EP0853867A1 - Method for sweeping charged particles out of an isochronous cyclotron, and device therefor - Google Patents

Method for sweeping charged particles out of an isochronous cyclotron, and device therefor

Info

Publication number
EP0853867A1
EP0853867A1 EP19960931694 EP96931694A EP0853867A1 EP 0853867 A1 EP0853867 A1 EP 0853867A1 EP 19960931694 EP19960931694 EP 19960931694 EP 96931694 A EP96931694 A EP 96931694A EP 0853867 A1 EP0853867 A1 EP 0853867A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
cyclotron
hills
radius
air gap
sectors
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP19960931694
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0853867B1 (en
Inventor
Yves Jongen
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Ion Beam Applications SA
Original Assignee
Ion Beam Applications SA
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to BE9500832A priority Critical patent/BE1009669A3/en
Priority to BE9500832 priority
Application filed by Ion Beam Applications SA filed Critical Ion Beam Applications SA
Priority to PCT/BE1996/000101 priority patent/WO1997014279A1/en
Publication of EP0853867A1 publication Critical patent/EP0853867A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0853867B1 publication Critical patent/EP0853867B1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05HPLASMA TECHNIQUE; PRODUCTION OF ACCELERATED ELECTRICALLY-CHARGED PARTICLES OR OF NEUTRONS; PRODUCTION OR ACCELERATION OF NEUTRAL MOLECULAR OR ATOMIC BEAMS
    • H05H13/00Magnetic resonance accelerators; Cyclotrons
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05HPLASMA TECHNIQUE; PRODUCTION OF ACCELERATED ELECTRICALLY-CHARGED PARTICLES OR OF NEUTRONS; PRODUCTION OR ACCELERATION OF NEUTRAL MOLECULAR OR ATOMIC BEAMS
    • H05H7/00Details of devices of the types covered by groups H05H9/00, H05H11/00, H05H13/00
    • H05H7/10Arrangements for ejecting particles from orbits

Abstract

A method for sweeping a charged particle beam out of an isochronous cyclotron (1) comprising a solenoid forming a magnetic circuit that includes at least a number of sectors (3, 3') known as 'ridges' where the air-gap is reduced, and separated by sector-shaped spaces (4) known as 'valleys' where the air-gap is larger. According to the sweeping method, the particle beam is swept without using a sweeping device as the magnetic field has a special arrangement produced by designing the solenoid air-gap at the ridges (3, 3') of the isochronous cyclotron in such a way that the aspect ratio between the solenoid air-gap at the ridges in the region of the maximum radius, and the radius gain per turn of the particles accelerated by the cyclotron at said radius is less than 20.

Description

METHOD OF EXTRACTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES OUT OF A ISOCHRONOUS CYCLOTRON AND DEVICE APPLYING THIS

METHOD.

Subject of the invention.

The present invention relates to a charged particle métnode extraction nors of an isochronous cyclotron in which the particle beam is focused by sectors. The invention: apc: r: e ^ also said isochronous cyclotron applying this etr.eoe ^ o 'charged particle extraction.

The present invention rapçcr'e -: ^ sc, oier. to compact isochronous cyclotron as hvac-otrcr.s focused by sectors. Similarly, the present invention relates to said superconducting isochronous cyclotrons or non-superconducting.

State of the art.

Cyclotrons are particle accelerators used in particular for the production of radioactive isotopes. These cyclotrons usually consist of two separate major assemblies, consisting of one part by one electromagnet and secondly by the Naute frequency resonator. The electromagnet serves to guide charged particles along a path having approximately a spiral of increasing radius about the acceleration. In modern cyclotrons of the isochronous type the poles of magnets électro¬ are divided into sectors alternately having a reduced gap and a larger air gap. The azimuthal magnetic field variation resulting therefrom has the effect of ensuring the horizontal and vertical focusing of the beam during acceleration.

Among the isochronous cyclotrons, one should distinguish the type of compact cyclotrons which are énergétisés by at least one circular main coil, and said separate sector cyclotron where the magnetic structure is divided into separate fully autonomous units.

The second assembly is constituted by the accelerating electrodes, frequently called "controlled" for historical reasons. an alternating voltage to the electrodes is thus applied to several tens of kilovolts to the rotational frequency of the particles in the magnet, or alternatively at a frequency which is an exact multiple of the rotational frequency of the particles in the magnet. This has the effect of accelerating the particles of the rotating beam in the cyclotron.

