DE102009053059A1 - Device, useful for producing fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like energy resource by torrefying and crushing, comprises impact reactor with rotor and impact elements, feeding devices for hot torrefying gas and energy resource - Google Patents

Device, useful for producing fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like energy resource by torrefying and crushing, comprises impact reactor with rotor and impact elements, feeding devices for hot torrefying gas and energy resource

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Publication number
DE102009053059A1
DE102009053059A1 DE102009053059A DE102009053059A DE102009053059A1 DE 102009053059 A1 DE102009053059 A1 DE 102009053059A1 DE 102009053059 A DE102009053059 A DE 102009053059A DE 102009053059 A DE102009053059 A DE 102009053059A DE 102009053059 A1 DE102009053059 A1 DE 102009053059A1
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Germany
Prior art keywords
reactor
device
stream
gas stream
gas
Prior art date
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Ceased
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DE102009053059A
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German (de)
Inventor
Ralf Abraham
Stefan Dr. Hamel
Ralf Schäfer
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
PROACTOR SCHUTZRECHSTVERWALTUNGSGMBH, DE
ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG
Original Assignee
SCHAEFER ELEKTROTECHNIK und SONDERMASCHINEN GmbH
Schafer Elektrotechnik und Sondermaschinen GmbH
Uhde GmbH
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Application filed by SCHAEFER ELEKTROTECHNIK und SONDERMASCHINEN GmbH, Schafer Elektrotechnik und Sondermaschinen GmbH, Uhde GmbH filed Critical SCHAEFER ELEKTROTECHNIK und SONDERMASCHINEN GmbH
Priority to DE102009053059A priority Critical patent/DE102009053059A1/en
Priority claimed from BR112012011205A external-priority patent/BR112012011205A2/en
Publication of DE102009053059A1 publication Critical patent/DE102009053059A1/en
Ceased legal-status Critical Current

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02CCRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN
    • B02C13/00Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills
    • B02C13/14Disintegrating by mills having rotary beater elements ; Hammer mills with vertical rotor shaft, e.g. combined with sifting devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02CCRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN
    • B02C23/00Auxiliary methods or auxiliary devices or accessories specially adapted for crushing or disintegrating not provided for in preceding groups or not specially adapted to apparatus covered by a single preceding group
    • B02C23/18Adding fluid, other than for crushing or disintegrating by fluid energy
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/46Gasification of granular or pulverulent flues in suspension
    • C10J3/463Gasification of granular or pulverulent flues in suspension in stationary fluidised beds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/46Gasification of granular or pulverulent flues in suspension
    • C10J3/466Entrained flow processes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L5/00Solid fuels
    • C10L5/40Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin
    • C10L5/44Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin on vegetable substances
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L5/00Solid fuels
    • C10L5/40Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin
    • C10L5/46Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin on sewage, house, or town refuse
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L5/00Solid fuels
    • C10L5/40Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin
    • C10L5/48Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin on industrial residues and waste materials
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L9/00Treating solid fuels to improve their combustion
    • C10L9/08Treating solid fuels to improve their combustion by heat treatments, e.g. calcining
    • C10L9/083Torrefaction
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0903Feed preparation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0903Feed preparation
    • C10J2300/0909Drying
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0913Carbonaceous raw material
    • C10J2300/0916Biomass
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0913Carbonaceous raw material
    • C10J2300/093Coal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0913Carbonaceous raw material
    • C10J2300/094Char
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/80Shredding
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2209/00Specific waste
    • F23G2209/26Biowaste
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels
    • Y02E50/15Torrefaction of biomass
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10General improvement of production processes causing greenhouse gases [GHG] emissions
    • Y02P20/12Energy input
    • Y02P20/129Energy recovery

Abstract

Apparatus and method for producing a fine-grained fuel from solid or paste energy by Torrefizierung containing a baffle reactor with a rotor and baffles that is temperature resistant to 350 ° C, a hot gas supply device in the lower part of the baffle reactor, a supply device for solid or pasty Energierohstoffe in the head of the baffle reactor, at least one take-off device for a crushed and Torrefizierte energy raw material containing gas stream, and a separation and withdrawal device for crushed and torrefizierte energy resource particles from the withdrawn from the baffle gas flow.

