DE102010040938A1 - Fuel injector - Google Patents

Fuel injector

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Publication number
DE102010040938A1
DE102010040938A1 DE201010040938 DE102010040938A DE102010040938A1 DE 102010040938 A1 DE102010040938 A1 DE 102010040938A1 DE 201010040938 DE201010040938 DE 201010040938 DE 102010040938 A DE102010040938 A DE 102010040938A DE 102010040938 A1 DE102010040938 A1 DE 102010040938A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
nozzle needle
pressure
fuel injector
coupler
pressure chamber
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
DE201010040938
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Marco Beier
Roman Etlender
Henning Kreschel
Thomas Schwarz
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Robert Bosch GmbH
Original Assignee
Robert Bosch GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Robert Bosch GmbH filed Critical Robert Bosch GmbH
Priority to DE201010040938 priority Critical patent/DE102010040938A1/en
Publication of DE102010040938A1 publication Critical patent/DE102010040938A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M51/00Fuel-injection apparatus characterised by being operated electrically
    • F02M51/06Injectors peculiar thereto with means directly operating the valve needle
    • F02M51/0603Injectors peculiar thereto with means directly operating the valve needle using piezo-electric or magnetostrictive operating means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M2200/00Details of fuel-injection apparatus, not otherwise provided for
    • F02M2200/70Linkage between actuator and actuated element, e.g. between piezoelectric actuator and needle valve or pump plunger
    • F02M2200/703Linkage between actuator and actuated element, e.g. between piezoelectric actuator and needle valve or pump plunger hydraulic
    • F02M2200/704Linkage between actuator and actuated element, e.g. between piezoelectric actuator and needle valve or pump plunger hydraulic with actuator and actuated element moving in different directions, e.g. in opposite directions

Abstract

The invention relates to a fuel injector for a fuel injection system, in particular a common rail injection system, with a nozzle needle (3) guided in a high-pressure bore (1) of a nozzle body (2) for releasing and closing at least one injection opening (4) and a piezo actuator ( 5), which is hydraulically coupled to the nozzle needle (3) via a coupler device (6) and causes an opening stroke of the nozzle needle (3) when energized. According to the invention, the piezo actuator (5) is accommodated in a low-pressure chamber (7), which is hydraulically connected to a first pressure chamber (8), which in the axial direction is guided by a guide body (3) that cooperates with the nozzle needle (3) or with the nozzle needle (3). 9) trained hydraulic effective area (10) is limited, so that the nozzle needle (3) is acted upon in the closing direction by the low pressure prevailing in the pressure chamber (8).