For many applications using a cyclotron, it is necessary to extract the accelerated particle beam from the cyclotron, and guide it to a target where you want to use. This beam extraction operation is considered by the skilled person as the most difficult step in the production of a beam of particles accelerated by a cyclotron. This is to bring the beam from the portion of the magnetic field where it is accelerated to the point where the magnetic field is no longer able to hold the beam. In this case, the beam is free to escape the action of the field and is extracted from the cyclotron. In the case of cyclotrons accelerate positively charged particles, is known to use an electrostatic deflector whose role is to pull the particles out of the magnetic field as the extraction device. For such an effect, it is necessary to intervene in the way of an electrode particles called the septum, which will catch some of the particles. Therefore, the extraction efficiency is relatively limited, and the loss of particles in the septum contribute in particular to make the highly radioactive cyclotron.

It is also known to extract negatively charged particles by performing a conversion of negative ions into positive ions by passing them through a sheet that serves to strip the negative ions of their electrons. This technique allows the extraction yields close to 100% and also allows the use of much less complex device than that described above. However, the acceleration of negative particles present for its significant difficulties. The main drawback lies in the fact that negative ions are fragile, and are thereby easily differentiated by residual gas molecules or by excessive magnetic fields traversed with high energy and present in the cyclotron. The transmission beam in the accelerator is limited, which also contributes to the activation of the latter.

In contrast, cyclotrons accelerating positive particles can produce higher intensities of current beams, and increase system reliability, and while allowing a significant reduction in the size and weight of the machine.

It is also known from "The review of Scientist Instruments, 27 (1956), No. 7" and the document "Nuclear Instruments and Methods 18, 19 (1962), pp. 41-45" by J. Reginald Richardson a technique in which the particle beam could be extracted from the cyclotron without the use of an extraction device. The requirements to obtain this self-extraction are particular conditions of resonance of the particle motion in the magnetic field. Nevertheless, the method described is particularly difficult to achieve, and would have given a beam whose optical qualities were so bad in practice it has never been applied.

US-A-0324379 document relates to a cyclotron type device for accelerating particles having magnetic means being substantially independent of the azimuth angle. This means that it is a non-isochronous cyclotron. In addition, it should be noted that the cyclotron described has beam extraction means which consist of "regenerators" and "compressors" which allow, by perturbing the magnetic field, to achieve extraction of the beam particles.

WO-93/10651 in the name of the Applicant describes a compact isochronous cyclotron having a gap located between two substantially elliptical hills and tending to close it completely at the radial end of the hills on the median plane. The device described in this document also includes conventional means of extraction of the beam that are an electrostatic deflector in the present case. Buta of the present invention.

The present invention aims at providing a method of extraction of charged particles outside the isochronous cyclotron in avoiding the use of extraction devices as described above.

An additional aim of the present invention is therefore to provide an isochronous cyclotron who is more simple and more economical design than those normally used.

The present invention also aims to increase the extraction efficiency of the particle beam, particularly in the case of extracting positive particles.

Key element? features of the present invention. The present invention relates to a method of extraction of charged particles outside of an isochronous cyclotron having an electromagnet constituting the magnetic circuit which includes a number of pairs of sectors called "hills" where the air gap is reduced, separated by spaces in the form of sectors called "valleys" where the air gap is of larger size; this method being characterized in that is carried out an isochronous cyclotron with a magnet gap between the hills whose dimensions are chosen so that the minimum value of this air gap in the vicinity of the maximum radius between the hills less than twenty once the gain in radius per circuit of the particles accelerated by the cyclotron at this radius.

According to this particular configuration, it will be observed that the ions can be extracted from the influence of the magnetic field without using any extraction device.

It should be noted that for isochronous cyclotrons of the state of the art, the air gap of the magnet is generally between 5 and 20 cm, while the gain in radius per circuit is about 1 mm. In this case, the ratio of the gap to the gain in radius per circuit is greater than 50.

It is observed that by applying the main feature of the present invention, the magnetic field decreases very abruptly near the edge of the pole of the magnet, so that the self extraction point is reached before the phase particles with respect to the accelerating voltage reaches 90 degrees. In this way, the particles automatically leave the magnetic field without intervention of any extraction device.

