DE3230607A1 - Drive arrangement having an internal-combustion engine which produces a torque having a level of non-uniformity - Google Patents

Drive arrangement having an internal-combustion engine which produces a torque having a level of non-uniformity

Info

Publication number
DE3230607A1
DE3230607A1 DE19823230607 DE3230607A DE3230607A1 DE 3230607 A1 DE3230607 A1 DE 3230607A1 DE 19823230607 DE19823230607 DE 19823230607 DE 3230607 A DE3230607 A DE 3230607A DE 3230607 A1 DE3230607 A1 DE 3230607A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
uniformity
internal
level
non
combustion engine
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
DE19823230607
Other languages
German (de)
Other versions
DE3230607C2 (en
Inventor
Peter Dipl Ing Dr Hofbauer
Erhard Dipl Ing Bigalke
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Volkswagen AG
Original Assignee
Volkswagen AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Volkswagen AG filed Critical Volkswagen AG
Priority to DE3230607A priority Critical patent/DE3230607C2/de
Publication of DE3230607A1 publication Critical patent/DE3230607A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of DE3230607C2 publication Critical patent/DE3230607C2/de
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/06Engines with means for equalising torque
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16FSPRINGS; SHOCK-ABSORBERS; MEANS FOR DAMPING VIBRATION
    • F16F15/00Suppression of vibrations in systems; Means or arrangements for avoiding or reducing out-of-balance forces, e.g. due to motion
    • F16F15/10Suppression of vibrations in rotating systems by making use of members moving with the system
    • F16F15/18Suppression of vibrations in rotating systems by making use of members moving with the system using electric, magnetic or electromagnetic means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K11/00Structural association of dynamo-electric machines with electric components or with devices for shielding, monitoring or protection
    • H02K11/20Structural association of dynamo-electric machines with electric components or with devices for shielding, monitoring or protection for measuring, monitoring, testing, protecting or switching
    • H02K11/21Devices for sensing speed or position, or actuated thereby
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K11/00Structural association of dynamo-electric machines with electric components or with devices for shielding, monitoring or protection
    • H02K11/30Structural association with control circuits or drive circuits
    • H02K11/33Drive circuits, e.g. power electronics
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P29/00Arrangements for regulating or controlling electric motors, appropriate for both AC and DC motors
    • H02P29/0016Control of angular speed of one shaft without controlling the prime mover

Abstract

In order to reduce the level of non-uniformity of an internal-combustion engine (1), the output current (I2, I2 [sic]) of the generator (7) is regulated as a function of the crank angle such that the generator (7) represents a load on the internal-combustion engine (1) which is dependent on the crank angle and counteracts the level of non-uniformity. <IMAGE>
DE3230607A 1982-08-18 1982-08-18 Expired - Fee Related DE3230607C2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE3230607A DE3230607C2 (en) 1982-08-18 1982-08-18

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE3230607A DE3230607C2 (en) 1982-08-18 1982-08-18
IT22570/83A IT1163913B (en) 1982-08-18 1983-08-17 Engine device with an internal combustion engine that provides a torque having a degree of irregularities'
JP1983126909U JPS5937454U (en) 1982-08-18 1983-08-18

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE3230607A1 true DE3230607A1 (en) 1984-02-23
DE3230607C2 DE3230607C2 (en) 1990-06-13

Family

ID=6171063

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE3230607A Expired - Fee Related DE3230607C2 (en) 1982-08-18 1982-08-18

Country Status (3)

Country Link
JP (1) JPS5937454U (en)
DE (1) DE3230607C2 (en)
IT (1) IT1163913B (en)

