EP0200644A1 - Process for the combustion of fluid fuels and toroidal burner adapted for its application - Google Patents

Process for the combustion of fluid fuels and toroidal burner adapted for its application Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0200644A1
EP0200644A1 EP86400901A EP86400901A EP0200644A1 EP 0200644 A1 EP0200644 A1 EP 0200644A1 EP 86400901 A EP86400901 A EP 86400901A EP 86400901 A EP86400901 A EP 86400901A EP 0200644 A1 EP0200644 A1 EP 0200644A1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
air
burner
injection
diameter
tertiary air
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP86400901A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0200644B1 (en
Inventor
Gérard Flament
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Charbonnages de France CDF
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Charbonnages de France CDF
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Publication date
Priority to FR8506750A priority Critical patent/FR2581444B1/en
Priority to FR8506750 priority
Application filed by Charbonnages de France CDF filed Critical Charbonnages de France CDF
Publication of EP0200644A1 publication Critical patent/EP0200644A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0200644B1 publication Critical patent/EP0200644B1/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D1/00Burners for combustion of pulverulent fuel
    • F23D1/02Vortex burners, e.g. for cyclone-type combustion apparatus
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C7/00Combustion apparatus characterised by arrangements for air supply
    • F23C7/002Combustion apparatus characterised by arrangements for air supply the air being submitted to a rotary or spinning motion
    • F23C7/004Combustion apparatus characterised by arrangements for air supply the air being submitted to a rotary or spinning motion using vanes

Abstract

Combustion method according to which a fluid fuel is injected (at 3) along an axis, such as pulverized coal mixed with primary air, and secondary air is introduced (at 7) along a helical path around said axis, characterized in that tertiary air is injected (at 12) around the combustible fluid and secondary air substantially in the same direction as the combustible fluid, according to a coaxial ring which is substantially continuous circumferentially, and laterally confined downstream of the injection.

