DE102015016632A1 - Special design of clock hands in conjunction with a 24-hour dial - Google Patents

Special design of clock hands in conjunction with a 24-hour dial Download PDF


Publication number
DE102015016632A1 DE102015016632.8A DE102015016632A DE102015016632A1 DE 102015016632 A1 DE102015016632 A1 DE 102015016632A1 DE 102015016632 A DE102015016632 A DE 102015016632A DE 102015016632 A1 DE102015016632 A1 DE 102015016632A1
Prior art keywords
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Application number
Other languages
German (de)
Anmelder Gleich
Original Assignee
Rudolf Pausenberger
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Rudolf Pausenberger filed Critical Rudolf Pausenberger
Priority to DE102015016632.8A priority Critical patent/DE102015016632A1/en
Publication of DE102015016632A1 publication Critical patent/DE102015016632A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current




    • G04B19/00Indicating the time by visual means
    • G04B19/04Hands; Discs with a single mark or the like
    • G04B19/00Indicating the time by visual means
    • G04B19/26Clocks or watches with indicators for tides, for the phases of the moon, or the like
    • G04B19/262Clocks or watches with indicators for tides, for the phases of the moon, or the like with indicators for astrological informations


On the sun pointer of an astrolabe clock, a graph is attached that carries astronomical information, for example an analemma. He turns with him over a dial with celestial coordinates. Not only the zone time CET, but also the local time WOZ, the height of the sun above the horizon or its exact position in the sky, taking into account the seasonal declination, time equation and longitude of the observer, can be read. An ecliptic ring with its own, elaborate drive, as astronomical clocks wear so far, is thus dispensable. In a simplified version, said graph is applied to an additional rotatable disc; then it is sufficient if only a simple 24-hour hand runs over the dial with the coordinates of the sky, with which the disc is brought to cover. The middle local time MOZ is compared to the MEZ simply by a rotatable hourly scale adjustable. Precise readings are possible with the aid of fine scales. A star map, which can be turned on and off in relation to the coordinate system of the dial, can extend the application to the possibilities of an astrolabe, possibly supplemented by a built-in inclinometer. The orientation of the shaft on which the hands are located, in the direction of the Earth's axis, illustrates the parallels between timekeeping and celestial mechanics.