Cited By (39)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4922869A (en) * 1988-04-18 1990-05-08 Hitachi, Ltd. Torque controlling apparatus for internal combustion engine
DE4027664A1 (en) * 1989-09-02 1991-03-14 Nissan Motor Apparatus method for torque control for internal combustion engines and
EP0440088A1 (en) * 1990-01-27 1991-08-07 Hitachi, Ltd. Method of and apparatus for reducing vibrations of car body
US5185543A (en) * 1990-02-27 1993-02-09 Fichtel & Sachs Ag Motor vehicle drive line torsional vibration damper
DE4423577A1 (en) * 1994-02-28 1995-08-31 Clouth Gummiwerke Ag Active vibration damping for road vehicle e.g. crankshaft
EP0745782A2 (en) * 1995-05-26 1996-12-04 SAPORITI S.r.l. Device for damping induced oscillation in a rotating shaft
WO1997008437A1 (en) 1995-08-31 1997-03-06 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, in particular a drive system for a motor vehicle, and method of operating the system
DE19532164A1 (en) * 1995-08-31 1997-03-06 Clouth Gummiwerke Ag the same drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating
EP0798479A2 (en) * 1996-03-27 1997-10-01 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Clutch device
FR2748427A1 (en) 1996-05-10 1997-11-14 Fichtel & Sachs Ag A drive device for a hybrid vehicle
WO1998039579A2 (en) 1997-03-06 1998-09-11 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Device for reducing rotational irregularities and method relating thereto
US5921149A (en) * 1994-02-28 1999-07-13 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg System and process for active vibration damping
US5939793A (en) * 1994-02-28 1999-08-17 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Starter for drive units, especially internal combustion engines, and process for operating the same
WO2000055484A1 (en) 1999-03-12 2000-09-21 Continental Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Ohg Device for damping irregularities in the drive train of a motor vehicle driven by a combustion engine
EP1039617A1 (en) * 1999-03-25 2000-09-27 Continental ISAD Electronic Systems GmbH &amp; Co. KG Electrical machine, in particular starter-generator for a motor vehicle
DE4100937C2 (en) * 1990-02-27 2000-10-05 Mannesmann Sachs Ag Device for damping torsional vibrations in the drive train of a motor vehicle
WO2000061965A1 (en) * 1999-04-08 2000-10-19 Schommers, Joachim Device for compensating the vibrations of an internal combustion engine
US6138629A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-10-31 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg System for actively reducing radial vibrations in a rotating shaft, and method of operating the system to achieve this
US6149544A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-11-21 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system for a motor vehicle with a drive unit and electric machine, and method of operating the system
US6148784A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-11-21 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive systems, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6158405A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-12-12 Isad Electronic Systems System for actively reducing rotational nonuniformity of a shaft, in particular, the drive shaft of an internal combustion engine, and method of operating the system
US6177734B1 (en) 1998-02-27 2001-01-23 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Starter/generator for an internal combustion engine, especially an engine of a motor vehicle
US6199650B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2001-03-13 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6202776B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2001-03-20 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6294854B1 (en) 1998-08-17 2001-09-25 Mannesmann Sachs Ag Drive arrangement for a motor vehicle
EP1209355A2 (en) * 2000-11-27 2002-05-29 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Cranking-caused vibration suppressing apparatus and method for internal combustion engine
US6405701B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2002-06-18 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg System for actively reducing rotational nonuniformity of a shaft, in particular, the drive shaft of an internal combustion engine, and method for this
FR2824374A1 (en) * 2001-05-04 2002-11-08 Valeo Rotation and transmission vibration filtering device for a motor vehicle comprising such a device
FR2836763A1 (en) * 2003-03-19 2003-09-05 Valeo Equip Electr Moteur Control of reversible rotating electric machine for use with internal combustion engined motor vehicle, uses braking of vehicle to trigger energy recuperation mode
EP1273822A3 (en) * 2001-07-05 2003-11-19 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for smoothing out oscillations in vehicle drivelines
WO2006012955A1 (en) * 2004-07-31 2006-02-09 Schaeffler Kg Traction mechanism drive
DE4447574B4 (en) * 1994-02-28 2006-07-13 Temic Automotive Electric Motors Gmbh Active vibration damping for road vehicle e.g. crankshaft - has speed monitored to generate input to absorber that applies electro magnetic field to flywheel
DE10038281B4 (en) * 2000-08-04 2006-08-17 Zf Sachs Ag Method and device for reducing vibrations in a drive system
DE102005056198A1 (en) * 2005-11-25 2007-06-06 Audi Ag Belt drive for propelling cam shaft of internal combustion engine, has propelling wheel whose radius, depending upon its angle of rotation, is changed such that intake speed of traction mechanism on propelled wheel is constant
FR2918222A1 (en) * 2007-06-27 2009-01-02 Valeo Equip Electr Moteur Method and electric brake machine of a heat engine and vehicle during the stopping phase thereof
US7485061B2 (en) 2005-08-29 2009-02-03 Zf Friedrichshafen Ag Drive train of hybrid vehicle
WO2009141298A1 (en) * 2008-05-21 2009-11-26 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Drive device comprising an internal combustion engine and a flywheel with an electric machine
DE102011109456A1 (en) 2011-08-04 2013-02-07 Linde Material Handling Gmbh Drive train for use with drive shaft connected to internal combustion engine, has device for attenuating non-uniformity of rotational torque characteristic of internal combustion engine, where attenuating device is formed by displacer unit
FR3072145A1 (en) * 2017-10-10 2019-04-12 Valeo Equipements Electriques Moteur Method for compensating acyclisms of a thermal motor using a rotating electric machine

Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH0537061Y2 (en) * 1986-10-14 1993-09-20
DE19721298C2 (en) * 1997-05-21 2001-09-06 Mannesmann Sachs Ag Hybrid travel drive for a motor vehicle
DE19934936B4 (en) * 1998-07-28 2011-06-22 Schaeffler Technologies GmbH & Co. KG, 91074 powertrain
DE10223426A1 (en) * 2002-05-25 2003-12-04 Bayerische Motoren Werke Ag Method for damping torque fluctuations in the drive train of a motor vehicle
DE102004052023A1 (en) * 2004-10-26 2006-04-27 Deere & Company, Moline Device for generating electrical energy for an agricultural or industrial utility vehicle
DE102007003695B4 (en) * 2007-01-25 2009-01-22 Robert Bosch Gmbh Method and device for controlling drives
JP5880377B2 (en) * 2012-09-28 2016-03-09 三菱自動車工業株式会社 Torque fluctuation suppression device

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2925675A1 (en) * 1979-06-26 1981-02-12 Volkswagenwerk Ag motor vehicle

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5339522B2 (en) * 1973-07-19 1978-10-21
JPS5544024B2 (en) * 1977-02-03 1980-11-10
JPS551431A (en) * 1978-06-21 1980-01-08 Toyota Motor Corp Torque variation inhibiting device of internal combustion engine

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2925675A1 (en) * 1979-06-26 1981-02-12 Volkswagenwerk Ag motor vehicle