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for the combustion of fluid fuels, such as pulverized coal suspended in air, and a turbulence burner suitable for implementing this method.
  • The term “turbulence burners” designates burners in which a fluid fuel, such as coal pulverized in suspension in a stream of primary air, is introduced into a hearth by means of a nozzle and in which secondary air, necessary for the combustion of the fuel, is rotated around the end of the nozzle, for example by means of deflector flaps commonly called louvers. Such a burner is described in particular in French patent No. 2,054,741.
  • These burners impart a vortex movement to the combustion products, often referred to as a "swirl", which causes strong internal recirculation of fuel and gases, improving combustion by ensuring vigorous mixing of the products. This movement is characterized by the "number of swirls" which represents the rate of angular moment of rotation with respect to the flow of quantity of axial movement, for a given radius of the flow of products leaving the burner.
  • The implementation of this type of burner can in certain cases pose problems difficult to solve in order to obtain a flame which is stable and which is not excessively cooled by radiation towards the walls of the hearth and by recirculation of the external gases in the flame, with the consequence of a reduction in the combustion efficiency. Furthermore, the flame obtained extends over a relatively large diameter and it may be desirable to confine it in as small a volume as possible, especially if the burner is used in a stove of reduced dimensions, such as a drum dryer. .
  • It has already been proposed, in French patent application 2,564,950, to limit the volume of the flame of a turbulence burner by channeling it inside a confinement chamber. However, the walls of such a chamber can be brought to a temperature which causes both their fouling by the bonding of hot ash particles and their rapid deterioration, despite the use of refractory materials.
  • The object of the present invention is to propose a combustion method and a burner implementing this method, which make it possible to avoid the above drawbacks and therefore to carry out a substantially complete combustion of the fuel in a flame of great stability and limited volume, avoiding deposits of solid matter on the walls of the chamber and hearth.
  • Another object of the invention is to provide a burner which can operate without additional fuel and without preheating the combustion air, that is to say in which the flame stability is independent of the thermal conditions imposed through the combustion chamber.
  • These aims are achieved if an aerodynamic jacket of complementary air is produced around the flame which isolates it from the combustion chamber and inside of which the fuel is burned almost entirely.
  • More specifically, the invention relates to a combustion process according to which a fluid fuel is injected along an axis, such as coal pulverized in mixture with primary air, and secondary air is introduced along a helical path around said axis, characterized in that tertiary air is injected around the combustible fluid and secondary air substantially in the same direction as the combustible fluid, according to a substantially continuous coaxial ring circumferentially and laterally confined downstream of the injection (this tertiary air opens along the wall of a combustion chamber which extends downstream).
  • According to other preferred features of the invention:
    • the axial component of the speed of the tertiary air as it enters the combustion chamber is of the same order of magnitude as the axial component of the speed of the combustion gases circulating in the same area,
    • - the mass flow of tertiary air is between 0.2 and 1.5 times the total mass flow of primary and secondary air,
    • - the diameter of the crown along which the tertiary air is injected is between 1.8 and 3.6 times the diameter of the burner neck,
    • - the tertiary air is injected downstream from the burner neck at a distance of between 0.5 and 1.5 times the diameter of the burner neck,
    • - the total mass flow of primary and secondary air is between 0.5 and 1.2 times the mass flow of stoichiometric air,
    • - the total mass flow of combustion air is between 1.2 and 1.6 times the mass flow of stoichiometric air,
    • - the number of swirls at the outlet of the burner neck is between 0.3 and 2,
    • - Tertiary air opens along the wall of a cylindrical combustion chamber which extends downstream over a length between 0.2 and 1 times the diameter of the crown.
  • The tertiary air flow must be of the same order of magnitude as the secondary air flow because its function is to create a cold air jacket between the jet of gas in combustion and the wall of the combustion chamber so that the combustion can take place in this room without damage to the walls. In particular, this cold tertiary air jacket must cool the ash particles in the vicinity of the wall and prevent them from coming into contact with this wall and sticking to it. This flow of cold parietal air also has a cooling effect on the wall which will be beneficial for the holding thereof. This flow prevents in particular the recirculation of combustion gases laden with particles between this air and this wall.
  • The length of the combustion chamber is sufficient to allow most of the combustion to take place there and at least to allow stable attachment of the flame regardless of the conditions and the geometry of the space in which the burner opens. A substantially adiabatic enclosure is thus produced from the fuel injection point in which the flame is stabilized and most of the combustion carried out.
  • The quantity of tertiary air required to protect the walls of the combustion chamber can be such that, if it is desired to keep an overall excess of air not too high (ie an air factor less than 1.6), it is necessary to operate in the absence of air before the injection of tertiary air. This is not necessarily necessary but can be accepted advantageously because a sub-stoichiometric combustion in its first phase can be beneficial both from the point of view of inflammation when it is not favored elsewhere (cold combustion air , fuel difficult to ignite) only from the point of view of the ND x emissions which will be reduced in this case. This sub-stoichiometric combustion will even generally be necessary when working under conditions making ignition difficult, that is to say for example: cold combustion air (especially in winter), coarse particle size, low-grade fuel in volatile matter, very ashy or wet fuel.
  • The "swirl number" of the flow produced by the primary and secondary air is moderate (D, 3 to 2) but sufficient to create an internal recirculation zone of hot burnt gases which allows heating and therefore rapid ignition of the fuel. as soon as it comes into contact with secondary air.
  • The invention proposes in parallel a turbulence burner, for the implementation of the method according to the invention, comprising a pipe for the supply of fuel and possibly primary air along an axis, a supply device for the injection of secondary air following a helical path around said axis, burner characterized in that it comprises a device for the injection of tertiary air in a ring around said axis and parallel to the direction of fuel injection. According to preferred features of the invention, this injection device tertiary air is in a plane perpendicular to the axis, located at a distance from the burner nose between 0.5 and 1.5 times the diameter of the burner neck and it has a diameter between 1.8 and 3 , 6 times the diameter of the burner neck.
  • According to other characteristics of the invention:
    • the tertiary air injection device is located in the vicinity of the wall of a cylindrical and coaxial combustion chamber,
    • - the combustion chamber has a length of between 0.2 and 1 times its diameter,
    • - The neck of the burner is connected to the combustion chamber by a frustoconical opening in refractory material resistant to a temperature of 1400 0 C with a half-angle at the top advantageously between 10 and 35 °.
  • The device for injecting tertiary air can be constituted by any means capable of creating a continuous air curtain between the flame and the combustion chamber. According to one embodiment, it consists of an annular slot placed in a plane perpendicular to the axis, which may optionally include a grid pierced with holes or made of porous material, which allows this air to be better distributed.
  • According to another embodiment, it is constituted by a multiplicity of nozzles opening substantially parallel to the axis in the vicinity of the periphery of the combustion chamber. The number of these nozzles, when they are cylindrical, must be high (greater than or equal to 16, for example) so that the air curtain formed is continuous. For this same reason, the spacing between the axes of two consecutive nozzles must be limited, that is to say preferably less than 2 times their diameter.
  • The single figure appended hereto represents, by way of nonlimiting example, a schematic view in longitudinal section of a burner according to the invention.
  • For the sake of simplicity, most of the walls are shown, without thickness, by simple lines. More massive pieces are shown with dots or hatching.
  • This burner is of the turbulence type. Ue conventionally it includes a device for injecting a fluid fuel such as, for example, pulverized coal suspended in a primary air stream as well as a secondary air injection device suitable for injecting l secondary air along a helical path around the fluid fuel.
