DE4116232A1 - Antenna arrangement - Google Patents

Antenna arrangement

Info

Publication number
DE4116232A1
DE4116232A1 DE19914116232 DE4116232A DE4116232A1 DE 4116232 A1 DE4116232 A1 DE 4116232A1 DE 19914116232 DE19914116232 DE 19914116232 DE 4116232 A DE4116232 A DE 4116232A DE 4116232 A1 DE4116232 A1 DE 4116232A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
antenna
characterized
arrangement according
preceding
antenna arrangement
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE19914116232
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Dieter Dipl Phys Schenkyr
Stefan Dipl Ing Hamerli
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Hirschmann Richard Co GmbH
Original Assignee
Hirschmann Richard Co GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Hirschmann Richard Co GmbH filed Critical Hirschmann Richard Co GmbH
Priority to DE19914116232 priority Critical patent/DE4116232A1/en
Publication of DE4116232A1 publication Critical patent/DE4116232A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/27Adaptation for use in or on movable bodies
    • H01Q1/32Adaptation for use in or on road or rail vehicles
    • H01Q1/325Adaptation for use in or on road or rail vehicles characterised by the location of the antenna on the vehicle
    • H01Q1/3283Adaptation for use in or on road or rail vehicles characterised by the location of the antenna on the vehicle side-mounted antennas, e.g. bumper-mounted, door-mounted
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/12Supports; Mounting means
    • H01Q1/22Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles

Abstract

In order to obtain the best possible signal reception in at least two frequency bands with differently polarised wave fields, a first aerial has two individual probes (1, 2) for receiving signals in a first frequency band which couple to the displacement current of the same substantially resonant circuit occurring on a conductive formation (6). A second aerial (14) is designed to receive signals in a second frequency band having a wave field with a direction of polarisation at right angles to the wave field of the signals in the other frequency band. The decoupling of the two aerials thus obtained facilitates the best possible choice of aerial components and the ideal positioning and direction of the aerials for efficient reception in the various frequency bands, especially the VHF and LMS bands.

Description

The invention relates to an antenna arrangement for receiving Signals in a first and a second frequency band mutually orthogonal wave fields.

In the unpublished DE 40 03 385 A1 of the same The applicant describes an antenna arrangement in which at least two individual antennas or probes for one antenna are provided, which are phase-rich via a λ / 2 long line tig interconnected and positioned so that they on the displacement current of the same resonant circuit metallic structure, for example a body part, couple. This results in a high antenna efficiency. Such an antenna with at least two individual antennas Designed as a bumper antenna, the two are Individual antennas preferably on the left and right edges the vehicle body and are orthogonal to these edges aligned so that they due to the compression of the elec field lines optimally to the displacement current couple. This antenna consists of two individual antennas in this case for reception in the FM range with horizontal polarized wave fields are provided. To repetitions too will avoid further details and the Functionality referred to DE 40 03 385 A1.

In principle, it is possible to use one of the two individual probes as an active antenna for long, medium and / or  Use shortwave (LMK) reception and, if necessary, for it to adapt the antenna intended for FM reception with also use two individual probes for LMK reception can. To make this possible, however, is a capacitive Separation of one of the individual antennas from the other antennas arrangement required. The capacitive separation causes however, that both FM and LMK reception are not is optimal. In addition, compromises would have to be made the orientation of the individual antennas in relation to the vertical and horizontally polarized wave fields are entered, which the efficiency of both FM and LMK reception would adversely affect.

The invention is therefore based on the object of an antenna arrangement to specify that for the reception of signals in ver different frequency bands and with different rich polarized wave fields for optimal reception quality enables.

This object is achieved in that a first antenna for receiving signals in the first frequency band has two individual probes connected to the displacement current of the the same on a conductive structure, essentially Lichen resonant circuit, and that a second Antenna for receiving signals in the second frequency band with different from the wave field of the first frequency band polarized, preferably orthogonal wave field provided is.

