the played notes unstable.
However, this system allows chromatic play by using only 7 fingers of the instrumentalist, releasing at least two other fingers for register extensions or trill fingerings. The other technique, used on more modern instruments, is to use keying systems and levers that allow, by the action of a finger on a key, to close or open more than one orifice. This system is commonly referred to as "Boehm system" for flutes and clarinets but there are other equivalent systems known from the prior art. In this case, the musical instrument is pierced with at least as many orifices of sufficiently large diameter relative to the bore, it does not include chromatic degrees on its register. The orifices being of sufficient diameter, the notes are more stable, the variations of stamps less perceptible. Since the diameters of the orifices are sufficient in relation to the diameter of the instrument, the fork fillings have no effect on the pitch of the note played, at least in the fundamental register, everything happens as if the tube was interrupted. at the length LI, and the pitch of the note, like the timbre, are almost indifferent to the orifice plugs beyond the first open port from the mouth (110). Over time, instrument makers have tried to combine the advantages of the two techniques using keying systems and levers that allow to reproduce or mimic these more modern instruments, the fork-based fingering game used on first instruments. To this end, the number of orifices has been multiplied, so that the emission of a sound corresponding to a given degree can be obtained by the opening or closing of several orifices placed at the same distance from the mouth and distributed over the circumference of the body of the instrument. Thus, a clarinet whose amplitude of play on the fundamental register corresponds to a diminished 12th, should have 18 holes besides the orifice of change of register to play the 18 semitones corresponding to this amplitude. In practice, the body of a clarinet using the Boehm keying system has 23 holes in addition to the register change port. By way of example, such an B-flat clarinet has not less than 4 orifices placed at a distance from the mouth corresponding to a length of tube for the emission of a Do3 (C3) to the ear, or a frequency of the order of 262 Hz. The multiplication of the number of orifices complicates the bill of the instrument, mechanically weakened the body thereof and gives rise to play problems. For example, the distribution of the orifices on the circumference The body of the instrument makes some of them sensitive to the accumulation of condensation moisture during the game. Moreover, the principle of fingering used, mimicking fingernail fingering, consists on the one hand to obtain the natural diatonic degrees in joint motion by the successive raising or lowering of the fingers, traditionally, thumb, index, major, annular of the left hand, then index, major, annular of the right hand in the downward direction; and on the other hand, to obtain the chromatic degrees from the diatonic fingering of the natural degree, by adding the action of another finger to raise or lower the note emitted by a semitone. Thus the fingering of the diatonic degrees vary according to the range played, the sequences becoming generally complex when the tone has more than 3 alterations. The invention aims to solve the disadvantages of the prior art and proposes for this purpose, a cloning device for an aerophone comprising a body extending axially between a mouth and an end and pierced with radial orifices, characterized in that it comprises: a first key and means for controlling the closing of a first orifice located closer to the mouth when the key is actuated; a second key and means for controlling the closure of a second orifice located closer to the end when the key is actuated; connecting means between the keys, such as an action on the second key actuates the first key; the two keys being further placed contiguously so that they can be simultaneously actuated by a single finger acting between these two keys. Thus, the passage between the two degrees corresponding to the two orifices controlled by these two keys is performed in the ascending or descending direction by a slight slip or a slight rotation of the finger: the instrumentalist then controls the opening and closing of two orifices independently of one another by a single finger, and this feature can be advantageously used to simplify both the bill and the game of the instrument.
The invention can advantageously be implemented according to the embodiments described below which can be considered individually or in any technically operative combination. Advantageously, the notes produced by the aerophone during the action on the first and second keys are separated by an interval less than or equal to one semitone. Thus the keying device object of the invention can be used to facilitate the play of chromaticism but also to give access to micro-slot opportunities on all or part of the fingerings of a conventional instrument. According to a particularly preferred embodiment, this device comprises a plurality of keys and connection means such that an action on a key closing an orifice closer to the end of the body actuates all the other keys that close orifices. closer to the mouth. Thus, each chromatic degree of the interval on which the cloning device is operative, can be played with a single finger which provides a great ease of play while limiting the number of orifices to the number of chromatic degrees included in this interval . Advantageously, the connection means between the keys of the device object of the invention are removable. Thus the two keys can be made independent of one another without losing the ability to operate the two keys simultaneously by pressing the finger between them. When the instrument comprises a plurality of keying devices, according to the preferred embodiment of the invention, this characteristic makes it possible to perform fork fillings to control the pitch of the sounds, especially in the super-acute register. Advantageously, the removable connection means further comprise means for controlling their connection and disconnection during the game of the instrument. Thus, the instrumentalist can modify the operation of the keying device according to the invention, to adapt this operation to the interpreted musical phrases. The keying device according to the invention can be adapted to an existing instrument using a conventional keying device. To this end the invention also relates to a conversion kit for adapting a keying device according to any one of its embodiments to an existing aerophone, this kit comprising: - keys; connecting means adapted to be fixed between said keys; - Means for securing the keys and the keys of the aerophone. According to a first embodiment of this kit, the connection means are fixed on a key and connect it to another key which is contiguous thereto. This embodiment is the simplest because it requires the least modification of the existing instrument According to a second embodiment of the kit, the connection means are adapted to be fixed on the articulation rods of the keys of the aerophone . This embodiment of the kit requires a larger transformation of the instrument but is more aesthetic. According to a variant of the kit, it comprises: keys - connecting means adapted to be fixed between said keys linkage means adapted to be fixed to the body of the instrument for the articulation of the keys acting on the keys of the instrument. The invention also relates to an aerophone, in particular a musical instrument of the family of woods, whose degrees of a register are obtained by the division of a tube by the opening of radial orifices in said tube, characterized in that it comprises a keying system according to any one of the preceding embodiments. Such an aerophone has exceptional playing and transposing facilities. Advantageously, this aerophone comprises the same number of orifices as degrees per register. This characteristic makes it possible in particular to simplify the invoice of the instrument.
