EP0009182B1 - Gasification burner - Google Patents

Gasification burner Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0009182B1
EP0009182B1 EP79103322A EP79103322A EP0009182B1 EP 0009182 B1 EP0009182 B1 EP 0009182B1 EP 79103322 A EP79103322 A EP 79103322A EP 79103322 A EP79103322 A EP 79103322A EP 0009182 B1 EP0009182 B1 EP 0009182B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
chamber
burner
annular
characterised
ignition
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
EP79103322A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0009182A1 (en
Inventor
Peter Gulden
Alfred Dr. Michel
Hana Dipl.-Ing. Kostka
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Siemens AG
Original Assignee
Siemens AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to DE2841105 priority Critical
Priority to DE2841105A priority patent/DE2841105C2/de
Application filed by Siemens AG filed Critical Siemens AG
Publication of EP0009182A1 publication Critical patent/EP0009182A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0009182B1 publication Critical patent/EP0009182B1/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=6050052&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=EP0009182(B1) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Expired legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M27/00Apparatus for treating combustion-air, fuel, or fuel-air mixture, by catalysts, electric means, magnetism, rays, sound waves, or the like
    • F02M27/02Apparatus for treating combustion-air, fuel, or fuel-air mixture, by catalysts, electric means, magnetism, rays, sound waves, or the like by catalysts
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C7/00Combustion apparatus characterised by arrangements for air supply
    • F23C7/02Disposition of air supply not passing through burner
    • F23C7/06Disposition of air supply not passing through burner for heating the incoming air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D11/00Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space
    • F23D11/36Details, e.g. burner cooling means, noise reduction means
    • F23D11/44Preheating devices; Vaporising devices
    • F23D11/441Vaporizing devices incorporated with burners
    • F23D11/448Vaporizing devices incorporated with burners heated by electrical means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D14/00Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid
    • F23D14/12Radiant burners
    • F23D14/18Radiant burners using catalysis for flameless combustion
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D14/00Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid
    • F23D14/46Details, e.g. noise reduction means
    • F23D14/72Safety devices, e.g. operative in case of failure of gas supply
    • F23D14/725Protection against flame failure by using flame detection devices