The antenna arrangement according to the invention enables opti paint receiving signals in both frequency bands and with differently polarized wave fields without one for unsatisfactory compromise are needed.  

Preferably, the first antenna is essentially used to receive horizontal polarized wave fields and the second Antenna for receiving essentially vertically polarized Wave fields used. This additional measure enables light another optimal adaptation of the antennas to the Reception of differently polarized wave fields without Respect for compromises. The reception characteristics of the This further improves antennas.

It is particularly advantageous if the individual probes are the first Antenna orthogonal to vertical outer edges of the conductive Formed are arranged, as a result of which on these outer edges Compressions of the field lines occurring for an optimal Reception can be exploited as detailed in the DE 40 03 385 A1 is described and to which reference is made becomes.

The efficiency of the second antenna is according to another Embodiment of the invention additionally improved in that the second antenna orthogonal to a horizontal outer edge of the conductive structure is arranged. The edge effect with compression of the field lines can also be used in this way Improvement of the reception properties of the second antenna be exploited.

Both for the reception properties as well as for a com Compact, integrated arrangement of the antennas makes it special advantageous if the second antenna between the individual probes the first antenna and especially in the middle between the Individual probes of the first antenna is arranged.

Another advantage results from the fact that the individual probes the first antenna connected to each other via a λ / 2 line are, as stated in DE 40 03 385 A1, on which is referred to avoid repetition.  

To better tune the first antenna or its individual probes and to be able to optimize are roof capacities for adaptation purposes and / or extension inductors additionally provided. With regard to these design options, too DE 40 03 385 A1 referenced.

It when the first antenna with the at least two individual probes for reception in the FM frequency range rich and the second antenna for reception in the LMK frequency range is or are rich.

The antenna arrangement according to the invention is particularly advantageous can be used in connection with mobile reception. Preferential is or are the leading structure on which an im essential resonant circuit occurs, the metal body or electrically conductive parts of a motor vehicle stuff.

The individual probes of the first antenna can preferably and / or the second antenna be short antennas, the one compact arrangement especially with regard to integrated Enable antenna arrangements for mobile reception. Farther it is advantageous if the first and / or the second antenna is an active antenna.

Another advantageous embodiment of the invention exists therein the signals received in the two frequency bands interconnect behind the active antenna elements. Also decoupling of the two antennas is possible and a separation capacity with your for VHF and / or LMK reception harmful effects can be avoided.

The first and the second antenna can preferably be in one Plastic bumper on the bow or rear of the vehicle, however  also in a spoiler on the rear of the vehicle or on the roof of the vehicle to get integrated.

The antenna arrangement according to the invention can advantageously in Used in connection with a diversity reception system because the first and second antennas are decoupled and optimal for different polarized wave fields can be formed.

The invention is illustrated below using the example of a bumper tennenanordnung explained with reference to the drawings. Show it:

Fig. 1 is a schematic representation of the antenna arrangement according to the invention using the example of an integrated bumper antenna for FM and LMK reception and

Fig. 2 is an equivalent circuit diagram to explain the operation and advantages of the antenna arrangement according to the invention.

In Fig. 1 an antenna arrangement of the invention in connection with an integrated bumper antenna 16 is shown. A first antenna has antenna probes 1 , 2 with roof capacitances 3 , 4 , a λ / 2 line 5 connecting the antenna probes 1 and 2 to one another, which is arranged as a detour line near a body panel 6 at ground potential, and extension inductors 7 , 8 in In the form of coils.

Because the individual antennas of the first antenna are not necessary dig, but preferably short antennas, are as probes, they are therefore also called antenna probes.

The antenna probes 1 , 2 are essentially orthogonal to the edge of the body. One of the two axes that span the surfaces of the roof capacities 3 , 4 is essentially parallel to the edge of the body. The normal vector of this surface is thus orthogonal to the body edge and points in the direction of the extended antenna.