Description

  • The invention relates to a fuel injector for a fuel injection system, in particular a common rail injection system, for injecting fuel into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine with the features of the preamble of claim 1.
  • Such a fuel injector comprises a nozzle needle guided in a high-pressure bore of a nozzle body for releasing and closing at least one injection opening and a piezoelectric actuator which is hydraulically coupled via a coupling device with the nozzle needle and causes an opening stroke of the nozzle needle via a current supply. The coupler allows the direct operation of the nozzle needle, so that a fast opening and closing of the fuel injector is ensured. In contrast to servo-controlled injectors in which via a servo valve, the pressure in a control chamber can be influenced such that a movement of the nozzle needle is initiated via the pressure change, the return of a control amount is also unnecessary, which must be transported in the system back to high pressure. Thus, the efficiency of the overall system increases. Finally, the piezoelectric actuator of the proposed fuel injector is connected to the nozzle needle in such a way via the coupling device, that the energization of the actuator takes place only for the short-term opening of the nozzle needle. This reduces the load on the piezoelectric actuator, which in turn leads to an increase in the life of the fuel injector.
  • State of the art
  • A fuel injector of the type mentioned, for example, from the published patent application DE 10 2004 035 313 A1 out. The piezoactuator of the fuel injector described herein is operatively connected via a two-stage coupler to the nozzle needle, which comprises a first translator and a second translator, which are moved into or out of a control space by means of the actuator. The control chamber is further limited by an end face of the nozzle needle, so that caused by the translator volume change causes a change in the control pressure on the end face of the nozzle needle. The end face formed on the nozzle needle is facing the at least one injection opening, so that opening of the nozzle needle can be achieved by increasing the control pressure. All the moving components are surrounded by fuel under high pressure. The piezoelectric actuator is also arranged in the high pressure region.
  • In Injektorkonzepten, in which the piezoelectric actuator is arranged in the high pressure, the actuator is often packed in an elastic but impermeable envelope to protect the sensitive piezoceramic. The shell should prevent the penetration of water embedded in the fuel to the contacting of the piezoceramic and thus a short circuit.
  • Based on a fuel injector of the type mentioned above, the present invention has for its object to provide a fuel injector having an increased life, in particular due to a lower load of the piezoelectric actuator. At the same time the proposed fuel injector should be simple and inexpensive to produce. Finally, a fast-switching fuel injector is to be realized.
  • The object is achieved by a fuel injector with the features of claim 1. Advantageous developments of the invention are specified in the subclaims.
  • Disclosure of the invention
  • In the proposed fuel injector, the piezoelectric actuator is accommodated in a low-pressure space which is hydraulically connected to a first pressure chamber, which is bounded in the axial direction by a hydraulic active surface formed on the nozzle needle or a guide body cooperating with the nozzle needle, so that the nozzle needle in the closing direction is acted upon by the pressure prevailing in the pressure chamber low pressure. The arrangement of the piezoelectric actuator in the low pressure region and short energizing times, since the energization is done to open the nozzle needle, reduce the burden of the actuator significantly. The low-pressure region is also brought up to the nozzle needle or to a cooperating with the nozzle needle guide body, so that the low combustion chamber pressure at the combustion chamber end of the nozzle needle also faces low pressure. In the closed position of the nozzle needle, in which the rail pressure does not reach the combustion chamber end of the nozzle needle, the hydraulic forces acting on the nozzle needle are substantially balanced, so that opening the nozzle needle requires less force. As a result, the piezoelectric actuator can be sized smaller or the load of the actuator can be reduced. Due to the direct operation of the nozzle needle, the arrangement of a control valve to change a control pressure is unnecessary, so that there is no control amount to supply a return. As far as necessary, it only requires the return of a small amount of leakage that occurs in the transition from high pressure to low pressure. Due to the direct operation, a fast-switching fuel injector is also created.
  • According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, a further hydraulic active surface acting in opposite directions to the hydraulic active surface is formed on the nozzle needle, which defines a second pressure chamber which is hydraulically connected to a coupler space of the coupler device. A compressive force acting on the further hydraulic active surface is accordingly opposite to the closing force and causes an opening of the nozzle needle from a predeterminable limit value. The connection of the nozzle needle via the coupler causes a reversal of the force direction, so that an expansion of the piezoelectric actuator in the direction of the nozzle needle causes an opposite movement of the nozzle needle. The hydraulically active surfaces of the coupler device can also be designed such that the actuator force undergoes a reinforcement. This in turn means that a smaller actuator can be used or with unchanged actuator size, the stress on the actuator can be reduced. Furthermore, due to the hydraulic transmission of the force and the stroke of the piezoelectric actuator, no wear occurs which would lead to a change in the injection quantity of the fuel injector with constant activation over the service life.