Cited By (59)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4922869A (en) * 1988-04-18 1990-05-08 Hitachi, Ltd. Torque controlling apparatus for internal combustion engine
DE4027664A1 (en) * 1989-09-02 1991-03-14 Nissan Motor Apparatus method for torque control for internal combustion engines and
EP0440088A1 (en) * 1990-01-27 1991-08-07 Hitachi, Ltd. Method of and apparatus for reducing vibrations of car body
US5109815A (en) * 1990-01-27 1992-05-05 Hitachi, Ltd. Method and apparatus for reducing vibrations of car body
US5185543A (en) * 1990-02-27 1993-02-09 Fichtel & Sachs Ag Motor vehicle drive line torsional vibration damper
DE4100937C2 (en) * 1990-02-27 2000-10-05 Mannesmann Sachs Ag Device for damping torsional vibrations in the drive train of a motor vehicle
US5939793A (en) * 1994-02-28 1999-08-17 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Starter for drive units, especially internal combustion engines, and process for operating the same
US5921149A (en) * 1994-02-28 1999-07-13 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg System and process for active vibration damping
DE4423577A1 (en) * 1994-02-28 1995-08-31 Clouth Gummiwerke Ag Active vibration damping for road vehicle e.g. crankshaft
DE4447574B4 (en) * 1994-02-28 2006-07-13 Temic Automotive Electric Motors Gmbh Active vibration damping for road vehicle e.g. crankshaft - has speed monitored to generate input to absorber that applies electro magnetic field to flywheel
DE4447537B4 (en) * 1994-02-28 2006-04-20 Temic Automotive Electric Motors Gmbh Method and system for active vibration damping
EP0745782A3 (en) * 1995-05-26 1998-03-18 SAPORITI S.r.l. Device for damping induced oscillation in a rotating shaft
EP0745782A2 (en) * 1995-05-26 1996-12-04 SAPORITI S.r.l. Device for damping induced oscillation in a rotating shaft
US6149544A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-11-21 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system for a motor vehicle with a drive unit and electric machine, and method of operating the system
US6281646B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2001-08-28 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system with drive-motor, electric machine and battery
US6202776B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2001-03-20 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6405701B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2002-06-18 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg System for actively reducing rotational nonuniformity of a shaft, in particular, the drive shaft of an internal combustion engine, and method for this
US6487998B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2002-12-03 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co., Kg Drive system, particularly for a motor vehicle, and process for operating it
US6199650B1 (en) 1995-08-31 2001-03-13 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6158405A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-12-12 Isad Electronic Systems System for actively reducing rotational nonuniformity of a shaft, in particular, the drive shaft of an internal combustion engine, and method of operating the system
DE19532164A1 (en) * 1995-08-31 1997-03-06 Clouth Gummiwerke Ag the same drive system, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating
US6148784A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-11-21 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive systems, especially for a motor vehicle, and method of operating same
US6138629A (en) * 1995-08-31 2000-10-31 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg System for actively reducing radial vibrations in a rotating shaft, and method of operating the system to achieve this
WO1997008437A1 (en) 1995-08-31 1997-03-06 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Drive system, in particular a drive system for a motor vehicle, and method of operating the system
US5860501A (en) * 1996-03-27 1999-01-19 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Clutch device
EP0798479A3 (en) * 1996-03-27 1998-06-10 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Clutch device
EP0798479A2 (en) * 1996-03-27 1997-10-01 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Clutch device
FR2748427A1 (en) 1996-05-10 1997-11-14 Fichtel & Sachs Ag A drive device for a hybrid vehicle
WO1998039579A3 (en) * 1997-03-06 1998-12-03 Isad Electronic Sys Gmbh & Co Device for reducing rotational irregularities and method relating thereto
WO1998039579A2 (en) 1997-03-06 1998-09-11 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Device for reducing rotational irregularities and method relating thereto
US6177734B1 (en) 1998-02-27 2001-01-23 Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Kg Starter/generator for an internal combustion engine, especially an engine of a motor vehicle
US6294854B1 (en) 1998-08-17 2001-09-25 Mannesmann Sachs Ag Drive arrangement for a motor vehicle
DE19837115B4 (en) * 1998-08-17 2009-04-02 Zf Sachs Ag Drive arrangement for a motor vehicle