The antenna signal is amplified in an amplifier 9 and fed via a coaxial cable 10 to a receiving circuit, not shown. In order to avoid repetitions, reference is made to the unpublished DE 40 03 386 A1 with regard to further details or the functioning of this first antenna comprising the antenna elements mentioned.

An equivalent circuit diagram is shown in FIG. 2, the antenna and circuit elements which correspond to those in FIG. 1 being provided with the same reference symbols and should not be explained again.

Basically, it is possible to use the antenna components 1 to 9 , as shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, and are preferably provided for reception in the FM frequency range, as an LMK antenna, namely in that one of the antennas probe 1 , 2 is formed as an active LMK antenna. However, this requires that an antenna probe, for example antenna probe 2 , be capacitively separated from the rest of the antenna arrangement or the rest of the antenna structure. This separation capacitance, which is shown schematically in FIG. 2 and is provided with the reference number 11 , causes an asymmetry in the first antenna arrangement provided for VHF reception with the two antenna probes 1 and 2 . At the same time, the separating capacitance 11 for the antenna probe 2 provided for the LMK reception is in series with a capacitance 12 present through the λ / 2 line, and thus represents a harmful parallel capacitance to the effective antenna capacitance 13. Due to this voltage division occurring as a result the efficiency of the antenna probe 2 also used for the LMK reception is considerably reduced. When using one of the two antenna probes 1 or 2 of the first antenna intended for VHF reception also for reception in a different frequency range, such as the LMK frequency band, the two antennas therefore influence each other for the reception of signals in the different reception ranges Chen mutually, so that optimal reception is not possible in the FM or LMK frequency range.

According to the present invention, the reception or antenna elements are therefore provided separately for FM and LMK reception, so that the FM and LMK reception components are separated and thus a mutual negative influence on the FM and LMK reception arrangement or avoiding unsatisfactory compromises. For this purpose, an additional antenna 14 with a roof capacitance 15 connected to the amplifier 9 is provided (cf. FIG. 1).

In addition to the advantages of separate antenna arrangements for VHF and LMK reception described above, the arrangement according to the invention also has the following advantages: In FIG. 1, the horizontal direction of polarization of the VHF wave field is indicated by the arrow E VHF and by one to the horizontal Direction of the FM wave field orthogonal arrow, the vertical polarization direction of the LMK wave field E LMK is shown schematically. The horizontal arrangement of the first antenna, consisting of antenna probes 1 and 2, has an optimal coupling to the electric field vector of the horizontally polarized VHF wave field. If the first antenna with antenna probes 1 and 2 were therefore also used to receive the LMK wave field, the efficiency would be very low, since the first antenna with antenna probes 1 and 2 only has a small component on the vertical E-field vector of the LMK -Welding field would couple. It would be possible to arrange the first antenna with the antenna probes 1 and 2 so that the LMK wave field could be received better. In any case, however, compromises would have to be made with regard to the arrangement of the antennas, so that both FM and LMK reception are unsatisfactory.

By using a second antenna 14 for the LMK reception, a separation and thus an optimal positioning and orientation of each antenna is possible according to the respective polarization direction. By merging the signals received in both frequency ranges behind the active elements of the respective antenna so not only is the separating capacitance 11 eliminated with its adverse consequences for VHF and LMK reception, but it is also possible to optimally adapt, arrange and Positioning of the two antennas to choose.

Preferably, in this way the first antenna, that is, the antenna probes 1 and 2 at vertical edges of the vehicle, such as on vertical edges of the rear of the vehicle or the vehicle front when used, for example, a butt rod antenna are optimally arranged to ensure a good efficiency for the FM To reach reception. The antennas probes 1 and 2 of the first antenna for VHF reception are therefore located at the greatest field strength of the displacement current of the resonant body excitation by the horizontally polarized VHF wave field.