  • State of the art
  • Very simple sundials only show the true local time (WOZ 1)
  • 1)
    WOZ: At 12 noon, the sun is exactly south ,
    ), but at least since Vitruvius (1st century BC), the construction of the analemma is known.
  • Astronomical clocks, developed from the 14th century onward, depict the position of the sun over a dial with sky coordinates and other astronomical applications. In principle they should be the middle local time (MOZ 2)
  • 2)
    MOZ: Every day of the year is exactly the same length, but the time the sun is in the south deviates from 12:00 on a seasonal basis by up to 16 minutes due to the equation of time ,
    ), but their accuracy was not enough; the difference between WOZ and MOZ was thus irrelevant.
  • With pendulum clocks this difference became mechanically measurable in the 18th century. Due to the division of the dial in 12 hours instead of 24 hours, of course, the direct reference to astronomy and thus at the same time to the state of the sun was lost, as with Johann Georg LEUTMANN ("Complete message of the clocks, ...", Chapter 3, Hall 1722 3)
  • 3)
    ). He proposes to attach markers to a pointer so that MOZ and WOZ can be read off.
  • Since 1848, the different local times in Germany by the Berlin time and since 1893 by the Central European Time (CET 4)
  • 4)
    CET: Our zone time is the mean time of the 15th longitude ,
    ) replaced. In 1916, the German Reich was the first state to use seasonal summer time (CEST 5)
    CEST = CET + 1: The clocks are one hour ahead of the Central European Time ,
    ). Few of today's 24-hour watches are made in the style of astronomical watches 6)
    ); There are various proposals to operate pointers over more or less complicated mechanisms pointing in the direction of the sun.
  • Possibilities for finer reading of a scale, such as vernier or transverse division 7)
  • 7) "Who invented the transversal division?"
    ), are not used in watches, but in other measuring devices such as calipers or quadrants.
  • Additional components such as star wheel, inclinometer, installation aid or replacement lighting can expand the range of applications. They are also not known from the field of watches, but from the general living environment.
  • description
  • classification
  • The subject matter of the description is an improvement of astronomical clocks, so-called astrolabe clocks. With them an hour hand turns once a day over the dial; this is the sun's passage in the sky. Often, an eccentric ring bearing the zodiac ( 21 ), so that its intersection with the hour hand indicates the position of the sun in the ecliptic. This should not only indicate their direction, but their position on the two-dimensional celestial sphere. In fact, in the course of a year, due to the ellipticity of the Earth's orbit and the slope of the Earth's axis relative to the Mean Local Time that the Clock shows, the Sun goes up or down by up to a quarter of an hour.
  • The innovation presented here is also based on an hour hand, which rotates 360 degrees in 24 hours. His peak also points to the middle local time. In addition, not only the ordinary Central European time and, if necessary, other local or zonal times are read, but above all the true local time and thus the actual state of the sun, taking into account their seasonal declination, the equation of time ( 30 ) as well as the longitude of the observer.
  • Figure on the pointer
  • The invention provides a pointer which is one resulting from astronomical conditions (1) or designed in the form of such a figure, for example, an analemma parameterized by months, a graph of the equation of time, or a curve taking into account different local times. It can be a graph in Cartesian or polar coordinates or another, more or less mathematical, more or less artistic, provided with or without scaling or caption figure. With it, for example, right ascension and / or declination of the sun in the celestial sphere can be read more accurately and it can be illustrated that the apparent orbit of the sun is not a small circle traversed with a constant angular velocity. The image is chosen so that the sun is there in the sky where the corresponding point in the described figure, such as the drawn, current date, is above the coordinates of the dial.
  • A pointer is understood to mean a unit that shows something. It does not have to have a conventional, elongated shape. For example, markings on another structure that indicate a setting are also possible.
  • On the ecliptic ring and thus on a complication that makes him rotate in 23 hours 56 minutes, can now be dispensed with by the help of this invention, because the distance of the sun from the celestial pole is already shown in the figure described. This simplifies the mechanical effort of the movement.
  • In a simplified version, the figure may be applied to a manually adjustable disc, for example, the analemma engraved on the rotatable clock-glass, and made to coincide manually with a conventional 24-hour hand.
  • dial
  • Matching the hour hand, the dial is divided into a thought or actual coordinate system, such as an astronomical clock with horizon coordinates (horizon, elevations, and / or vertical circles 13 . 14 ) and equatorial coordinates (equator, polar and tropic 11 . 12 ) etc. Other lines are possible: for example, the astronomical twilight line ( 15 ) 18 ° below the horizon. If the sun is lower, the maximum darkness is reached, all stars of the night sky are visible.
  • hour ring
  • The invention gives a special embodiment of the 24-hour ring ( 9 ), which lies around the dial. Firmly recorded, it can be symmetrical to the meridian ( 16 ), so that the pointer tip points to the mid-local time, or be offset by an angle to read the zone time. For example, for Nuremberg, which is on the 11th longitude, to the left by 16 minutes, so that the pointer point points to the Central European Time CET. Then the sun will no longer peak at 12:00 but at 12:16 in the south.
  • However, the ring is preferably rotatable. So you can choose not only between mid-local time and zone time for any location, it can also set the summer time, Babylonian or Bohemian hours, the counting of which does not begin at midnight, but at sunrise or sunset.
  • Application as astrolabe clock
  • Depending on the task, the position of the sun in the sky or vice versa from the position of the sun, for example, can be read from the time of day, as well as the date and the cardinal points. These tasks are typical of a hand-setting astrolabe without a clockwork; With the help of the graphic described here, they succeed on the hand more accurately than in a normal astronomical clock, because now it is possible to differentiate between the position of the sun at 12 noon and the south direction.
  • Moreover, the clock can now also show how the sunrise and sunset times are shifted relative to each other: So also in the equation of time ( 30 ) justifies that it darkens noticeably later in the evening after Christmas, but not noticeably early in the morning, or that the sun is still in the west at the beginning of November, as it indicates the time of day.
  • Daily events
  • One embodiment also provides a mechanism for displaying, triggering, or displaying daily events that depend on the state of the sun, such as prayer times, the time of sunrise, the beginning of astronomical dusk, etc.