Description

  • The invention relates to thermal pretreatment, also referred to as torrefaction, of carbonaceous and hydrogen-containing solid fuels, which may also be present in pasty or viscous form and are referred to hereinafter as solid or pasty energy resources, including, for example, biogenic and other highly reactive fuels, fossil Fuels and residues count, in a baffle reactor. As pasty all substances are understood here, in which solids and liquid fractions are mixed together, examples of which are sewage sludge and industrial residues, either on an aqueous basis or on the basis of solvents or energy-containing liquids, such as lubricants. The expansion of the use of renewable energy sources and the recovery of waste and residual materials is the goal worldwide, with an energetically also materially effective use with thermal gasification is possible. Particularly advantageous is the entrainment gasification, with plants for entrained flow gasification usually have very high performance and are also operated with coal. Also, the invention allows the use of problematic substances in entrained flow systems or boiler systems, problem substances in this sense are, for example, the fibrous and woody components in mostly younger coals, which are found as recognizable residues of plants.
  • In order to use solid fuels in Flugstromvergaser, they must be crushed to a suitable particle size, also a reduction of the moisture content is advantageous. In energy raw materials such as biomass, biogenic residues and waste due to the often tough and fibrous structure such pretreatments according to conventional prior art can be achieved only with high energy and equipment costs. It is known that by thermal treatment of the biomass under mild pyrolysis conditions, i. H. Torrefication, the cell structures are weakened so that the mechanical complexity for subsequent comminution is greatly reduced.
  • Torrefaction is understood as meaning a mild thermal treatment of solid fuels with exclusion of oxygen at temperatures of 220 to 350 ° C., and low oxygen contents are also permissible in the present invention. The residence time required to achieve complete torrefaction of the feed is in the range of 15 to 120 minutes. The residence time is determined by the particle size of the feed and the heat transfer characteristic of the method used. During the heating of the feedstock, this first passes through the drying step. With further heating, here by the example of wood, up to about 200-220 ° C next to the water vapor first carbon dioxide, and organic acids such. As acetic acid and formic acid released. Further heating to about 280-350 ° C continue to release mainly carbon dioxide and organic acids, in addition due to the onset of pyrolytic decomposition carbon monoxide is increasingly released with increasing temperature.
  • If the temperature is increased further beyond the temperature range relevant to the invention, the pyrolytic decomposition reactions of the marcomolecules rise sharply beyond the 350-400 ° C. (depending on the biomass). The amount of released gases increases, however, reach the liberated higher hydrocarbons z. B. for beech wood at about 480-500 ° C, a maximum. Here are z. B. from beech wood about 70 wt .-% of the water and ash-free fuel substance than higher, condensable hydrocarbons, also collectively referred to as tars, released. About 15 wt .-% are released as gas and about 15 wt .-% remain as a solid residue, so-called coke.
  • In addition to carbon and hydrogen, many biogenic raw materials also contain considerable amounts of oxygen and other elements in bound form. During runoff gasification conducted in a reducing, low-oxygen synthesis gas recovery atmosphere, the oxygen compounds are released from the fuel resulting in increased levels of generated carbon dioxide over the desired carbon monoxide in the synthesis gas, as well as water vapor rather than hydrogen. It would therefore be desirable to reduce the molecular fraction of the oxygen compounds in the biogenic raw material used as early as during the pretreatment, and to achieve a fuel revaluation by means of this oxygen depletion, in order to thereby improve the quality of the synthesis gas to be produced.