  • It thus comprises a first pipe 1 for supplying the fluid fuel into an annular duct 2 oriented along an axis XX and terminated by an injection nozzle 3. This annular duct 2 is delimited internally by a generally hollow bar 2A in which one for example has an ignition torch not shown (or a flame detector, or an auxiliary fuel injection pipe, etc.).
  • This burner also comprises at least a second pipe 4 for supplying a secondary air flow in a wind box 5, here arranged around the annular duct 2. This wind box has a volume large enough to allow a good homogenization of the secondary air supplied by the pipes 4. It is axially delimited between a fixed wall 5A and a flange 58 which can slide axially along the duct 2 under the action of a control linkage shown here in simplified form by a 5C line. This wind box is radially limited by a cylindrical wall 5D, composed of successive sections provided with connection flanges, which extends axially beyond the movable flange to a second fixed wall 5E which progressively connects to a portion tubular 5F surrounding the injection nozzle 3. This second fixed wall 5E carries in axial projection, in the direction of the movable flange 5B, a plurality of deflector flaps or louvers 6 parallel to the axis XX but having a given angle relative to planes containing the axis XX and intersecting these louvers. Opposite these louvers, lights 6A are arranged axially in the movable flange so as to allow the movable flange to be brought closer to the fixed wall 5E. A secondary air stream is thus injected around the combustible fluid stream with a movement of rotation defined by the inclination of the louvers, with a regulated flow according to the axial position of the movable flange.
  • These arrangements are conventional and are described in particular in the aforementioned patent FR-2.G54.741.
  • In an advantageous embodiment, sleeves of selected thickness are arranged in the annular conduit 2 or in the tubular portion 5F so as to allow adjustment of the flow rates in these conduits.
  • The tubular portion 5F in fact here consists of two sections, the first 5F 'of which is integral with the wall 5E and the second 5F "is connected to the first by securing two transverse walls 5G and 10A by means of any type of connection. The walls 5E and 5G are kept parallel by spacers 5H.
  • The tubular section 5F "extends axially approximately up to the level of the end of the nozzle 3 for injecting fluid fuel, and defines a nozzle 7 for injecting secondary air into a zone called" burner nose " .
  • This tubular section 5F "is preferably connected in a zone 8 called" burner neck ", to an opening 14 progressively opening away from the nozzles 3 and 7, here of frustoconical shape. This opening is advantageously made in a refractory material, such as refractory concrete resistant, preferably up to 1400 ° C. This refractory material is here engaged in a cylindrical bowl 14A in which it is fixed by means shown diagrammatically in 14B. In variants not shown, the bowl 14A can have a frustoconical shape, or be partially cylindrical and partially frustoconical.
  • According to the invention, an annular stream of tertiary air, circumferentially continuous, is injected around the combustible fluid and the secondary air, substantially in the direction of the axis X-X, along an axial ring.
  • The burner according to the invention in fact comprises a device for injecting a stream of tertiary air around the axis XX, around the outlet 14. This device comprises at least one supply air duct 9 for tertiary air opening into a wind box 10 delimited in particular by the wall 10A and the section 5F "mentioned above as well as the bowl 14A receiving said refractory material This wind box is further delimited by a radially external cylindrical wall 1GB extended axially around the flue 14 by a cylindrical section 12A which defines with this flue a substantially continuous annular nozzle of tertiary air.
  • This section 12A is preferably extended axially by a cylindrical confinement wall 13, here made up of three modular elements, which delimits a combustion chamber 11 in front of the shutter. This confinement wall 13 is in practice internally coated with a refractory layer, for example of a material identical to that of the quill, preferably lined with an insulating layer 13A, such as an insulating wool, intended to make the combustion chamber 11 substantially adiabatic.
  • This burner can be connected by any known means, to a hearth wall for example, the pipes 4 and 9 then being advantageously arranged on the same side of this wall, away from the flame.
  • According to an advantageous arrangement of the invention, the speed of the tertiary air as it enters the combustion chamber is of the same order of magnitude as the average speed of the combustion gases circulating in the same area; the mass flow of tertiary air is preferably between D, 2 and 1.0 times the total mass flow of primary and secondary air, which is advantageously between 0.7 and 1.2 times the mass flow of air required to the complete combustion of the fuel (so-called "stoichiometric" flow). This annular current forms a thermal protection ply of the confinement wall 13 and provides a kind of sheathing of the mixture of gases in the combustion chamber. When the grinding of the coal is coarse or the fuel has a low chemical reactivity (lean coal, petroleum coke, coal-water mixture ...) or when the environment of the flame is not very favorable to ignition, it can be advantageous to reduce the mass flow rate of primary and secondary air below 1.0 times the stoichiometric flow rate (around ù, 8 and up to 0.5 for example) without penalty on the final combustion of the fuel thanks to the addition of air constituted by tertiary air (and the fact that there is a sufficiently long adiabatic enclosure and without recirculation of burnt gases). Conversely, in the case of very reactive ultra-fine grinding fuel (micronized charcoal), or liquid fuel, it is possible to choose a primary and secondary air flow rate equal to or slightly greater than the stoichiometric flow rate.
  • This annular current is, in the example shown, obtained from a circumferentially continuous nozzle (or slot). According to variants not shown, the shutter 14 and the section 12A are connected by substantially radial fins channeling the tertiary air by imposing, if necessary, a slight rotational movement, either by a perforated grid or by a plurality of adjacent nozzles, for example oval or elliptical, which, when they are cylindrical, are separated circumferentially by a distance advantageously less than or equal to their diameter: such nozzles are thus generally in a number greater than or equal to 16.
  • According to advantageous arrangements of the invention, the diameter of the crown according to which the tertiary air is injected (that is to say in practice the diameter of the section 12A or of the confinement wall 13) is advantageously between 1 , 8 and 3.6 times the diameter of the burner neck (at 8), and the tertiary air is injected downstream of this neck at a distance preferably between 0.5 and 1.5 times this neck diameter. The number of swirls at the outlet of the burner neck is preferably chosen between 0.3 and 2, just sufficient to allow the creation of a closed internal recirculation zone favorable to inflammation. The combustion chamber preferably extends over a length of between 0.2 and 1 times its diameter (it allows flame protection). The ratio of the inlet and outlet diameters of the outlet is preferably chosen between 1.5 and 2.
  • It should be noted that the length of the burner is to be chosen according to the desired residence time for the fluid fuel, which varies for example with the particle size of the pulverized coal, while the ratio of its inlet and outlet diameters is to be chosen according to the desired aerodynamic characteristics.
  • The mixing of tertiary air with the gases leaving the outlet must not be too rapid so as not to cancel the stabilizing effect of the sub-stoichiometric nature of the primary and secondary air supply (when this is necessary ) and to preserve the protective effect of the wall 13 on tertiary air (cooling and deposits).
  • The overall air flow (primary + secondary + tertiary) is preferably chosen to be 1.2 to 1.6 times the aforementioned stoichiometric flow.
  • For example, the injection speed of the fluid fuel is around 20m / s, that of the secondary air can vary between 15 and 35-40m / s, and that of the tertiary air can vary between 5 and 20-30m / s. The diameter of the burner neck is for example from 0.20 m to 0.60 m approximately.
  • A burner according to the invention can be mounted for example in a drum-dryer of a coating station.
  • It goes without saying that the foregoing description has been offered only by way of nonlimiting illustration and that numerous variants can be proposed without departing from the scope of the invention. Thus, for example, the secondary air and the tertiary air can come from the same wind box provided with a suitable distributor. In fact, the burner which has been described lends itself to numerous adjustments corresponding to a wide variety of possible operating situations. Simplified versions of this burner, with lesser adjustment possibilities, are within the reach of those skilled in the art depending on the specific applications envisaged.
  • According to another variant, the combustion chamber may contain a cooling system, which may prove to be advantageous in the case of boilers; the heat collected by the cooling fluid is then advantageously recovered.
  • Another important advantage of the burner according to the invention lies in the fact that it can operate in any position, while many burners of this type can only be used in the vertical position.