Description

  • The invention relates to a gasification burner with an antechamber for mixing an at least partially vaporized liquid fuel with primary air, with a catalytic device adjoining the antechamber for converting the steam-air mixture into a fuel gas, with a mixing chamber adjoining the catalyst device for mixing the fuel gas with secondary air, with an annular space concentrically surrounding the anteroom, the catalyst device and the mixing chamber and separated from the anteroom by an annular wall, with a conically expanding combustion chamber and a perforated burner plate made of porous material which closes off the combustion chamber and which from the mixing chamber releases the fuel gas-air Mixture can be supplied, with a front space located in front of the anteroom, which merges into an annular channel completely surrounding the antechamber and the annular space and the catalyst device at least over part of its length, with a heat source contained in the annular channel for evaporation of the fuel and a heat source contained in the annular space for preheating the primary air during the start-up process and for supporting changes in load, with radial channels located in the annular wall that connect the annular space with the antechamber, with a homogenization device arranged in the antechamber and in the mixing chamber, and with one between the combustion chamber and the mixing chamber arranged ignition chamber, which is separated from the mixing chamber without kickback. Such a burner is the subject of EP-B1-4055 (application number 79100654.7). This document falls under Article 54 (3) EPC.
  • In the gasification burner mentioned, liquid fuel is burned in two stages, whereby in the first stage only a part of the total air used - as gasification air (primary air) - is mixed with the fuel and converted into a fuel gas by catalytic partial oxidation (substoichiometric combustion). In the second stage, the fuel gas is mixed with the remaining air (combustion air, secondary air) and burned on a burner plate.
  • In domestic burners of conventional design, the fuel is sprayed with a nozzle and burned with all the air in a combustion chamber. Since the atomizing power of the nozzle can only be varied within narrow limits, such household burners cannot be regulated continuously down to low outputs. Rather, they are designed for maximum performance and are regulated with a two-point control when the heating requirement is low in burst operation. As a result, larger boilers are required as energy storage for the breaks in operation, furthermore the repeated starting of the burner causes a strong temperature change of the materials, an increased soot and pollutant load of the boiler, chimney and exhaust gases as well as an excessive energy requirement during electrical ignition. The gasification burner proposed in EP-B1-4055, on the other hand, only has to be started at the beginning of a heating period and can then be continuously reduced to very low outputs in accordance with the heating requirement, thereby avoiding the disadvantages mentioned. Furthermore, a substantial reduction in the emission of pollutants, for example unburned hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, is achieved in the course of the reaction during the combustion. The total air required can be limited to the air required for stoichiometric combustion, which means that high combustion temperatures can be achieved.
  • A preferred embodiment of the gasification burner proposed in EP-B1-4055 is shown in FIG. 1 and, as already mentioned, essentially consists of two stages, namely a gasification stage with a centrally arranged reactor chamber 2 (catalyst device) containing a catalyst and one Combustion part, which comprises a mixing chamber 3, an ignition chamber 7 and a flared combustion chamber 8 with a final porous, perforated burner plate 9. The catalyst device 2 is preceded by an antechamber 1 at the inlet 14 for mixing the fuel with primary air. The antechamber 1 is laterally delimited by an annular wall 5 and connected via radial channels 6 in this annular wall to an annular space 4, which concentrically surrounds the antechamber 1, the catalyst device 2 and the mixing space 3. The primary air is supplied to the antechamber 1 through the annular space 4.
  • To supply the fuel, a front space 10 is connected upstream of the antechamber 1, which merges into an annular channel 11, which completely surrounds the antechamber 1 and the annular space 4 and the catalyst device 2 over at least part of its length. The fuel is at least partially evaporated at a first heat source 12 arranged in the annular duct 11 and mixed in the antechamber 1 with the primary air, which is preheated at a second heat source B arranged in the annular space 4, at a first homogenization device 13, for example a swirl orifice. The fuel gas generated in the catalyst device 2 is passed into the mixing chamber 3 and mixed there with secondary air supplied at a second homogenization device 24, for example a further swirl orifice.
  • For advantageous further training one of the Like gasification burner is proposed in EP-B1-4055 that the reactor chamber 2 (catalyst device) has a catalytically inactive container A, in the end faces of inlet bores 14 and outlet bores 15 are arranged. Furthermore, a perforated disc 16 can be arranged between the mixing chamber 3 and the ignition chamber 7 as a kickback protection. The ignition chamber 7 can also be separated from the combustion chamber 8 by a perforated wall 17. A fuel connection piece 19 is provided for supplying the fuel to the annular channel 11 (evaporation chamber), a secondary air connection piece 23 for supplying the secondary air to the mixing chamber 3 and a primary air supply connection piece 26 for supplying the primary air to the annular space 4 (preheating chamber). Furthermore, a further connection piece 27 for an ignition device is fastened to the wall of the ignition chamber 7. A catalytically inactive lining C, for example made of ceramic, can advantageously be provided in the mixing chamber 3.