  • For torrefaction of biomass, various methods are known in the art. A general overview of the basic procedure for this is z. B. Kaltschmitt et al., "Energy from Biomass," ISBN 978-3-540-85094-6, 2009, pages 703-709 , Accordingly, various basic reactor types are used for biomass tetorrefining, such as fixed bed or moving bed reactor, drum reactor, disk reactor and screw or paddle reactors. A moving bed reactor, for example, in the WO 2007/078199 A1 proposed. The circuit variant of a method for Torrefizierung example in the WO 2005/056723 A1 presented.
  • All of these mentioned methods have in common that they have the aim of the thermal treatment of biomass. Subsequent processing of the torrefied biomass, ie comminution, is not planned and must be carried out in a subsequent step. The comminution or grinding thus requires in the abovementioned examples from the prior art mandatory another process stage and thus other aggregates.
  • The object of the invention is therefore to provide a device with simplified apparatus and a more energy-saving method available, with the Torrefizierung and crushing can be done in one step, wherein the solid or pasty energy resources are pretreated so that they for a flow gasification without further Measures is operational.
  • The invention achieves the object by a device comprising
    • A baffle reactor with a rotor and baffles that is temperature resistant up to 350 degrees Celsius,
    • A hot Torrefizierungsgas supply device in the lower part of the impact reactor,
    • A feed device for solid or pasty energy raw materials in the head region of the impact reactor,
    • • at least one extraction device for a shredded and Torrefizierte fuel particles containing gas stream, and
    • A separation and extraction device for comminuted and torrefied energy raw material particles from the gas stream withdrawn from the impact reactor.
  • In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the Torrefizierungsgas is introduced in the region of a labyrinth seal and / or through a labyrinth seal in the baffle reactor, which is arranged in the rotor shaft of the baffle reactor, and over which the interior of the baffle reactor is fluidly separated from the outside environment. This advantageously results in a particularly efficient distribution of the Torrefizierungsgases within the impingement reactor and also from the bottom of the reactor upwardly directed product flow, in which the Torrefizierten particles are transported in the upward direction.
  • In a further embodiment of the invention Abweiseradsichter be provided as a separation and withdrawal device for crushed and Torrefizierte energy raw material particles.
  • In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, a circuit circuit is also provided, the gas cycle containing in addition
    • A post-combustion device for the gas stream depleted in comminuted and torrefied energy raw material particles and obtained from the precipitation device, with a device for utilizing waste heat of the resulting flue gas,
    • An adding device of nitrogen into the recycle gas stream,
    • • a pressure-increasing device in the recycle gas stream, and
    • • A device for coupling the waste heat obtained from the flue gas into the recycle gas stream.
  • For the supply in the bottom area or at a suitable procedural point of the baffle reactor, the cycle gas stream also forms the Torrefizierungsgasstrom that transports the required heat.
  • In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, it is further provided to provide a branch for a recycle gas stream and a residual gas stream after the separation and withdrawal device for crushed and Torrefizierte energy raw material from the withdrawn from the impingement gas stream after the branch for the circulation stream to arrange a Aufheizbrenner in the circulation stream. This Aufheizbrenner can be arranged both in the secondary stream and in the main stream of the cycle gas.
  • A suitable impact reactor is, for example, in the OS DE 196 00 482 A1 described. This apparatus is surprisingly capable of biomass such. As straw or green waste to treat in the same manner as the plastic fractions described therein. To improve the mode of action can also devices, as in the application DE 10 2005 055 620 A1 described, meaningfully used.
  • The object of the invention is also achieved by a method for producing a fine-grained fuel from solid or pasty energy resources by Torrefizierung and crushing using a baffle reactor with a rotor and baffles, wherein
    • Solid or pasty energy raw materials are fed to an impact reactor in the head region of the impact reactor at 190 to 350 degrees Celsuis,
    • Hot Torrefizierungsgas is supplied in the bottom region of the baffle reactor,
    • The solid or pasty energy raw materials in the impact reactor are comminuted, dried and torrefied, and
    • • comminuted and Torrefizierte energy raw material particles are guided in a gas stream containing them from the impingement reactor in a particle separator.