WO2000055484A1 (en) 1999-03-12 2000-09-21 Continental Isad Electronic Systems Gmbh & Co. Ohg Device for damping irregularities in the drive train of a motor vehicle driven by a combustion engine
DE19911096C2 (en) * 1999-03-12 2001-03-01 Gruendl & Hoffmann Device for damping irregularities in the drive train of an internal combustion engine driven motor vehicle
EP1039617A1 (en) * 1999-03-25 2000-09-27 Continental ISAD Electronic Systems GmbH &amp; Co. KG Electrical machine, in particular starter-generator for a motor vehicle
WO2000061965A1 (en) * 1999-04-08 2000-10-19 Schommers, Joachim Device for compensating the vibrations of an internal combustion engine
DE10038281B4 (en) * 2000-08-04 2006-08-17 Zf Sachs Ag Method and device for reducing vibrations in a drive system
EP1209355A2 (en) * 2000-11-27 2002-05-29 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Cranking-caused vibration suppressing apparatus and method for internal combustion engine
USRE39965E1 (en) 2000-11-27 2008-01-01 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Cranking-caused vibration suppressing apparatus and method for internal combustion engine
EP1209355A3 (en) * 2000-11-27 2003-10-08 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Cranking-caused vibration suppressing apparatus and method for internal combustion engine
US6739299B2 (en) 2000-11-27 2004-05-25 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Cranking-caused vibration suppressing apparatus and method for internal combustion engine
FR2824374A1 (en) * 2001-05-04 2002-11-08 Valeo Rotation and transmission vibration filtering device for a motor vehicle comprising such a device
WO2002090793A1 (en) * 2001-05-04 2002-11-14 Valeo Embrayages Device for filtering rotation and transmission vibrations for motor vehicle comprising same
US7347122B2 (en) 2001-05-04 2008-03-25 Valeo Embrayages Device for filtering rotation and transmission vibrations for motor vehicle comprising same
US7497146B2 (en) 2001-05-04 2009-03-03 Valeo Embrayages Method for filtering rotational vibrations for motor vehicle
EP1273822A3 (en) * 2001-07-05 2003-11-19 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for smoothing out oscillations in vehicle drivelines
FR2836763A1 (en) * 2003-03-19 2003-09-05 Valeo Equip Electr Moteur Control of reversible rotating electric machine for use with internal combustion engined motor vehicle, uses braking of vehicle to trigger energy recuperation mode
WO2006012955A1 (en) * 2004-07-31 2006-02-09 Schaeffler Kg Traction mechanism drive
US7485061B2 (en) 2005-08-29 2009-02-03 Zf Friedrichshafen Ag Drive train of hybrid vehicle
DE102005056198A1 (en) * 2005-11-25 2007-06-06 Audi Ag Belt drive for propelling cam shaft of internal combustion engine, has propelling wheel whose radius, depending upon its angle of rotation, is changed such that intake speed of traction mechanism on propelled wheel is constant
WO2009007584A2 (en) * 2007-06-27 2009-01-15 Valeo Equipements Electriques Moteur Method and electric machine for braking a thermal engine of a vehicle during the stop phase thereof
FR2918222A1 (en) * 2007-06-27 2009-01-02 Valeo Equip Electr Moteur Method and electric brake machine of a heat engine and vehicle during the stopping phase thereof
WO2009007584A3 (en) * 2007-06-27 2009-04-16 Valeo Equip Electr Moteur Method and electric machine for braking a thermal engine of a vehicle during the stop phase thereof
US8587229B2 (en) 2007-06-27 2013-11-19 Valeo Equipements Electriques Moteur Method and electrical machine for braking a thermal engine of vehicle during the stop phase thereof
WO2009141298A1 (en) * 2008-05-21 2009-11-26 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Drive device comprising an internal combustion engine and a flywheel with an electric machine
DE102011109456A1 (en) 2011-08-04 2013-02-07 Linde Material Handling Gmbh Drive train for use with drive shaft connected to internal combustion engine, has device for attenuating non-uniformity of rotational torque characteristic of internal combustion engine, where attenuating device is formed by displacer unit
FR3072145A1 (en) * 2017-10-10 2019-04-12 Valeo Equipements Electriques Moteur Method for compensating acyclisms of a thermal motor using a rotating electric machine
WO2019072863A1 (en) * 2017-10-10 2019-04-18 Valeo Equipements Electriques Moteur Method for compensating for acyclic behaviour in a heat engine using a rotary electric machine

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DE3230607C2 (en) 1990-06-13
JPS5937454U (en) 1984-03-09
IT1163913B (en) 1987-04-08
IT8322570D0 (en) 1983-08-17

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Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
8127 New person/name/address of the applicant

Owner name: VOLKSWAGEN AG, 3180 WOLFSBURG, DE

8120 Willingness to grant licences paragraph 23
8110 Request for examination paragraph 44
D2 Grant after examination
8364 No opposition during term of opposition
8339 Ceased/non-payment of the annual fee