  • The housing of the proposed gasification burner is advantageously composed of several parts, for example a cylindrical first housing part 18 surrounding the first stage with a front cover 20, a cylindrical middle part 21 surrounding the mixing chamber 3 and a cylindrical end part 25 which has a conical surrounding the combustion chamber 8 Extension carries. These housing parts are advantageously made of metal, for example stainless steel. In particular, the wall 22 between the mixing space 3 and the annular space 4 is designed to be thermally conductive in order to preheat the primary air in the combustion part.
  • It has now been shown that the proposed gasification burner is susceptible to malfunctions in some cases. For example, if the fuel supply is temporarily suspended, there is no short-term combustion in the combustion part. The primary air supplied is then not preheated sufficiently so that cold air is flushed through the catalyst part and cooled. When the fuel supply is restarted, the catalyst device then does not work satisfactorily, so that the fuel is only incompletely converted into fuel gas and burner faults, in particular soot formation in the combustion part, occur. Furthermore, it is precisely the advantage of this burner that very high combustion temperatures can be achieved by stoichiometric air supply, but these high temperatures entail the risk that the materials used are destroyed. For example, the burner plate 9 or the perforated wall 17 can jump and even the metal housing can be welded on. To avoid this danger it is provided in the burner proposed in EP-B 1-4055 to fix the device with the end at which the burner plate is located on the wall of the boiler, so that the housing is arranged outside the boiler and is cooled by the ambient air. As a result, however, the burner is no longer safe to touch, since there is a considerable risk of injury when touching the burner housing. The heat losses occurring on the housing also mean a reduction in the efficiency of the burner.
  • The object of the invention is to increase the operational safety of a gasification burner of the type mentioned, which has, inter alia, an annular space, a mixing space, an ignition chamber and a combustion space, as well as an annular wall provided with radial channels and a burner plate.
  • This is achieved according to the invention in that the annular space also surrounds the ignition chamber and the conically widening combustion chamber in an annular manner and extends up to the vicinity of the base plate, in that a primary air supply connection opens into the annular space and that guide walls are arranged in the annular space, which guide the primary air flow to be supplied from the primary air supply nozzle in a spiral or meandering flow path around the combustion chamber and the ignition chamber to the radial channels of the ring wall.
  • The gasification burner according to the invention can advantageously be designed in such a way that
    • - The ignition chamber is separated from the combustion chamber by a perforated wall, preferably a perforated ceramic plate, and that the perforated surface of the burner plate is larger than the perforated surface of the perforated wall;
    • - Provided on the housing a flame monitoring device directed to the perforated wall;
    • - The side walls of the ignition chamber and the combustion chamber consist of metal and wear a ceramic lining;
    • - The housing at the level of the mixing chamber carries a flange projecting laterally beyond the other housing parts and the flange has supply channels to the primary air supply nozzle and to a secondary air connection leading into the mixing chamber, as well as openings for ignition electrodes arranged on the ignition chamber and, if necessary, for flame monitoring.
  • The invention will be explained in more detail with the aid of an exemplary embodiment and two figures (FIGS. 2 and 3), in which a particularly preferred embodiment of the gasification burner according to the invention is shown.
  • The improvements which the gasification burner according to the invention has - compared to the gasification burner according to EP-B1-4055 - relate to the combustion part of the burner, ie the mixing chamber 3, the ignition chamber 7, the combustion chamber 8 and the burner plate 9 and the associated housing parts (see. Fig. 1). 2 shows a longitudinal section through the combustion part of the gasification burner according to the invention, in FIG. 3 a cross section corresponding to line 111-111 in FIG. 2.
  • 2 or 3 is followed by the mixing chamber, which is divided into two sub-rooms 3 'and 3 "by a homogenizing device (swirl orifice 24' with oblique slots 30). Fuel gas is supplied to the mixing chamber by the gasification section (arrow 31) which is mixed with secondary air (arrow 32) The mixture is passed through a non-return device 16 ', for example a perforated disk made of porous ceramic, into the ignition chamber 7', from where it flows through a perforated wall 17 ', which is advantageous as perforated ceramic plate is formed in the conically widening combustion chamber 8 'and through the burner plate 9'. When the fuel flows through the ignition chamber 7 'and the combustion chamber 8', in particular when it passes through the perforated wall 17 'and the burner plate 9', Air mixture and enters the interior of a boiler according to the arrows 33. The spaces mentioned are surrounded by a solid housing part 34 in which a ring runs around 4 ', to which primary air is supplied via a primary air supply nozzle 26'.