Claims (16)

1. Combustion method according to which a fluid fuel is injected along an axis, such as pulverized coal mixed with primary air, and secondary air is introduced along a helical path around said axis, characterized in that that tertiary air is injected (12) around the combustible fluid and secondary air substantially in the same direction as the combustible fluid, in a substantially continuous coaxial ring circumferentially, and laterally confined downstream of the injection.
2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the injection speed of the tertiary air is of the same order of magnitude as the average speed of the combustion gases circulating in the vicinity (14, 11).
3. Method according to one of claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the mass flow of tertiary air is between 0.2 and 1.5 times the total mass flow of primary and secondary air.
4. Method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the diameter of the crown (12) according to which the tertiary air is injected is between 1.8 and 3.6 times the diameter of the burner neck (8).
5. Method according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the injection of tertiary air takes place downstream of the burner neck (8) at a distance between 0.5 and 1.5 times the diameter of this burner neck.
6. Method according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the total mass flow of primary and secondary air is between 0.5 and 1.2 times the mass flow of stoichiometric air.
7. Method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the total mass flow of combustion air is between 1.2 and 1.6 times the mass flow of stoichiometric air.
8. Method according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the number of swirls at the outlet of the burner neck is between 0.3 and 2.
9. Method according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the tertiary air opens along the wall of a cylindrical combustion chamber which extends downstream over a length between 0.2 and 1 time the diameter of the crown.
10. Turbulence burner, suitable for implementing the method according to one of claims 1 to 9, comprising a pipe (1) for the supply of fuel and primary air along an axis (XX), and a device supply for the injection (7) of secondary air following a helical path around said axis, characterized in that it comprises a device for the injection of tertiary air in a ring (12) around said axis, substantially parallel to the direction of fuel injection, this device being located in the vicinity of the wall of a cylindrical combustion chamber (11) which extends downstream and connected to the neck of the burner by a frusto-conical material refractory (14).
11. Burner according to claim 10, characterized in that the tertiary air injection device (12) opens in a plane perpendicular to the axis located at a distance from the nose of the burner (3, 7) between 0, 5 and 1.5 times the diameter of the burner neck.
12. Burner according to one of claims 10 or 11, characterized in that the diameter of the tertiary air injection device is between 1.8 and 3.6 times the diameter of the burner neck.
13. Burner according to one of claims 10 to 12, characterized in that the tertiary air injection device is located in the vicinity of the wall of a coaxial cylindrical combustion chamber (11) which extends towards the 'downstream over a length between 0.2 and 1 times its diameter.
14. Burner according to one of claims 10 to 13, characterized in that the tertiary air injection device is an annular slot (12).
15. Burner according to one of claims 10 to 13, characterized in that the tertiary air injection device consists of at least 16 cylindrical nozzles.
16. Burner according to claim 15, characterized in that the distance between the axes of 2 consecutive nozzles is less than 2 times their diameter.
EP86400901A 1985-05-03 1986-04-24 Process for the combustion of fluid fuels and toroidal burner adapted for its application Expired EP0200644B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR8506750A FR2581444B1 (en) 1985-05-03 1985-05-03 Process for the combustion of fluid fuels and a turbulence burner suitable for its implementation
FR8506750 1985-05-03