  • In the present invention, the thermal treatment is provided in the typical temperature range of Torrefizierung, ie from 190-350 ° C. This has the consequence that the mass decreases by about 30%, but the energy content only by about 10%, which sets a specific significantly higher calorific value. On the other hand, the biomass structure changes from fibrous to brittle due to torrefaction, which greatly reduces the energy required for comminution. Depending on the degree of torrefaction and the type of biomass, the energy required for comminution can be reduced by 50% up to 85%, see Kaltschmitt et al .: "Energy from Biomass", ISBN 978-3-540-85094-6, 2009, pages 703-709 ,
  • The fact that torrefaction and comminution take place simultaneously in the present invention results in synergy effects, both of which obtain advantages. In the prior art, torrefaction takes place in a separate reactor, i. H. The particles require a certain residence time in accordance with their size and the reactor-dependent heat transfer behavior in order to be torrefied completely and continuously. At constant reactor temperature, this residence time in the reactor can only be achieved by reducing the particle size, which must be carried out before entry. Subsequently, the torrefizierten particles are crushed to a target size.
  • Due to the simultaneous treatment in the invention, a rapid drying takes place after the introduction of the coarse particles, and due to the further particle heating, a corresponding torrefaction also takes place from outside to inside the particle, from outside to inside. While in the known methods of the prior art, the particle size is maintained during Torrefizierung, here takes place at the same time a crushing by the impact effect. In this case, the already torrefizierten outer particle layers are preferably knocked off on contact with the baffle elements due to its brittle material properties. The remaining, not yet completely torrefigte particle core is thereby exposed again and is again exposed to the full heat transfer at the same time reduced size. The continuous comminution and mechanical removal of the torrefied layers significantly reduces the total torrefaction time of a single particle. At the same time, the mechanical complexity of comminution is reduced because the already torrefied and thus brittle parts of the particles can be crushed much more effective.
  • By the invention, on the one hand, the expenditure on equipment of the usual treatment chain is significantly reduced and at the same time the required specific time requirement is also reduced.
  • In embodiments of the method, the circulation operation is provided, wherein
    • At least part of the gas stream which is obtained from the particle separator is subjected to a post-combustion device, the energy of the resulting flue gas being used directly or indirectly for heating the cycle gas stream,
    • Nitrogen is added to the cycle gas stream,
    • • the pressure loss in the recycle gas flow is compensated, and
    • • The heated recycle gas stream is returned to the lower part of the impingement reactor.
  • In further embodiments of the method, it is provided that the dust-containing gas withdrawn from the particle separator is branched into a circulation gas stream and a residual gas stream, and the circulation stream is additionally heated in the secondary stream or in the main stream or in both.
  • The invention also relates to the use of the thus pretreated solid energy raw materials in an entrainment gasification, in an entrained flow combustion, in a fluidized bed gasification and in a fluidized bed combustion.
  • The invention will be explained in more detail with reference to 5 process sketches with circulation mode, with biomass being torrefected by way of example. 1 shows the inventive method with indirect additional heating of the cycle gas, 2 and 3 foresee a branch in 4 a process with direct auxiliary heating without branching is shown. In 5 the inventive labyrinth seal is shown.
  • From the storage container 1 becomes the biomass 2 over the screw conveyor 3 and the rotary valve 4 in the impact reactor 5 promoted. There she is using the rotor 7 crushed. In the bottom area of the baffle reactor 5 becomes Torrefizierungsgas in the form of hot recycle gas 8a and 8b fed. The crushed, dried and torrefied particles 11 be over a sifter 6 , which is preferably a motor-driven rotary separator, with the gas flow 9 from the impact reactor 5 withdrawn and into the particle separator 10 , shown here as a centrifugal separator out.
  • It is advantageous that by the use of the classifier 6 the size of the gas stream 9 leaving particles can be adjusted. It may also be advantageous to dispense with the motorized rotary sifter and to use screens or perforated plates, through which the particle size of the gas stream 9 Contained solids can be influenced.