The second antenna 14 for the LMK reception is in particular oriented orthogonally to a vehicle edge. In the exemplary embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 1, the second antenna 14 for the LMK reception is located in the middle between the individual probes 1 and 2 of the first antenna provided for the FM reception, namely at a short distance or a small distance Antenna height («λ at 100 MHz) in front of the conductive body surface. The second antenna 14 provided for LMK reception therefore optimally couples to the displacement current between the electrically conductive body 6 and the ground 18 , preferably to a horizontal edge of the motor vehicle. At the same time, the horizontally polarized VHF wave field in this arrangement of the second antenna 14 provided for LMK reception has very small field strengths, so that the second antenna probe 14 provided for LMK reception has the function of the first one for VHF reception provided antenna with the antenna probes 1 and 2 is not affected.

The antenna arrangement according to the invention and the alignment and arrangement of the first and second antennas for FM or LMK reception enables extensive electrical decoupling of these first and second antennas because the orthogonal polarized FM and LMK wave fields as well as the resonant Excitation of the vehicle body for the VHF frequencies is optimally used. This has also made it possible to optimize the two roof capacitances 3 , 4 and the adaptation coils 7 , 8 of the first antenna for FM reception separately from the roof capacitance 15 of the antenna probe 14 for LMK reception. Advantageously, the roof capacitance 15 of the LMK antenna probe is executed approximately with three times the area of the roof capacitance 3 or 4 of an FM antenna probe 1 or 2 .

The invention and its advantages were explained using the exemplary embodiment of a bumper antenna. However, numerous modifications and refinements of the invention are possible for the person skilled in the art without thereby departing from the inventive concept. For example, all antenna elements and components of the antenna arrangement according to the invention can be foamed into a foam core 17 , or a dielectric can be used to increase the roof capacities 3 and 4 of the first antenna provided for VHF reception. Furthermore, it is possible to integrate the antenna arrangement according to the invention not only in a bumper 16 at the front or rear of the vehicle, but also in a rear spoiler. In this case, the second antenna 14 intended for LMK reception is mounted orthogonally to an upper horizontal body edge.

Claims (19)

1. Antenna arrangement for receiving signals in a first and a second frequency band with each other in wesent union orthogonal wave fields, characterized in that
  • - A first antenna for receiving signals in the first frequency band has at least two individual probes ( 1 , 2 ), which couple to the displacement current of the same, occurring on a conductive structure ( 6 ), essentially resonant circuit and
  • - A second antenna ( 14 ) for receiving signals in the second frequency band with a different polarization direction to the wave field of the first frequency band is provided.
2. Antenna arrangement according to claim 1, characterized in that the first antenna for receiving substantially horizontally polarized wave fields and the second antenna ( 14 ) is provided for receiving substantially vertically polarized wave fields.
3. Antenna arrangement according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the individual probes ( 1 , 2 ) of the first antenna are arranged orthogonally to vertical edges of the conductive structure ( 6 ).
4. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the second antenna ( 14 ) is arranged ortho gonally to a horizontal outer edge of the conductive Ge image ( 6 ).
5. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the second antenna ( 14 ) between the individual probes ( 1 , 2 ) of the first antenna is arranged.
6. Antenna arrangement according to claim 5, characterized in that the second antenna ( 14 ) is arranged in the middle between the individual probes ( 1 , 2 ) of the first antenna.
7. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the individual probes ( 1 , 2 ) of the first antenna are connected to one another via a λ / 2 line.
8. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the first antenna for receiving signals in the FM frequency band and the second antenna ( 14 ) for receiving signals in the LMK frequency band is or are easily seen.
9. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the conductive structure ( 6 ) is or are the metal body or electrically conductive parts of a motor vehicle.
10. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the individual probes ( 1 , 2 ) of the first antenna and / or the second antenna ( 14 ) are short antennas.
11. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the individual probes ( 1 , 2 ) of the first antenna and / or the second antenna ( 14 ) Dachkapa capacities ( 3 , 4 ; 15 ).
12. Antenna arrangement according to claim 11, characterized in that the roof capacitance ( 15 ) of the second antenna ( 14 ) has approximately three times the area of the roof capacitance ( 3 or 4 ) of one of the individual probes ( 1 , 2 ) of the first antenna.
13. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the individual probes ( 1 , 2 ) of the first antenna and / or the second antenna ( 14 ) have extension inductances ( 7 , 8 ).
14. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that dielectrics to increase the Roof capacities are provided.
15. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the first and / or the second Antenna is an active antenna.
16. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that in the two frequency bands received signals behind the active antennas elements are interconnected.
17. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the first and / or the second antenna is or are integrated in a bumper ( 16 ).
18. Antenna arrangement according to one of claims 1 to 15, there characterized in that the first and / or second to in one on the rear of the vehicle or on the roof of the vehicle arranged spoiler is or are integrated.
19. Antenna arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized by the use as part of a Diversity reception system.
DE19914116232 1991-05-17 1991-05-17 Antenna arrangement Withdrawn DE4116232A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19914116232 DE4116232A1 (en) 1991-05-17 1991-05-17 Antenna arrangement