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AT86400901T AT45621T (en) 1985-05-03 1986-04-24 Method for burning flowable fuels and swirl burners for carrying out the method.

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0200644A1 true EP0200644A1 (en) 1986-11-05
EP0200644B1 EP0200644B1 (en) 1989-08-16

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US (2) US4838185A (en)
EP (1) EP0200644B1 (en)
JP (1) JPS61256108A (en)
AT (1) AT45621T (en)
AU (1) AU582647B2 (en)
CA (1) CA1289416C (en)
DE (1) DE3665097D1 (en)
DK (1) DK165707C (en)
ES (1) ES8708258A1 (en)
FI (1) FI861783A (en)
FR (1) FR2581444B1 (en)
IN (1) IN167334B (en)
PT (1) PT82483B (en)
ZA (1) ZA8603209B (en)

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AU5708286A (en) 1986-11-06
CA1289416C (en) 1991-09-24
DK165707B (en) 1993-01-04
US4838185A (en) 1989-06-13
EP0200644B1 (en) 1989-08-16
FR2581444A1 (en) 1986-11-07
JPS61256108A (en) 1986-11-13
DK202686A (en) 1986-11-04
AU582647B2 (en) 1989-04-06
FI861783A (en) 1986-11-04
ES554556D0 (en)
PT82483A (en) 1986-05-01
AT45621T (en) 1989-09-15
FR2581444B1 (en) 1988-11-10
US4919611A (en) 1990-04-24
DE3665097D1 (en) 1989-09-21
DK165707C (en) 1993-05-24
PT82483B (en) 1988-04-21
DK202686D0 (en) 1986-05-02
ES554556A0 (en) 1987-10-01
FI861783A0 (en) 1986-04-28
ES8708258A1 (en) 1987-10-01
FI861783D0 (en)
IN167334B (en) 1990-10-06
ZA8603209B (en) 1986-12-30

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