  • Depending on the desired use of the pretreated fuel, the target particle size of the torrefizierten particles 11 defined by different requirements of the gasification or incinerator. These are z. As requirements for the interaction of reactivity and particle size, the delivery properties or more, thus may be advantageous for different feeds a different particle size or particle size distribution. Therefore, different methods for pre-separation such as sifters or sieves are useful. Depending on the desired particle size can be used as a particle separator 10 a mass-flow separator or a filtering separator can also be usefully used.
  • In the particle separator 10 become the torrefied particles 11 separated and by means of the rotary valve 12 they are then removed with the screw conveyor 13 in the storage container 14 given.
  • The recycle gas 15 , which from the centrifugal separator 10 contains only small amounts of dust and, in addition, the gas components released during torrefaction of the feed, which must be post-combusted. After the branch 16 becomes a residual gas flow 17 by means of the blower 18 in the burner 19 directed where the residual gas together with air 20 and fuel gas 21 is burned. The hot flue gas transfers in the heat exchanger 22 his energy to the cycle gas 27 and then into the atmosphere 23 be derived.
  • The recycle gas 24 becomes nitrogen 25 added in about the amount of residual gas 17 is discharged, with an oxygen content of not more than 8% at the entrance of the impingement reactor is adjusted. The pressure loss is in the cycle gas compressor 26 balanced, the cycle gas 27 is heated in the heat exchanger and as a hot recycle gas 8th fed back to the baffle reactor. In this case, the feed devices are arranged by way of example so that the hot recycle gas 8th in the area of the labyrinth seal 33 is fed while the labyrinth seal 33 flows through itself.
  • In 2 gets out of the recycle gas 16 a side stream 28 branched off, that of a backup blower 29 to with air 30 operated auxiliary burner 31 is encouraged and heated. The hot gas 32 is the cycle gas 8th mixed again.
  • In 3 is opposite 1 the heat exchanger 22 saved by the flue gas 33 in the cycle gas 27 is fed back directly after part of it to the atmosphere 23 has been discharged.
  • In 4 becomes the burner 19 directly in the cycle gas 27 arranged. This method variant is preferable, for example, when the gas components released from the torrefaction contribute a significant amount and calorific value.
  • The process for the thermal pretreatment of carbonaceous and hydrogen-containing solid fuels can also be carried out without circulation according to the invention.
  • This is particularly advantageous if integration into an existing plant infrastructure is provided. If, for example, the co-gasification of biomass and coal in an entrained-flow gasifier is desired, then a coupling can take place in such a way that the outgoing gas flow 15 the gasification, here z. B. the Aufheizbrenner the Kohlenmahlanlage, is supplied. At the same time, the supplied, preheated gas stream 8a . 8b also be made available from the gasification plant. This may be, for example, a partial flow from the heated mill cycle gas of the coal grinding plant or, for example, consist of an inert gas stream preheated within the gasification plant.
  • The obtained torrefied particles 11 can over the original container 14 be entered for co-gasification either in the coal dust stream or be added together with the raw coal in the Kohlenmahlanlage, which essentially depends on the degree of crushing, in the impact reactor 5 was set.
  • The described coupling with the gasification plant is only exemplary and can be done in many other ways, as within a complex gasification with upstream Kohlenmahlanlage a variety of partial and auxiliary currents are available and there are a variety of ways for heat extraction.
  • In the same way, a coupling with a power plant process can be made with an incinerator, wherein the resulting torrefizierten particles 11 over the storage container 14 be led in such a case to co-combustion.
  • Furthermore, in 5 a partial detail view of the impact reactor 5 in the area of the rotor shaft 34 represented, over which the rotor 7 is driven by a motor not shown in detail. Like the presentation of 5 can be taken here, located at the front end of the rotor shaft 34 a rotor mount 35 , in the bottom of a circumferential recess or groove 36 is introduced, for example, has a rectangular cross-section. In the surrounding depression 36 into it extends from below a circumferential projection 37 that prefers to the bottom plate 38 of the impact reactor 5 is arranged. The lead 37 has a width that is smaller than the width of the recess 36 is, and does not extend completely with its top to the bottom of the recess, so that between the outer surface of the projection 37 and the inner surface of the recess 36 a labyrinth seal 33 with a labyrinth passage 33a arises, through which the Torrefizierungsgas or other gas into the interior of the baffle reactor 5 is introduced. For example, the labyrinth passage may have a width in the range of 2mm to 20mm.