Applications Claiming Priority (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19914116232 DE4116232A1 (en) 1991-05-17 1991-05-17 Antenna arrangement
DE1992505310 DE59205310D1 (en) 1991-05-17 1992-02-20 Antenna arrangement
PCT/EP1992/000360 WO1992021160A1 (en) 1991-05-17 1992-02-20 Aerial arrangement
JP50490592A JPH06511604A (en) 1991-05-17 1992-02-20
EP92904728A EP0580590B1 (en) 1991-05-17 1992-02-20 Aerial arrangement

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE4116232A1 true DE4116232A1 (en) 1992-11-19

Family

ID=6431922

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE19914116232 Withdrawn DE4116232A1 (en) 1991-05-17 1991-05-17 Antenna arrangement
DE1992505310 Expired - Lifetime DE59205310D1 (en) 1991-05-17 1992-02-20 Antenna arrangement

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE1992505310 Expired - Lifetime DE59205310D1 (en) 1991-05-17 1992-02-20 Antenna arrangement

Country Status (4)

Country Link
EP (1) EP0580590B1 (en)
JP (1) JPH06511604A (en)
DE (2) DE4116232A1 (en)
WO (1) WO1992021160A1 (en)

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19636477A1 (en) * 1996-09-07 1998-03-19 Hirschmann Richard Gmbh Co Vehicle antenna unit mounted on inside of mudguard
EP0854536A2 (en) * 1997-01-15 1998-07-22 Menzolit-Fibron GmbH Fibre reinforced plastic moulding with integrated antenna
DE19729972A1 (en) * 1997-07-12 1999-01-14 Menzolit Fibron Gmbh Plastics moulding for e.g. mobile telephone
DE19962736A1 (en) * 1999-12-23 2001-07-26 Hirschmann Electronics Gmbh Vehicle antenna
FR2884471A1 (en) * 2005-04-18 2006-10-20 Plastic Omnium Cie Spacer for motor vehicle, has strip in thermoplastic material forming antenna after visible side of antenna is covered by electrically conducting covering, and frontier transversally intercepting projection of strip
US7234741B1 (en) 2006-03-07 2007-06-26 Nissan Technical Center North America, Inc. Vehicle bumper assembly
US7425925B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2008-09-16 Nissan Technical Center North America, Inc. Vehicle security system

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE10044936A1 (en) 2000-09-12 2002-04-04 Bosch Gmbh Robert Bumper antenna assembly