  • In order to form the additional hydraulic active surface acting in opposite directions to the hydraulic active surface, the nozzle needle preferably has a section with an enlarged outer diameter. The further hydraulic active surface is therefore preferably annular and defines a just such annular second pressure chamber.
  • Further preferably, the section of enlarged diameter for forming the further hydraulic active surface is disposed within the high pressure bore and limited adjacent to the second pressure chamber, a third pressure chamber which is connected to a fuel supply. The enlarged diameter portion is therefore preferably surrounded by high pressure, wherein the pressure in the third pressure chamber acts in the closing direction of the nozzle needle and thus supports a fast closing of the nozzle needle when the pressure in the second pressure chamber drops again due to the termination of the energization of the piezoelectric actuator.
  • Preferably, the high-pressure bore for forming the second and third pressure chamber has a section with an enlarged inner diameter. If the nozzle needle is guided over a guide body in the nozzle body, this is also preferably arranged in the section with an enlarged inner diameter of the high-pressure bore. The guide body may be formed instead of a separate component as part of the nozzle needle, which then adjoins the section with an enlarged outer diameter, a guide portion of the nozzle needle. If a separate guide body is provided, the third pressure chamber is at least partially bounded by the guide body. At the same time, the guide body seals the high-pressure bore with respect to the low-pressure region.
  • To produce an additional closing force component, a closing throttle is furthermore preferably formed within the high-pressure bore. The closing throttle causes the fuel flowing out via the at least one injection opening to be replaced less quickly. Thus, downstream of the closing throttle, a pressure level is set which is below the rail pressure. The force on the nozzle needle then results approximately from the following equation: F Needle = -F Spring - (∅HDS 2 - ∅ND 2 ) × π / 4 × p Rail + ∅HDS 2 × π / 4 × (p Rail - Δp Throttle )
  • In this case, F spring denotes the spring force of a nozzle spring, which acts directly or indirectly on the nozzle needle in the closing direction. Further, Δp throttle refers to the pressure drop across the closing throttle . Furthermore, ∅ND designates the needle diameter and ∅HDS the diameter of the high-pressure bore in the area of the closing throttle.
  • In the closed position of the nozzle needle results in approximately the following acting on the nozzle needle force: F Needle = -F Spring - (∅Seat 2 - ∅ND 2 ) × π / 4 × p Rail
  • The force on the nozzle needle in the closed state is thus adjustable directly over the seat diameter and the needle diameter in the region of the guide in the nozzle body. This means that the adjustment is made via the area ratio of the surfaces exposed to the combustion chamber pressure and the low pressure in the first pressure chamber.
  • The closing throttle may be designed as an annular gap throttle or as a flattening, for example as a triflate.
  • Further preferably, the coupler comprises a coupler piston, on which the piezoelectric actuator acts directly or indirectly and which seals the coupler space with respect to the low-pressure space. If the piezoelectric actuator expands when energized, the coupler piston is pressed into the coupler space, so that the volume of the coupler space is reduced and the fuel contained therein is compressed. Since the coupler space is in hydraulic communication with the second pressure chamber of the high-pressure bore, the pressure on the further hydraulic effective area of the nozzle needle is increased, so that this after overcoming the spring force of a lifts in the closing direction nozzle spring lifts from its sealing seat.
  • To further reduce the force on the piezoelectric actuator is provided according to a preferred embodiment, that the coupler piston has a pressure stage. To form the pressure stage, the coupler piston has a section with a reduced outer diameter, which rests directly or indirectly on the piezoelectric actuator. The annular pressure stage surrounding the reduced outer diameter portion causes the hydraulic forces applied to the coupler piston to be substantially balanced. As a result, not only the force is reduced to the actuator, but due to the smaller guide diameter reduces the amount of leakage from the high pressure area in the low pressure area.
  • Preferred embodiments of the invention are explained below with reference to the accompanying drawings. These show:
  • 1 a longitudinal section through a fuel injector according to the invention,
  • 2 a section of the 1 and
  • 3 a partial longitudinal section through an alternative embodiment of a fuel injector according to the invention.
  • Detailed description of the drawings