  • According to an embodiment of the invention, not shown, the labyrinth seal 33 to improve the sealing effect in the radial direction also considered two or more projections 37 have, extending into associated wells 36 extend into which are adapted to the shape of the projections of their shape.
  • The supply of Torrefizierungsgases 8a . 8b is preferably done by one or more below the bottom plate 38 in the waveguide 39 arranged holes 40 along it through the arrows 42 indicated feed way. This first runs in the direction of the rotor shaft 34 ie the center of rotation of the rotor 7 to, then substantially parallel to the rotor shaft or axis of rotation of the rotor 7 in the upward direction and then above the bottom plate 38 again in the opposite direction through the labyrinthine passage 33a radially outward from the center of rotation of the baffle reactor 5 away, resulting in a particularly efficient sealing and distribution of Torrefizierungsgases inside the reactor. This can be through the use of one or more, the labyrinth passage 33a fluidly downstream Schleuderleisten 41 additionally be improved.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 1
    storage container
    2
    biomass
    3
    Auger
    4
    rotary
    5
    baffle reactor
    6
    sifter
    7
    rotor
    8, 8a, 8b
    hot recycle gas / Torrefizierungsgas
    9
    gas flow
    10
    particle
    11
    torrefied particles
    12
    rotary
    13
    Auger
    14
    storage container
    15
    Recycle gas
    16
    Recycle gas
    17
    residual gas
    18
    fan
    19
    burner
    20
    air
    21
    fuel gas
    22
    heat exchangers
    23
    the atmosphere
    24
    Recycle gas
    25
    nitrogen
    26
    Recycle gas compressor
    27
    Recycle gas
    28
    sidestream
    29
    support fan
    30
    air
    31
    additional burner
    32
    hot gas
    33
    labyrinth seal
    33a
    labyrinth passage
    34
    rotor shaft
    35
    rotor receiving
    36
    deepening
    37
    head Start
    38
    baseplate
    39
    wave guide
    40
    drilling
    41
    spin bar
    42
    arrows
    M
    engine
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • WO 2007/078199 A1 [0006]
    • WO 2005/056723 A1 [0006]
    • DE 19600482 A1 [0015]
    • DE 102005055620 A1 [0015]
  • Cited non-patent literature
    • Kaltschmitt et al., "Energy from Biomass", ISBN 978-3-540-85094-6, 2009, pages 703-709 [0006]
    • Kaltschmitt et al .: "Energy from Biomass", ISBN 978-3-540-85094-6, 2009, pages 703-709 [0017]

Claims (15)

  1. Apparatus for producing a fine-grained fuel from solid or pasty energy raw materials by torrefaction and comminution, comprising A baffle reactor with a rotor and baffles that is temperature resistant up to at least 350 degrees Celsius, At least one hot Torrefizierungsgas supply device in the lower part of the impact reactor, At least one feed device for solid or pasty energy raw materials in the head region of the impact reactor, • at least one take-off device for a crushed and Torrefizierte fuel particles containing gas stream, as well A separation and extraction device for comminuted and torrefied energy raw material particles from the gas stream withdrawn from the impact reactor.
  2. Apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the Torrefizierungsgas is introduced in the region of a labyrinth seal and / or through a labyrinth seal into the baffle reactor, which is arranged in the region of the rotor shaft of the baffle reactor.
  3. Device according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that Abweiseradsichter be provided as a separation and withdrawal device for crushed and Torrefizierte energy raw material particles.