According to a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is conceivable to design a gap with an elliptical profile which tends to close the radial end of the hills, as described in patent WO93 / 10651. According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the extraction of the particles concentrated on one sector through an asymmetry deliberately made to the form or to the magnetic field of said sector.

According to another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the reduced angle of one of the sectors to the polar radius of the level to enable to move the orbits and to obtain the extraction of the whole of that side beam so, for example, to irradiate a large volume target. According to another preferred embodiment of the present invention there is provided a particular distribution of the particle beam so as to simultaneously irradiate more targets mounted side by side on the beam path. The present invention advantageously makes it possible to be used for proton therapy or production of radioisotopes, and in particular radioisotope for positron emission tomography (PET). Short description of the figures. Figures 1 and 2 represent the magnetic profiles of an isochronous cyclotron according to the prior art and of an isochronous cyclotron using the extraction method according to the present invention.

3 shows schematically an exploded view of main components of an isochronous cyclotron. 4 shows a sectional view of an isochronous cyclotron.

Description of a preferred embodiment of the invention. The profile of the magnetic field in an isochronous cyclotron is such that the particles of the rotation frequency should be constant and independent of their energy. To offset the increase in mass relativistic particles, the magnetic field must increase with the beam to ensure the condition of isochronism. To describe this relationship, we define the field index by the following equation: R n dB = -. - B dR

wherein dB / B and dR / R are respectively the relative variations of the magnetic field and the radius to the radius R.

It should be noted that it is impossible to maintain the condition of isochronism in the vicinity of the maximum radius of the pole. Indeed, at that time, the field continues to increase with the radius. It reached a maximum and then begins to decrease more rapidly.

Figure 1 illustrates the variation of field based on the radius vector in an isochronous cyclotron. An increasing phase shift takes place between the rotational frequency of the particles and the resonance frequency of the accelerating electrodes. When this phase reaches 90 degrees, the particles cease to be accelerated and may not exceed this range.

Figure 2 illustrates the variation of field based on the radius in an isochronous cyclotron using the extraction method according to the present invention. By choosing precisely the dimensions of the magnetic gap between the hills, so that it is reduced to a value of less than twenty times the gain in radius per revolution, there is a magnetic field profile as shown in Figure 2.

In this case, the magnetic field decreases very abruptly in the vicinity of the boundary of the magnet pole, so that the point of self-extraction defined by the field index n = -1 is reached before the phase shift of the particles with respect to the accelerating voltage reaches 90 degrees. From this moment, the particles out of the magnetic field automatically without intervention of any extractor device.

An isochronous cyclotron as used in the particle extraction method loaded according to the present invention is shown schematically in Figures 3 and 4. This cyclotron is a compact isochronous cyclotron for accelerating positive particles, especially protons.

The magnetic structure of the cyclotron 1 is composed of a number of elements 2, 3, 4 and 5 made of a ferro-magnetic material and coils 6 preferably made of a conductive or superconductor material. The ferro-magnetic structure includes a conventional manner: two base plates called yokes 2 and 2 ', - at least three three upper sectors called hills and the same number of lower sectors 3' located symmetrically with respect to a plane of symmetry 10 said median plane to the upper sectors 3, and which are separated by a small air gap 8, - between two consecutive hills, there is a space where the air gap is of larger size and which is called valley 4, at least one flux return 5 rigidly joining the lower yoke 2 to the upper cylinder head 2 ', the coils 6 are essentially circular shape and are located in the annular space between the 3 or 3' and 5 sectors flow returns.

The central duct is intended to receive at least a portion of the particle source 7 to accelerate. These particles are injected at the center of the device by means known per se. For an isochronous cyclotron accelerating a proton beam to an energy of 11 MeV, the magnet is drawn, according to the present invention, with an air gap of 10 mm for a magnetic field of 2 teslas on the magnetic areas 3 and 3 ' . The accelerating voltage is 80 kV so as to obtain a gain in radius of 1.5 mm at maximum radius.

This unusual choice of parameters that allow the radial end of the hills, extremely fast decreasing observed external induction which allows self-extract the particle beam before the acceleration limit, which is particularly shown in Figure 2.