  • The fundamental improvement is in the gasification burner according to the invention. achieved in that the annular space 4 'also surrounds the ignition chamber 7' and the combustion chamber 8 'and extends into the vicinity of the burner plate 9'. There, the primary air supply nozzle 26 'is arranged so that the primary air in the immediate vicinity of the hot burner plate 9' comes into contact with the heated housing part 34 and cools the housing. Walls 35 are arranged in the annular space 4 ', which make the annular space a spiraling or meandering flow path around the combustion chamber 8' and the ignition chamber 7 '. This flow path can be realized in such a way that a thread-like groove is milled into the housing part 34 and a conical cover plate 36 is fastened on the housing part. The primary air flowing in through the connecting piece 26 ′ comes into intensive thermal contact with the housing part 34 on this tortuous flow path and cools it before it - according to FIG. 1 - enters the antechamber 1 through the radial channels 6 of the ring wall 5. This configuration of the burner according to the invention leads on the one hand to a better preheating of the primary air and on the other hand prevents overheating of the housing part 34, which can therefore be made of metal, for example stainless steel, without the risk of material softening at the high combustion temperatures.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the gasification burner according to the invention, the ignition chamber 7 'also widens conically in the flow direction, the outlet cross section of the ignition chamber being equal to the inlet cross section of the combustion chamber. However, the ignition chamber 7 'is particularly advantageously separated from the combustion chamber 8' by the hole wall 17 'already mentioned, the perforated area of the burner plate 9' being larger than the perforated area of the hole wall 17 '. Since the flow cross section of the fuel gas / air mixture between the mixing chamber 3 'and the burner plate 9' is constantly expanding, the thermal load on the perforated wall is lower than in the gasification burner according to FIG. 1, and the risk of destruction of this perforated wall by thermal stresses is thus reduced . It has been shown that the perforated wall 17 'is exposed to particularly high temperatures during burner operation, which can be recognized by a bright glow. To avoid thermal destruction, it is also advantageous if the burner plate 9 'and possibly also the perforated wall 17' are composed of several plate parts 37, 38 which are held together by tongue and groove 39.
  • The burner housing of the gasification burner according to the invention is preferably made of metal. In order to protect the housing from thermal damage at high temperatures, the ignition chamber 7 'and the combustion chamber 8' can also wear a ceramic lining. This ceramic lining advantageously consists of individual ceramic rings 40, 41, which can also be held together by tongue and groove.
  • An additional improvement results in the gasification burner according to the invention if a flame monitoring device directed towards the perforated wall 17 'is provided on the housing. The flame monitoring device can be optical in nature. For this purpose, for example, one end of an observation tube 42 can be attached to an opening in the ignition chamber wall, the other end of which carries a photocell (not shown in FIG. 2) which emits a signal for trouble-free operation when the perforated wall 17 'is glowing and when it goes out the perforated wall 17 'a fault signal which can be used, for example, to switch off the fuel supply. If necessary, a light guide can be provided between the observation tube 42 and the photocell in order to protect the photocell from the heat of the burner.
  • In the gasification burner according to the invention, the housing part 34 can also advantageously be provided with a wide flange 50 at the end adjoining the gasification part, that is to say at the level of the mixing chamber, which projects laterally beyond the other housing parts. This flange can be used Attach the burner to the wall of a boiler, an opening being provided in the boiler wall, into which the burner with the flow part behind the flange can be inserted and which is closed by the flange (threaded holes 43). The combustion part of the burner is then arranged inside the boiler, so that the thermal radiation from the burner part can also be used for heating purposes. Since the housing parts now inside the boiler are cooled by the primary air flow, there is no fear of overheating of these parts. The primary air supply takes place by means of at least one supply channel 45 which passes through the flange and leads to the primary air supply connection piece 26 '. The partial space of the annular space 4' located in the combustion part is connected via holes 48 to the part of the annular space located in front of it. The secondary air is supplied by means of at least one feed channel 46 which also extends through the flange and leads to the secondary air connection of the mixing chamber 3 '. Furthermore, openings 47 are provided in the flange 50 for the introduction of ignition electrodes, which are arranged on the ignition chamber wall, and optionally for flame monitoring.
  • Mullite can be used as the material for the ceramic parts in the gasification burner according to the invention; Up to 50% by weight of bikorite (trademark) can advantageously be added to the mullite to increase the heat resistance. Aluminum oxide and alumina fireclay masses (for example so-called sieve core masses) are also suitable. However, other highly heat-resistant ceramics, for example based on zirconium dioxide, or silicon carbide can also be used. The burner plates and the perforated wall advantageously consist of the same material as the ceramic linings.
  • If, during operation of the burner according to the invention, the primary air quantity is set to an air ratio of approximately 0.1 and the secondary air quantity to an air ratio of approximately 1.0, temperatures of approximately 1740 ° C. are reached. Despite these high temperatures, there is no fear of thermal damage to the burner components. In addition, the preheating of the primary air and the reduction in thermal radiation improve the efficiency of the burner.