The invention will now be more specifically described in the context of its preferred embodiments, which are in no way limitative, and FIGS. 1 to 6, in which: FIG. 1, relating to the prior art, shows schematically in longitudinal section an aerophone comprising a body tubular; Figure 2 shows in partial view from above an embodiment of a keying device according to the invention; 3 shows a top view of an embodiment of the connection means of a keying device according to a particular embodiment of the invention; FIG. 4 shows in plan view an alternative embodiment of the connection means of a keying device according to the invention; Figure 5 is a partial sectional sectional view of a hinge rod mounting detail of the closure means according to an embodiment of the invention; and FIG. 6 shows, in plan view, an exemplary embodiment of a keying device according to the invention, adapted to an instrument comprising 11 degrees on its fundamental register.
2, according to an exemplary embodiment, more particularly adapted to a musical instrument of the family of woods, the keying device comprises keys (210, 220), fixed by appropriate means, means for closing the radial orifices practiced in the body (140) of the instrument. These closure means (230, 240), or keys, are articulated in pivot connection on a rod (250), extending substantially parallel to the body (140) of the instrument. This rod (250) pivots about an axis (not shown) which extends between a first support (291) and a second support (292) attached to the body (140) of the instrument. The rod (250) is split between the two keys (230, 240) and the two rod halves are connected by connection means (261, 262, 263). According to this embodiment, the connection means comprise two vanes (261, 262) each attached to one of the bead halves. The first key (261) is closer to the mouth (110) and the second key (262) is closer to the end (120) of the body of the instrument. The pallets (261, 262) are rotatably connected by a connector (263).
According to this embodiment, the connector (263) comprises an operating rod (264). It is articulated in pivot connection about an axis (272) extending under the second pallet (262) and fixed thereto. At its other end, the connector abuts under the first pallet (261). Thus, when the instrumentalist presses on the second key (220), this latter drives the second key (262) which approaches the body (140) by pivoting with its half-rod and closes the radial orifice located in its screw. to face. During this pivoting, the connector (263) rotates the other half-rod via the first pallet (261) which has the effect of bringing the first key (230) of the body and close the corresponding orifice. Thus, the action on the key located closer to the end (120) of the body of the instrument causes both closure of the orifice associated with the corresponding key (240) but also the movement of the key. (230) contiguous blocking an orifice located closer to the mouth (110). Advantageously, the keys (210, 220) comprise means such as rollers (211) to facilitate the sliding of the finger from one to the other.