  • The Indian 1 illustrated fuel injector according to the invention has a piezoelectric actuator 5 for actuating one in a high-pressure bore 1 a nozzle body 2 liftable guided nozzle needle 3 on. About the lifting movement of the nozzle needle 3 is at least one injection port 4 releasable or lockable, so that via a fuel supply 16 into the high pressure hole 1 supplied fuel via the at least one injection port 4 in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine (not shown) can be injected. For direct control of the nozzle needle 3 is the piezoelectric actuator 5 via a coupler device 6 with the nozzle needle 3 operatively connected. The coupler device 6 causes a reversal of the direction of movement, so that an expansion of the piezoelectric actuator 5 in the direction of the nozzle needle 3 an opposite movement of the nozzle needle 3 and thus the opening stroke of the nozzle needle 3 causes. This raises the nozzle needle 3 from one in the nozzle body 2 trained conical valve seat 23 from, so that the at least one injection port 4 is released. At the nozzle needle 3 is one with the valve seat 23 cooperating and likewise conical sealing surface 26 trained (see 2 ).
  • In the proposed Injektorkonzept is the piezoelectric actuator 5 in a low-pressure room 7 arranged in conjunction with a first pressure chamber 8th stands, that of a hydraulic effective surface 10 is limited, which at one with the nozzle needle 3 interacting guide body 9 is trained. The guide body 9 is located at the nozzle needle 3 so that one on the hydraulic working surface 10 acting pressure force the nozzle needle 3 acted upon by a closing force. Because in the first pressure chamber 8th Low pressure is present and the size of the hydraulic effective area 10 approximately equal to the area within the seat diameter of the nozzle needle in the region of the valve seat 23 is selected, is the nozzle needle 3 In the closed position essentially force or pressure balanced. Because the combustion chamber side is the nozzle needle 3 also acted upon by low pressure. Instead of a separate guide body 9 is also a one-piece design of the nozzle needle 3 conceivable with a correspondingly formed guide section. However, the two-part embodiment has the advantage that a self-centering of the nozzle needle with respect to the valve seat 23 is possible. The in the nozzle body 2 trained pilot hole 24 for receiving the guide body 9 indicates the fluid-tight seal of the high-pressure bore 1 opposite the first pressure chamber 8th a minimal leadership game on. One over the guide hole 24 escaping leakage amount is the low pressure space 7 fed.
  • Again 2 can be seen further, has the nozzle needle 3 a section 14 with enlarged outer diameter. The section 14 serves to form a hydraulic active surface 11 that the valve seat 23 facing and a second pressure chamber 12 limited. The second pressure chamber 12 is above a connection hole 25 in hydraulic connection with a coupler room 13 the coupler device 6 , The coupler room 13 is from a coupler piston 19 limited, with the piezoelectric actuator 5 is actively connected. When energizing the piezoelectric actuator 5 becomes the coupler piston 19 in the direction of the valve seat 23 pressed and thus generates in the coupler space 13 a pressure that is greater than the rail pressure. This pressure is via the connection hole 25 on the second pressure chamber 12 transferred, which of the hydraulic active surface 11 the nozzle needle 3 is limited. The nozzle needle 3 is thus acted upon by a compressive force acting in the opening direction, which ultimately leads to the nozzle needle 3 from the valve seat 23 is lifted. With termination of the current supply of the piezoelectric actuator 5 it contracts again, which relieves the pressure on the coupler piston 19 leads, which of the movement of the piezoelectric actuator 5 follows and thus a pressure drop in the coupler space 13 and the associated second pressure chamber 12 causes. The spring force of a nozzle spring 22 which the nozzle needle 3 directly or indirectly via the guide body 9 acted upon in the closing direction, eventually leads to the provision of the nozzle needle 3 in the valve seat 23 , The injection process is over. An additional force acting in the closing direction force component is achieved in that the nozzle needle 3 and the guide body 9 a third pressure chamber 15 limit, which in hydraulic communication with the fuel supply 16 stands. With a pressure drop in the second pressure chamber 12 supports the upcoming in the third pressure chamber rail pressure by means of the nozzle spring 22 caused closing. The effect is further enhanced by the fact that in the high pressure bore 1 a closing throttle 18 is formed, which is a delayed flow of fuel in the direction of the valve seat 23 causes. Thus lies below the nozzle needle 3 no rail pressure on, allowing for closing the nozzle needle 3 required closing force is reduced. The spring force of the nozzle spring 22 can therefore be made smaller.
  • As in the embodiment of 2 shown, the high-pressure bore 1 to record the section 14 the nozzle needle 3 , the leadership body 9 , as well as the nozzle spring 22 a section 17 with increased inside diameter. From the section 17 with enlarged inner diameter goes the high pressure bore 1 in the guide hole 24 above. The section 17 with enlarged inner diameter also forms the pressure chambers 12 and 15 out.
  • That in the 3 illustrated alternative embodiment of a fuel injector according to the invention represents a development of the embodiment of 1 and 2 It differs from this only in that the coupler piston 19 the coupler device 6 to form a pressure stage 20 a section 21 having reduced outside diameter. The at the coupler piston 19 trained annular pressure stage 20 causes a force or pressure equalization on the coupler piston 19 so that the on the piezoelectric actuator 5 over the coupler piston 19 acting compressive force is reduced. Furthermore, due to the reduced guide diameter in the region of the section 21 the amount of leakage in the low pressure space 7 reduced.
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • DE 102004035313 A1 [0003]