Claims (10)

1. A vaporisation burner comprising an ante-chamber (1) for the mixing of an at least partially vaporised liquid fuel with primary air; a catalyst device (2) connected to the ante-chamber (1) and serving for the conversion of the vapour-air mixture into a fuel gas; a mixing chamber (3) which adjoins the catalyst device (2) and serves for mixing the fuel gas with secondary air; an annular chamber (4') which concentrically surrounds the ante-chamber (1), the catalyst device (2) and the mixing chamber (3) and is separated from the ante-chamber by an annular wall (5); a conically-widening combustion chamber (8'); a perforated burner plate (9') made of porour material which closes off the combustion chamber (8') and can be supplied from the mixing chamber (3) with the fuel gas-air mixture; a front chamber (10) which is arranged in front of the ante-chamber (1) and which extends into an annular channel (11) which completely surrounds the ante-chamber (1) and surrounds the annular chamber (4') and the catalyst device (2) at least over a part of their length; comprising a heat source (12) located in the annular channel (11) and serves to vaporise the fuel; a heat source (8) which is located in the annular chamber (4') and serves to pre-heat the primary air during the start-up procedure and serves as an aid in the event of changes in load; radial channels (6) which are located in the annular wall (5) and which connect the annular chamber (4') to the ante-chamber (1); respective homogenising devices located in the ante-chamber (1) and the mixing chamber (3); and an ignition chamber (7') which is arranged between the combustion chamber (8') and the mixing chamber (3) and which is separated from the mixing chamber (3) in a manner which prevents striking back, characterised in that the annular chamber (4') also surrounds in annular fashion the ignition chamber (7') and the conically expanding combustion chamber (8') and extends into the vicinity of the burner plate (9'), that at this point, a primary air supply pipe (26') opens into the annular chamber (4') and that the annular chamber (4') contains deflecting walls (35) which guide the primary air flow from the primary air supply pipe (26') to the radial channels (6) of the annular wall (5) in a flow path which winds in helical or serpentine fashion around the combustion chamber (8') and the ignition chamber (7').
2. A vaporisation burner as claimed in Claim 1, characterised in that the ignition chamber (7') is separated from the combustion chamber (8') by a perforated wall (17'), preferably a perforated ceramic plate, and that the perforated surface of the burner plate (9') is larger than the perforated surface of the perforated wall (17').
3. A vaporisation burner as claimed in Claim 2, characterised in that a flame monitoring device directed towards the perforated wall (17') is arranged on the housing (34).
4. A vaporisation burner as claimed in Claim 1, characterised in that the ignition chamber (7') expands conically in the direction of flow and the outlet cross-section of the ignition chamber (7') is equal to the inlet cross-section of the combustion chamber (8').
5. A vaporisation burner as claimed in one of Claims 1 to 4, characterised in that the side walls of the ignition chamber (7') and of the combustion chamber (8') are made of metal and are provided with a ceramic cladding.
6. A vaporisation burner as claimed in Claim 5, characterised in that the ceramic cladding is made up of ceramic rings (40,41).
7. A vaporisation burner as claimed in one or more of Claims 1 to 6, characterised in that the burner plate (9') and possibly the perforated wall (17'), consist of a plurality of plate parts (37,38).
8. A vaporisation burner as claimed in Claim 6 or Claim 7, characterised in that the ceramic rings (40, 41) and the plate parts (37, 38) are in each case, connected to one another by means of grooves and springs (39).
9. A vaporisation burner as claimed in one or more of Claims 1 to 8, characterised in that, at the level of the mixing chamber (3'), the housing (34) is provided with a flange (50) which projects laterally beyond the other parts of the housing, and that the flange (50) is provided with supply conduits (45 and 46 respectively) to the primary air supply pipe (26') and to a secondary air connection which leads into the mixing chamber (3'), as well as with openings (47) for ignition electrodes arranged at the ignition chamber (7'), and possible for flame monitoring.
10. A vaporisation burner as claimed in Claim 9, characterised in that the flange (50) is provided with means (43) for attachment to the wall of a boiler.
EP79103322A 1978-09-21 1979-09-06 Gasification burner Expired EP0009182B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2841105 1978-09-21
DE2841105A DE2841105C2 (en) 1978-09-21 1978-09-21

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AT79103322T AT1205T (en) 1978-09-21 1979-09-06 Gasification burner.

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0009182A1 EP0009182A1 (en) 1980-04-02
EP0009182B1 true EP0009182B1 (en) 1982-06-16

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ID=6050052

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EP79103322A Expired EP0009182B1 (en) 1978-09-21 1979-09-06 Gasification burner

Country Status (7)

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US (1) US4421476A (en)
EP (1) EP0009182B1 (en)
AT (1) AT1205T (en)
CA (1) CA1123333A (en)
DE (1) DE2841105C2 (en)
DK (1) DK149412C (en)
NO (1) NO152882C (en)

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DE2841105A1 (en) 1980-04-10
DK149412B (en) 1986-06-02
CA1123333A1 (en)
EP0009182A1 (en) 1980-04-02
NO793004L (en) 1980-03-24
NO152882B (en) 1985-08-26
DE2841105C2 (en) 1986-10-16
NO152882C (en) 1985-12-04
AT1205T (en) 1982-07-15
CA1123333A (en) 1982-05-11
DK393679A (en) 1980-03-22
US4421476A (en) 1983-12-20
DK149412C (en) 1986-11-10

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