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DE3521732A1 (en) * 1984-06-18 1986-01-02 Asahi Glass Co Ltd The antenna apparatus for a fernsehempfaenger in a motor vehicle
US4845505A (en) * 1987-02-13 1989-07-04 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Automobile antenna system for diversity reception
DE3802130A1 (en) * 1988-01-26 1989-08-03 Hirschmann Radiotechnik Antenna system for broadcast radio reception in motor vehicles
DE3802131A1 (en) * 1988-01-26 1989-08-03 Hirschmann Radiotechnik Antenna system for the broadcast receivers in motor vehicles
DE3907493A1 (en) * 1989-03-08 1990-09-20 Lindenmeier Heinz Disc antenna with antennenverstaerker
DE3911178A1 (en) * 1989-04-06 1990-10-11 Lindenmeier Heinz Window glass antenna system with antennenverstaerker
DE4003385A1 (en) * 1990-02-05 1991-08-08 Hirschmann Richard Gmbh Co Road vehicle aerial system

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DE3521732A1 (en) * 1984-06-18 1986-01-02 Asahi Glass Co Ltd The antenna apparatus for a fernsehempfaenger in a motor vehicle
US4845505A (en) * 1987-02-13 1989-07-04 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Automobile antenna system for diversity reception
DE3802130A1 (en) * 1988-01-26 1989-08-03 Hirschmann Radiotechnik Antenna system for broadcast radio reception in motor vehicles
DE3802131A1 (en) * 1988-01-26 1989-08-03 Hirschmann Radiotechnik Antenna system for the broadcast receivers in motor vehicles
DE3907493A1 (en) * 1989-03-08 1990-09-20 Lindenmeier Heinz Disc antenna with antennenverstaerker
DE3911178A1 (en) * 1989-04-06 1990-10-11 Lindenmeier Heinz Window glass antenna system with antennenverstaerker
DE4003385A1 (en) * 1990-02-05 1991-08-08 Hirschmann Richard Gmbh Co Road vehicle aerial system

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Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19636477A1 (en) * 1996-09-07 1998-03-19 Hirschmann Richard Gmbh Co Vehicle antenna unit mounted on inside of mudguard
US5926142A (en) * 1996-09-07 1999-07-20 Richard Hirschmann Gmbh & Co. Vehicle antenna device
DE19636477C2 (en) * 1996-09-07 1999-11-25 Hirschmann Richard Gmbh Co Vehicle antenna device
EP0854536A2 (en) * 1997-01-15 1998-07-22 Menzolit-Fibron GmbH Fibre reinforced plastic moulding with integrated antenna
EP0854536A3 (en) * 1997-01-15 2000-07-05 Menzolit-Fibron GmbH Fibre reinforced plastic moulding with integrated antenna
DE19729972A1 (en) * 1997-07-12 1999-01-14 Menzolit Fibron Gmbh Plastics moulding for e.g. mobile telephone
DE19962736A1 (en) * 1999-12-23 2001-07-26 Hirschmann Electronics Gmbh Vehicle antenna
DE19962736C2 (en) * 1999-12-23 2001-11-22 Hirschmann Electronics Gmbh Vehicle antenna
US6686888B1 (en) 1999-12-23 2004-02-03 Hirschmann Electronics Gmbh & Co. Kg. Vehicle antenna
FR2884471A1 (en) * 2005-04-18 2006-10-20 Plastic Omnium Cie Spacer for motor vehicle, has strip in thermoplastic material forming antenna after visible side of antenna is covered by electrically conducting covering, and frontier transversally intercepting projection of strip
EP1714835A1 (en) * 2005-04-18 2006-10-25 Compagnie Plastic Omnium Reinforcement part for an automotive vehicle and utilisation of such a part as an aerial
US7425925B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2008-09-16 Nissan Technical Center North America, Inc. Vehicle security system
US7234741B1 (en) 2006-03-07 2007-06-26 Nissan Technical Center North America, Inc. Vehicle bumper assembly

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JPH06511604A (en) 1994-12-22
EP0580590B1 (en) 1996-02-07
DE59205310D1 (en) 1996-03-21
WO1992021160A1 (en) 1992-11-26
EP0580590A1 (en) 1994-02-02

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