  4. Device according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized by a circuit circuit with a gas circulation, additionally containing At least one post-combustion device for the gas stream depleted in comminuted and torrefied energy raw material particles and obtained from the precipitation device, with a device for utilizing waste heat of the resulting flue gas, At least one nitrogen addition device in the recycle gas stream, At least one pressure-increasing device in the recycle gas stream, • at least one device for coupling the waste heat obtained from the flue gas into the recycle gas stream.
  5. Device according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that a branch for a recycle gas stream and a residual gas stream after the separation and withdrawal device for crushed and Torrefizierte biomass particles from the withdrawn from the impingement reactor gas flow is provided and that after the branch for the circulation stream Aufheizbrenner is arranged in the circulation stream.
  6. Apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that a Aufheizbrenner is arranged in the main stream of the circulating stream.
  7. Apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that a Aufheizbrenner is arranged in the secondary flow of the circulating stream.
  8. Process for producing a fine-grained fuel from solid or pasty energy raw materials by torrefaction using a baffle reactor with a rotor and baffles, wherein Solid or pasty energy raw materials are fed to the impact reactor in the head region of the impact reactor, Hot Torrefizierungsgas is supplied in the bottom region of the baffle reactor, • crushing, drying and torrefying the energy raw materials in the impact reactor, and • comminuted and Torrefizierte energy raw material particles are guided in a gas stream containing them from the impingement reactor in a particle separator.
  9. A method according to claim 8, characterized in that a cycle operation is provided, wherein At least part of the gas stream which is obtained from the particle separator is subjected to a post-combustion device, the energy of the resulting flue gas being used directly or indirectly for heating the cycle gas stream, Nitrogen is added to the cycle gas stream, • the pressure loss in the recycle gas flow is compensated, and • The heated circulation stream is returned to the bottom of the baffle reactor.
  10. Method according to one of claims 8 or 9, characterized in that the circulation stream is additionally heated in the secondary stream or in the main stream.
  11. Method according to one of claims 8 to 10, characterized in that the deducted from the particle separator dust-containing gas is branched into a recycle gas stream and a residual gas stream.
  12. Use of a fuel produced by a process of claims 8 to 11 in an entrainment gasification plant.
  13. Use of a fuel produced by a process of claims 8 to 11 in an air stream combustion.
  14. Use of a fuel produced by a process of claims 8 to 11 in a fluidized bed gasification.
  15. Use of a fuel produced by a process of claims 8 to 11 in a fluidized bed combustion.
DE102009053059A 2009-11-16 2009-11-16 Device, useful for producing fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like energy resource by torrefying and crushing, comprises impact reactor with rotor and impact elements, feeding devices for hot torrefying gas and energy resource Ceased DE102009053059A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102009053059A DE102009053059A1 (en) 2009-11-16 2009-11-16 Device, useful for producing fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like energy resource by torrefying and crushing, comprises impact reactor with rotor and impact elements, feeding devices for hot torrefying gas and energy resource

Applications Claiming Priority (12)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102009053059A DE102009053059A1 (en) 2009-11-16 2009-11-16 Device, useful for producing fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like energy resource by torrefying and crushing, comprises impact reactor with rotor and impact elements, feeding devices for hot torrefying gas and energy resource
BR112012011205A BR112012011205A2 (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 device for producing a fine grain fuel, process for producing a fine grain fuel and using a fuel produced according to a process
RU2012121603/04A RU2569369C2 (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 Device and method for production of fine-grain fuel from solid or pasty stock by drying and grinding
PCT/EP2010/006955 WO2011057822A1 (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 Device and method for creating a fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like raw energy materials by means of torrefaction and crushing