According to a first preferred embodiment, reducing the angle of a sector at the polar radius so as to allow to move the orbits and to obtain the extraction of the entire beam on this side (see Figure 4 ).

The particle beam extracted is then axially and radially focused defocused.

According to another preferred embodiment, this beam pattern is used for simultaneous irradiation of four targets located between the two coils 6 mounted side by side on the beam path.

Claims

CLAIMS.
1. Method of extracting a charged particle beam out of an isochronous cyclotron (1) having an electromagnet constituting the magnetic circuit which includes at least a number of sectors (3, 3 ') called "hills" where the air gap is reduced, separated by spaces in the form of sectors (4) called "valleys" where the air gap is of larger size, the extraction method being characterized in that the particle beam is extracted without using an extraction device by a particular arrangement of the magnetic field obtained by designing the air gap of the magnet at the hills (3,3 ') of the isochronous cyclotron in such a way that the relative dimension of the gap of the magnet the hills near the maximum radius of the gain in radius per revolution of particles accelerated by the cyclotron radius that is less than 20.
2. isochronous cyclotron in which the particle beam is focused by sectors and which has an electromagnet constituting the magnetic circuit which includes at least a number of sectors (3, 3 ') called "hills" where the air gap is reduced , separated by spaces in the form of sectors (4) called "valleys" where the air gap is of larger size, characterized in that the air gap of the magnet at the hills (3, 3 ') is designed such the dimension of the magnet air gap relative to the hills in the vicinity of the maximum radius to the gain in radius per circuit of the particles accelerated by the cyclotron at this radius is less than 20.
3. Isochronous cyclotron according to Claim 2, characterized in that the air gap profile of the magnet to the hills is an elliptical profile tending to close it at the radial end of the hills.
4. Cyclotron according to Claim 2 or 3, characterized in that at least one sector has a shape or an asymmetric magnetic field relative to the other sectors.
5. Cyclotron according to any one of claims 2 to 4, characterized in that the reduced angle of a sector at the pole radius.
6. Cyclotron according to any one of claims 2 to 4, characterized in that sends a particular distribution of the particle beam so as to simultaneously irradiate more targets mounted side by side on the beam path.
7. Use of the method for extracting particles according to claim 1 or the device according to any one of claims 2 to 6 for proton therapy or for the production of radioisotopes, and in particular for radioisotope production for positron emission tomography.
EP19960931694 1995-10-06 1996-09-25 Method for sweeping charged particles out of an isochronous cyclotron, and device therefor Expired - Lifetime EP0853867B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
BE9500832A BE1009669A3 (en) 1995-10-06 1995-10-06 Method of extraction out of a charged particle isochronous cyclotron and device applying this method.
BE9500832 1995-10-06
PCT/BE1996/000101 WO1997014279A1 (en) 1995-10-06 1996-09-25 Method for sweeping charged particles out of an isochronous cyclotron, and device therefor

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0853867A1 true EP0853867A1 (en) 1998-07-22
EP0853867B1 EP0853867B1 (en) 1999-07-28

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EP19960931694 Expired - Lifetime EP0853867B1 (en) 1995-10-06 1996-09-25 Method for sweeping charged particles out of an isochronous cyclotron, and device therefor

Country Status (9)

Country Link
US (1) US6057655A (en)
EP (1) EP0853867B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4008030B2 (en)
AT (1) AT182739T (en)
BE (1) BE1009669A3 (en)
DE (2) DE69603497D1 (en)
ES (1) ES2135918T3 (en)
GR (1) GR3031392T3 (en)
WO (1) WO1997014279A1 (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6683426B1 (en) 1999-07-13 2004-01-27 Ion Beam Applications S.A. Isochronous cyclotron and method of extraction of charged particles from such cyclotron
EP1385362A1 (en) * 2002-07-22 2004-01-28 Ion Beam Applications S.A. Cyclotron provided with new particle beam sweeping means
EP2129193A1 (en) 2008-05-30 2009-12-02 Ion Beam Applications S.A. A stripping member, a stripping assembly and a method for extracting a particle beam from a cyclotron

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GR3031392T3 (en) 2000-01-31
JP4008030B2 (en) 2007-11-14
JPH11513528A (en) 1999-11-16
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WO1997014279A1 (en) 1997-04-17
EP0853867B1 (en) 1999-07-28

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