  • This mechanism can be achieved, for example, by a mechanical pin or an electronic buzzer on the (1) be realized, a trigger or sensor approximately on the twilight line ( 15 ).
  • reading aids
  • A variant also indicates reading aids worn by the pointer, for example
    • • a magnifying glass ( 4 ), through which the underlying time scale appears enlarged
    • A transverse scale with transverse division ( 5 ): The ratio in which the slash scale of the pointer intersects the last overlined minute line on the dial indicates what fraction has passed since the last full minute.
    • • a visor thread ( 6 ), which determines the position of the pointer over the scale ( 9 ) read better
    • • a fine scale ( 7 ) or a subdivision ( 3 ), the scale to be read ( 9 ) faces
    • • a vernier ( 8th ).
  • For the sake of clarity, only a selection of these components may possibly be implemented in the concrete execution.
  • Brands on the pointer
  • For places that are not on the 15th longitude, the zone time differ, z. As MEZ, and the local time MOZ depending on their eastern length. One variant gives brands ( 2 ) on the pointer, with the help of which different local times can be considered:
    Variant A) If the clock is created for a specific, fixed location, then the local time continues to be to the east of the cities. The pointer point for example for Görlitz and thus for the MEZ is 16 minutes to the right of the Analemma for Nuremberg. Further pointer tips may indicate the mean local time of other locations. It also allows you to convert between different time zones, their summertime or their differences and read them.
  • Variant B) The clock should be used on a mobile basis. Then the pointer carries marks with the respective place names, which are adjusted to the CET, so that the analemma comes to lie in the respectively correct position. The analemma is, for example, 16 minutes left of the mark for Nuremberg, because the local time compared to the MEZ pursues.
  • For the same places, the various pointer points of variant A and the respective brands of variant B would be mirror images of each other. Further, different examples, the application of longitudes and combinations are possible.
  • The applications include alternatives to the rotatable hour ring described above but are more extensive with it.
  • inclinometer
  • An embodiment variant gives an inclinometer ( 10 ), which, for example, hangs on the shaft of a pointer and settles over an angle scale on the dial. Thus, similar to an astrolabe, for example, the identification and movement of stars, the determination of the cardinal directions, the control of the time, etc. can be performed. In this case, a table or picture of angle functions can be helpful, for example, for the tangent a so-called shadow square on the back of the housing.
  • Stands
  • A variant gives an erection aid ( 26 ), possibly complemented by a compass, which can orient the clock so that the shaft of the hour hand is parallel to the earth's axis. The wave is oriented so that it is in north-south direction and is inclined for example in Nuremberg by about 41 ° to the vertical. Then the hour hand always points approximately in the direction of the actual sun, a possible moon pointer in the direction of the actual moon, etc. This orientation makes it clear that mechanical clocks actually represent the movement of earth and sun.
  • Rotatable star chart
  • One embodiment variant is a rotatable disc with a star map, Rete ( 2 ) or the like to extend the astronomical applications of the clock on the night. The disc is adjusted either by the user himself, by the current position of the sun in the zodiac ( 21 ) turns on the hour hand, or a mechanism does it for him.
  • The disc may be above or below the hour hand, above or below the dial.
  • It can be directly visible or made visible only when needed; This is especially useful for nighttime stargazing. This can be achieved by illumination from below, so that it shines through the dial, like an alternating-image globe, or through a self-illuminating medium, such as a glass. B. OLEDs.
  • Embodiment 1
  • In 1 is the hour ring ( 9 ) opposite the meridian ( 16 Twisted by 13 minutes: The clock is set for locations of such longitude as the sun is at 12:13 clock in the south.
  • The bow ( 1 ) of the hour hand carries the analemma, which is parametrized here with Roman numbers after months. Suppose it is May, then the sun is at the drawn position where it indicates the number V, in particular above the horizon ( 14 ).
  • From the tips of the hour hand, the local times of several places can be determined, in the picture there are three: The middle point lies on the center line of the Analemmas; it shows the mean local time for the places described, for which the hour ring is set to 12:13 clock.
  • The number V lies on a loop for about four minutes clockwise farther than the medial line of the analemma: in May the sun rises and falls a little later than in August (paragraph VIII).
  • The middle of the hand, here in the area of the magnifying glass ( 4 ), stands shortly after 6 o'clock. More precisely, the time scale can be read off at the other end, therefore twelve hours must be deducted from the displayed value: Not quite 20 to 6. To show in more detail both vernier ( 8th ) as well as transversal division ( 5 ) the displayed time 18 minutes after 6 o'clock. For the fine scale ( 7 ) the photocopy is too bad.
  • Embodiment 2
  • In this simplified version 4 is omitted on the curve of the analemma or the equation of time: Only the season-dependent declination of the sun is displayed.
  • The figure is not attached to the pointer, but engraved on the rotatable watch glass. It is manually adjusted to the level of the pointer under it. The length of the arches is 15 degrees, one hour of daily rotation. This distance helps to read the position of the sun during the summer time.
  • Fig. 1Zeiger, hour ring and inclinometer - invention and variants
  • 1
    Figure for reading the position of the sun, z. B. Analemma, possibly with monthly details, zodiac or date parameterized
    Brands for different local times, time zones etc., eg. B. tips
    Brands for different local times, time zones etc., eg. B. Fiederung
    magnifying glass
    visor thread
    fine scale
    Hour ring, symmetrical or twisted, fixed or rotatable
    Dial - comparable to the traditional astrolabe
    turning circle
    East-West Vertical
    Dawn line
    Fig. 2Rete, star map o. Ä.
    different star pointers
    Ecliptic with months, zodiac o. Ä.
    Pole of the ecliptic
    Polar circle
    Tropic of Capricorn
    Fig. 3
    Fig. 4Varely simplified variant.
    Engraving on the rotatable clock glass
    Dial with parts of the heavenly coordinates
    24-hour hand
    5 shows the time equation, ie the time correction
    The time difference between True Local Time and Middle Local Time
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited non-patent literature
    • WOZ: At 12 noon, the sun is exactly in the south [0001]
    • MOZ: Every day of the year is exactly the same, but the time the sun is in the south deviates up to 16 minutes from 12 noon on a seasonal basis due to the equation of time. [0002]
    • [0003]
    • CET: Our time zone is the mean time of the 15th meridian [0004]
    • CEST = CET + 1: The clocks are one hour ahead of the Central European Time [0004]
    • [0004]
    • "Who invented the transverse division?" [0005]