If the instrumentalist only acts on the key (210) controlling the key (230) closing the orifice located closer to the mouth, the key (240) located closer to the end is not actuated. If the player acts between the keys (210, 220) he moves the two keys (230, 240) even if the connector (dashed) is spaced from the stop with the first pallet (261). Figure 3, according to an exemplary embodiment, the connector (263) is connected and disconnected from the first pallet (261) by pivoting about an axis (272) connected to the second pallet (262). The abutment height of this connector on the first pallet (261) can be finely adjusted by means of a set screw (371) so as to obtain both a shutter and effective orifice and a sufficient clearance of the key of it when it is not closed. Returning to FIG. 2, according to an alternative embodiment of the connection means, the connector (263 ') can be attached to the keys (210, 220) and not to the key bead. In this embodiment an end of the connector is pivotally connected about an axis (282) to the end of the key (210) closest to the mouth. The other end of the connector (263 ') is placed under the key (220) contiguous to the previous one and closer to the end of the instrument. This second key (220) presses on the end of the connector (263 ') via a screw (283) adjustment. Thus when the connector (263 ') is in such a position that the screw (283) acts on its end, the action on the second key (220) causes the movement of the first key (210) and the closing of the two keys ( 230, 240). By against the action on the first key (210) causes only the closing of the first key (230). The connector (263 ') can also be uncoupled by rotation around the pivot axis (282). Figure 4, according to another embodiment, the connector (463) attached to a hinge rod is integrated with the second pallet (432) which is slidable on its half-rod (450). Advantageously, said half-rod (450) then comprises means (451) under which cooperates with the pallet to form a guide in translation thereof on the half-rod (450). Examples of positioning of the connector (263, 463) on a linkage are given here in the case of the use of existing rods between the keys of the instrument. Alternatively the keys (210, 220) can be fixed on a linkage system (not shown) independent of that of the keys (230, 240), which linkage system is then attached to the body of the instrument preferably next to the system key linkage. 6, according to an exemplary embodiment of a musical instrument of the family of woods, comprising an octave range of play by register, it comprises 11 radial holes closed by keys, the opening or the closing successively makes it possible to play sounds whose pitch is a semitone distant. According to the invention the keying device makes it possible to articulate the keys on a single rod line, comprising supports (291, 292) distributed at least every two keys along the length of the rod. The rod is split into two half-rods between each key. Connecting devices (261, 262, 263) rotate the contiguous half-rods during an action on the key closer to the end (120) of the instrument. Thus, when the connectors (263) are all engaged, the action on the single key (621) closest to the end (120) of the instrument causes the movement of all the keys of the instrument and shutting off all the corresponding holes. Figure 5, in a sectional view AA, at a support (590) of the axis of two half-rods (551, 552), the support (590) also comprises fixing means for spring elements (585, 586) acting on the half-rods (551, 552) by means of the pallets (261, 262) which advantageously comprise fingers (580) forming a stop and accommodating the end of the springs (585, 586) of so that in the absence of action on the keys, all the orifices are open. Returning to FIG. 6, depending on the type of instrument considered, the keys closing the orifices may be too far apart to allow contiguous attachment of the keys directly to the keys. In this case, the keys fixing means on the keys advantageously include extension means (221). By way of nonlimiting example, the action on the last key (621) using the annular of the right hand of the instrumentist, closes all the orifices of the body (140) and emits a sound corresponding to a Sib2 (Bb2) is a fundamental frequency of the order of 208 Hz. By releasing this key and pressing, with the middle finger, the key (622) closest to the end of the upper key pair , the instrument produces a Do3 (C3) or a sound whose pitch is more acute than the previous one. The intermediate semitone, ie the note Si2 (B2), is obtained by pressing, with the ring finger on the key (621 ') contiguous to the last key. Re3 (D3) is obtained by acting, with the right index finger, on the first key (623) of the pair above the pair (622, 622 ') corresponding to the Do3 (C3) and Do # 3. The Mi3 (E3) is obtained by acting with the left annular on the first key (624) of the pair of keys located immediately above. The key corresponding to the intermediate key (625) makes it possible to obtain the F # 3 (F # 3) which can be operated indifferently by the middle finger or the left index finger. The left major action on the first key (626) of the next pair makes it possible to transmit the SoI3 (G3) and releasing the latter key, the La3 (A3), with a frequency of 440 Hz is obtained. It is then possible by the action on a thumb-operated key (not shown) to change the octave and start from the Sib3 (Bb3) in the upper register and / or to open an additional hole or even a second to get Sib3 and Si3 without changing the register. Thus, the keying device object of the invention makes it possible to obtain the chromatic scale over the entire register without any fingering of the fork and with exactly the same number of openings as chromatic degrees in the register considered. However the clearance in the high register may require the use of fork fillings in this case, all or part of the connectors (263) are triggered making possible the fork fillings. Advantageously by disconnecting only a portion of the connectors (661, 662, 663, 664), all possible fork fillings can be obtained without losing the advantage of the simplified game on the chromatism in the other registers. The skilled person will easily adapt the device object of the invention to all aerophones. In particular, when the orifices have a diameter too large to be easily drilled in lines, they can be placed in different radial positions of the body of the instrument, the movements of the keys then being returned by levers according to known constructive principles of the prior art. Although presented in the case of an instrument where the orifices are of sufficient diameter to produce a clear division of the tube, the invention can also be applied to traditional instruments such as the recorder. The examples of embodiment above are presented in a configuration where the keys are fixed on the closure means of the orifices and the connecting means attached to the linkage linkage of these closure means. The same technical effects can be obtained, especially when the device of the invention is adapted to an existing instrument, by fixing the connectors (263 ') at the end of the keys or by using a separate linkage to articulate the keys acting on the sealing means, without departing from the scope of the invention. The necessary condition is that each means of closing an orifice corresponding to a chromatic degree of the register of the instrument and subject to the application of the device object of the invention can be actuated individually. Starting from an existing instrument, having more orifices than chromatic degrees per register, the skilled person will choose the most suitable sealing means for the implementation of the device object of the invention and modify if necessary the joints of the keys to fulfill the necessary condition. Thus the device of the invention may be proposed in kit form, for adaptation to existing instruments, which it simplifies the game. The description above shows that the invention achieves the objective it was intended to simplify the bill of the instrument both on the mechanisms that in the number of orifices pierced and their distribution on the body of it, while simplifying the game.