Claims (9)

  1. Fuel injector for a fuel injection system, in particular a common-rail injection system, with one in a high-pressure bore ( 1 ) of a nozzle body ( 2 ) movably guided nozzle needle ( 3 ) for releasing and closing at least one injection opening ( 4 ) and a piezoelectric actuator ( 5 ) connected via a coupler device ( 6 ) hydraulically with the nozzle needle ( 3 ) is coupled and at an energizing an opening stroke of the nozzle needle ( 3 ), characterized in that the piezoelectric actuator ( 5 ) in a low-pressure space ( 7 ), which is connected to a first pressure chamber ( 8th ) is hydraulically connected, in the axial direction of a at the nozzle needle ( 3 ) or one with the nozzle needle ( 3 ) cooperating guide body ( 9 ) formed hydraulic active surface ( 10 ) is limited, so that the nozzle needle ( 3 ) in the closing direction of the in the pressure chamber ( 8th ) prevailing low pressure is applied.
  2. Fuel injector according to claim 1, characterized in that on the nozzle needle ( 3 ) in the opposite direction to the hydraulic active surface ( 10 ) acting further hydraulic active surface ( 11 ) is formed, the a second pressure chamber ( 12 ), which is connected to a coupler space ( 13 ) of the coupler device ( 6 ) is hydraulically connected.
  3. Fuel injector according to claim 2, characterized in that the nozzle needle ( 3 ) for the formation of the opposite direction to the hydraulic active surface ( 10 ) acting further hydraulic active surface ( 11 ) a section ( 14 ) has an enlarged outer diameter.
  4. Fuel injector according to claim 3, characterized in that the section ( 14 ) of increased diameter within the high pressure bore ( 1 ) is arranged and next to the second pressure chamber ( 12 ) a third pressure chamber ( 15 ) connected to a fuel supply ( 16 ) connected.
  5. Fuel injector according to claim 4, characterized in that the high-pressure bore ( 1 ) for the formation of the second and third pressure chamber ( 12 . 15 ) a section ( 17 ) having an enlarged inner diameter.
  6. Fuel injector according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that within the high-pressure bore ( 1 ) a closing throttle ( 18 ) is trained.
  7. Fuel injector according to claim 6, characterized in that the closing throttle ( 18 ) is designed as an annular gap throttle or as a flattening, for example as a triflate.
  8. Fuel injector according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the coupler device ( 6 ) a coupler piston ( 19 ), on which the piezoelectric actuator ( 5 ) acts directly or indirectly and which the coupler space ( 13 ) in relation to the low-pressure space ( 7 ) seals.
  9. Fuel injector according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the coupler piston ( 19 ) for forming a pressure stage ( 20 ) a section ( 21 ) having reduced outer diameter.
DE201010040938 2010-09-17 2010-09-17 Fuel injector Withdrawn DE102010040938A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE201010040938 DE102010040938A1 (en) 2010-09-17 2010-09-17 Fuel injector

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE201010040938 DE102010040938A1 (en) 2010-09-17 2010-09-17 Fuel injector
PCT/EP2011/062519 WO2012034749A1 (en) 2010-09-17 2011-07-21 Fuel injector

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE102010040938A1 true DE102010040938A1 (en) 2012-03-22

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE201010040938 Withdrawn DE102010040938A1 (en) 2010-09-17 2010-09-17 Fuel injector

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Country Link
DE (1) DE102010040938A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2012034749A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2806149A1 (en) * 2013-05-23 2014-11-26 Delphi International Operations Luxembourg S.a.r.l. Fuel injector
EP3109455A1 (en) * 2015-06-24 2016-12-28 Great Plains Diesel Technologies, L.C. Fuel injection rate modulation by magnetostrictive actuator and fluidomechanical coupler

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP6144185B2 (en) * 2013-12-04 2017-06-07 株式会社Soken Fuel injection nozzle
JP6145649B2 (en) * 2013-12-19 2017-06-14 株式会社Soken Fuel injection valve
JP6145652B2 (en) * 2014-01-06 2017-06-14 株式会社Soken Fuel injection valve

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102004035313A1 (en) 2004-07-21 2006-02-16 Robert Bosch Gmbh Fuel injector with two-stage translator

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19519191C2 (en) * 1995-05-24 1997-04-10 Siemens Ag Injector
DE102007002759A1 (en) * 2007-01-18 2008-07-24 Robert Bosch Gmbh Fuel injector for injecting fuel into combustion chamber of internal combustion engine, has intermediate plate with step drill arranged between injector and nozzle bodies, and control and closing spaces, which are formed in step drill
DE102009002554A1 (en) * 2008-07-23 2010-01-28 Robert Bosch Gmbh Fuel injector for use in common rail injection system of internal combustion engine of motor vehicle, has borehole for connection of sealing gap with compression chamber, where guide piece is partially/completely arranged in chamber

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102004035313A1 (en) 2004-07-21 2006-02-16 Robert Bosch Gmbh Fuel injector with two-stage translator

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2806149A1 (en) * 2013-05-23 2014-11-26 Delphi International Operations Luxembourg S.a.r.l. Fuel injector
EP3109455A1 (en) * 2015-06-24 2016-12-28 Great Plains Diesel Technologies, L.C. Fuel injection rate modulation by magnetostrictive actuator and fluidomechanical coupler

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Publication number Publication date
WO2012034749A1 (en) 2012-03-22

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