Claims (9)

  1. Material or drawn pointer, characterized in that it a) one resulting from astronomical conditions (1) carries, in particular an analemma, or in such a form corresponding to this figure is designed so that the position of the sun is readable and / or b) brands ( 2 ), with the help of which different times can be read, in particular time zones, the mean, the true and other local times, the summer time or differences of the same.
  2. Pointer according to claim 1, characterized in that further means are included for displaying, triggering, representing daily events which depend on the state of the sun.
  3. Pointer according to Claim 1 or 2, characterized in that it comprises an optical aid which makes it possible to read off the pointer position more precisely, for example, Fiederung ( 3 ), Magnifying glass ( 4 ), Transversal division ( 5 ), Visor thread ( 6 ), Fine scale ( 7 ), Vernier ( 8th ) etc.
  4. Clock with a pointer according to claim 1 to 3 and a dial, characterized in that on this markings, in particular coordinate lines for the horizon, elevation circles and / or vertical circuits ( 11 ) to ( 16 ) are included.
  5. Watch according to claim 4, characterized in that the dial has an hour ring with a 24-hour mark ( 9 ). This can be made rotatable.
  6. Clock according to one of claims 4 and 5, characterized in that a means for detecting the inclination ( 10 ) is included.
  7. Clock according to one of claims 4 to 6, characterized in that a means for setting up ( 26 ) is included.
  8. Clock according to one of claims 4 to 7 with a disk with coordinate or star markings ( 20 ), in particular rotatable about an axis parallel to that of the hour hand, so that the disc shows the position of the stars in the sky.
  9. Clock according to claim 8, characterized in that the disc is designed such that the recognizability of the markers is switched on and off.
DE102015016632.8A 2015-12-21 2015-12-21 Special design of clock hands in conjunction with a 24-hour dial Pending DE102015016632A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102015016632.8A DE102015016632A1 (en) 2015-12-21 2015-12-21 Special design of clock hands in conjunction with a 24-hour dial