TW099139314A TW201127492A (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 Contrivance and process for the production of a fine-grained fuel from solid or pasty energy feedstocks by means of torrefaction and crushing
CN201080050821.6A CN102822322B (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 By roasting with pulverize equipment and the method for to be produced particulate fuel by solid or pasty state energy feedstuff
UAA201205245A UA110775C2 (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 The invention relates lo a device and method for creating a fine-grained fuel from solid or pas1e-like raw energy materials
CA2779350A CA2779350A1 (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 Contrivance and process for the production of a fine-grained fuel from solid or pasty energy feedstocks by means of torrefaction and crushing
US13/508,913 US20120266485A1 (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 Device and method for creating a fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like raw energy materials by means of torrefaction and crushing
EP10784261A EP2501790A1 (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 Device and method for creating a fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like raw energy materials by means of torrefaction and crushing
KR1020127015142A KR20120117774A (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 Device and method for creating a fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like raw energy materials by means of torrefaction and crushing
AU2010318258A AU2010318258B2 (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 Device and method for creating a fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like raw energy materials by means of torrefaction and crushing

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DE102010006921A1 (en) 2010-02-04 2011-08-04 Schäfer Elektrotechnik und Sondermaschinen GmbH, 67308 Device, useful for producing fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like energy resource by torrefying and crushing comprises impact reactor with rotor and impact element, feeding devices for hot torrefying gas and energy resource
DE102010001330B4 (en) * 2010-01-28 2012-12-27 Wolfgang Bengel Process and plant for thermal utilization of biomass
DE102011080375A1 (en) * 2011-08-03 2013-02-07 Vescon System Ag Method and device for producing organic fibrous materials or granules
DE102012105428A1 (en) * 2012-06-22 2013-12-24 Thyssenkrupp Resource Technologies Gmbh Process and installation for increasing the calorific value of a carbonaceous material stream
WO2016001537A1 (en) * 2014-07-01 2016-01-07 Broyeur Poittemill Ingenierie Method and device for drying and milling wet materials
EP3083886A4 (en) * 2013-12-16 2017-07-05 Renergi Pty Ltd. Apparatus for pyrolysing carbonaceous material
WO2019075963A1 (en) * 2017-10-18 2019-04-25 徐美琴 Waste gasification apparatus having improved efficiency

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DE102005055620A1 (en) 2005-11-22 2007-05-24 Schäfer, Ralf Apparatus for processing composite building materials to recover components comprises a rotor equipped with movable impact elements having an adjustable angle of attack
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DE102010001330B4 (en) * 2010-01-28 2012-12-27 Wolfgang Bengel Process and plant for thermal utilization of biomass
DE102010006921A1 (en) 2010-02-04 2011-08-04 Schäfer Elektrotechnik und Sondermaschinen GmbH, 67308 Device, useful for producing fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like energy resource by torrefying and crushing comprises impact reactor with rotor and impact element, feeding devices for hot torrefying gas and energy resource
DE102011080375A1 (en) * 2011-08-03 2013-02-07 Vescon System Ag Method and device for producing organic fibrous materials or granules
US9511373B2 (en) 2011-08-03 2016-12-06 Wolfgang Bengel Method and device for producing organic fibrous materials or granular materials
DE102012105428A1 (en) * 2012-06-22 2013-12-24 Thyssenkrupp Resource Technologies Gmbh Process and installation for increasing the calorific value of a carbonaceous material stream
WO2013189893A1 (en) 2012-06-22 2013-12-27 Thyssenkrupp Resource Technologies Gmbh Method and system for increasing the calorific value of a material flow containing carbon
EP3083886A4 (en) * 2013-12-16 2017-07-05 Renergi Pty Ltd. Apparatus for pyrolysing carbonaceous material
US9957444B2 (en) 2013-12-16 2018-05-01 Renergi Pty Ltd Apparatus for pyrolysing carbonaceous material
WO2016001537A1 (en) * 2014-07-01 2016-01-07 Broyeur Poittemill Ingenierie Method and device for drying and milling wet materials
FR3023187A1 (en) * 2014-07-01 2016-01-08 Broyeur Poittemill Ingenierie Process and device for drying and milling wet materials
WO2019075963A1 (en) * 2017-10-18 2019-04-25 徐美琴 Waste gasification apparatus having improved efficiency

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