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102015016632.8A DE102015016632A1 (en) 2015-12-21 2015-12-21 Special design of clock hands in conjunction with a 24-hour dial

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE102015016632A1 true DE102015016632A1 (en) 2017-06-22



Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE102015016632.8A Pending DE102015016632A1 (en) 2015-12-21 2015-12-21 Special design of clock hands in conjunction with a 24-hour dial

Country Status (1)

Country Link
DE (1) DE102015016632A1 (en)

Non-Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title „Wer erfand die Transversalteilung?"
MESZ = MEZ + 1: Die Uhren gehen gegenüber der Mitteleuropäischen Zeit eine Stunde vor
MEZ: Unsere Zonenzeit ist die Mittlere Ortszeit des 15. Längengrads
MOZ: Jeder Tag des Jahres ist genau gleich lang, aber die Zeit, zu der die Sonne im Süden steht, weicht von 12 Uhr aufgrund der Zeitgleichung jahreszeitlich um bis zu 16 Minuten ab
WOZ: Mittags um 12 Uhr steht die Sonne exakt im Süden

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7154815B2 (en) Astronomical timepiece
US7114262B2 (en) Sundial with standard time display
RU2225632C2 (en) Chronometer to determine time of sunrise and sunset
US8333016B1 (en) Sundial for telling solar time and clock time across a range of latitudes and longitudes
US20180203416A1 (en) Celestial instrument adapted for use as a memorial or sun dial clock
RU2223525C2 (en) Universal chronometer for determination of latitude and longitude
DE102015016632A1 (en) Special design of clock hands in conjunction with a 24-hour dial
DE202015008750U1 (en) Special design of clock hands in conjunction with a 24-hour dial
US20200218200A1 (en) Electronic timepiece device indicating the time and the azimuth of the sun by means of a single indicator hand
RU101215U1 (en) Earthwatch sun clock
US500659A (en) jourdan
US694256A (en) Geographical clock.
JP3218585U (en) Sundial
CH693599A5 (en) Analogue clock with global time display includes fixed calibrated hour ring, with rotating dial bearing image of hemisphere
CH698781B1 (en) Display for timepiece.
RU95865U1 (en) Sunny calendar clock (options)
US10649407B1 (en) Astronomical calendar clock
US2350374A (en) Device for locating celestial bodies
RU2399944C2 (en) Clock with global time zone display
US3195243A (en) Educational device for teaching earthsun facts and for demostrating and duplicating planetary and man-made movements
Barriouevo Gimenez Saving energy in light
Malville The Astronomical Gnomon
Mitchell et al. The astrolabe in theory and practice
BG112391A (en) Method and scale for direct time measurement

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
R086 Non-binding declaration of licensing interest
R012 Request for examination validly filed
R016 Response to examination communication