EP2501790A1 - Device and method for creating a fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like raw energy materials by means of torrefaction and crushing - Google Patents

Device and method for creating a fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like raw energy materials by means of torrefaction and crushing

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Publication number
EP2501790A1
EP2501790A1 EP10784261A EP10784261A EP2501790A1 EP 2501790 A1 EP2501790 A1 EP 2501790A1 EP 10784261 A EP10784261 A EP 10784261A EP 10784261 A EP10784261 A EP 10784261A EP 2501790 A1 EP2501790 A1 EP 2501790A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
reactor
device
characterized
gas stream
stream
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP10784261A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Ralf Abraham
Stefan Hamel
Ralf Schäfer
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ProActor Schutzrechtsverwaltungs GmbH
ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG
Original Assignee
ThyssenKrupp Uhde GmbH
ProActor Schutzrechtsverwaltungs GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE102009053059A priority Critical patent/DE102009053059A1/en
Priority to DE201010006921 priority patent/DE102010006921A1/en
Application filed by ThyssenKrupp Uhde GmbH, ProActor Schutzrechtsverwaltungs GmbH filed Critical ThyssenKrupp Uhde GmbH
Priority to PCT/EP2010/006955 priority patent/WO2011057822A1/en
Publication of EP2501790A1 publication Critical patent/EP2501790A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L5/00Solid fuels
    • C10L5/40Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin
    • C10L5/44Solid fuels essentially based on materials of non-mineral origin on vegetable substances
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B49/00Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated
    • C10B49/02Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated with hot gases or vapours, e.g. hot gases obtained by partial combustion of the charge
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • C10B53/02Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form of cellulose-containing material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/46Gasification of granular or pulverulent flues in suspension
    • C10J3/48Apparatus; Plants
    • C10J3/482Gasifiers with stationary fluidised bed
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10LFUELS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NATURAL GAS; SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS OBTAINED BY PROCESSES NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C10G, C10K; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS; ADDING MATERIALS TO FUELS OR FIRES TO REDUCE SMOKE OR UNDESIRABLE DEPOSITS OR TO FACILITATE SOOT REMOVAL; FIRELIGHTERS
    • C10L9/00Treating solid fuels to improve their combustion
    • C10L9/08Treating solid fuels to improve their combustion by heat treatments, e.g. calcining
    • C10L9/083Torrefaction
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0903Feed preparation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/16Integration of gasification processes with another plant or parts within the plant
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels
    • Y02E50/14Bio-pyrolysis
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels
    • Y02E50/15Torrefaction of biomass
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10General improvement of production processes causing greenhouse gases [GHG] emissions
    • Y02P20/12Energy input
    • Y02P20/129Energy recovery

Abstract

The invention relates to a device and method for creating a fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like raw energy materials by means of torrefaction, comprising an impact reactor having a rotor and impact elements which is temperature resistant up to 350 degrees Celsius, a feed device for hot circulation gas in the lower region of the impact reactor, a feed device for solid or paste-like raw energy materials in the head region of the impact reactor, at least one withdrawal device for a gas flow comprising comminuted and torrefacted raw energy particles and a separation and withdrawal device for crushed and torrefacted raw energy particles from the gas flow taken out of the impact reactor.

Description

 DEVICE AND METHOD FOR GENERATING A FINE-COLORED FUEL FROM SOLID OR PASTAL ENERGY OILS BY TORREFILLING AND SHREDDING

The invention relates to the thermal pretreatment, also referred to as Torrefizierung, of carbonaceous and hydrogen-containing solid fuels, which may be present in pasty or viscous form and are referred to hereinafter as solid or pasty energy resources, including, for example, biogenic and other highly reactive Fuels, fossil fuels and residuals count in an impingement reactor. As pasty all substances are understood here, in which solids and liquid fractions are mixed together, examples of which are sewage sludge and industrial residues, either on an aqueous basis or on the basis of solvents or energy-containing liquids, such as lubricants. The expansion of the use of renewable energy sources and the recovery of waste and residual materials is the goal worldwide, with an energetically also materially effective use with thermal gasification is possible. Particularly advantageous is the entrainment gasification, with plants for entrained flow gasification usually have very high performance and are also operated with coal. Also, the invention allows the use of problematic substances in entrained flow systems or boiler systems, problem substances in this sense are, for example, the fibrous and woody components in mostly younger coals, which are found as recognizable residues of plants.

 In order to use solid fuels in Flugstromvergaser, they must be crushed to a suitable particle size, also a reduction of the moisture content is advantageous. In energy raw materials such as biomass, biogenic residues and waste due to the often tough and fibrous structure such pretreatments according to conventional prior art can be achieved only with high energy and equipment costs. Thus, it is known that by thermal treatment of the biomass under mild pyrolysis conditions, i. Torrefication, the cell structures are weakened so that the mechanical complexity for subsequent comminution is greatly reduced.

 Torrefication is understood as meaning a mild thermal treatment of solid fuels with exclusion of oxygen at temperatures of 220 to 350.degree. C., low oxygen contents being permissible in the present invention as well. The residence time required to achieve complete torrefaction of the feed is in the range of 15 to 120 minutes. The residence time is determined by the particle size of the feed and the heat transfer characteristic of the method used. While

CONFIRMATION COPY the heating of the feedstock, this first passes through the drying step. With further heating, here by the example of wood, carbon dioxide, and organic acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are released up to about 200-220 ° C next to the water vapor first. Further heating to about 280-350 ° C continue to release mainly carbon dioxide and organic acids, in addition due to the onset of pyrolytic decomposition, carbon monoxide is increasingly released with increasing temperature.

 If the temperature is further increased beyond the temperature range relevant to the invention, the pyrolytic decomposition reactions of the marcomolecules rise sharply beyond the 350-400 ° C. (depending on the biomass). The amount of gas released increases, however, the higher hydrocarbons released reach e.g. for beech wood at about 480-500 ° C, a maximum. Here, e.g. from beech wood about 70 wt .-% of water and ash-free fuel substance than higher, condensable hydrocarbons, also collectively referred to as tars, released. About 15 wt .-% are released as gas and about 15 wt .-% remain as a solid residue, so-called coke.

 In addition to carbon and hydrogen, many biogenic raw materials also contain considerable amounts of oxygen and other elements in each case in bound form. During runoff gasification conducted in a reducing, low-oxygen synthesis gas recovery atmosphere, the oxygen compounds are released from the fuel resulting in increased levels of generated carbon dioxide over the desired carbon monoxide in the synthesis gas, as well as water vapor rather than hydrogen. It would therefore be desirable to reduce the molecular fraction of the oxygen compounds in the biogenic raw material used as early as during the pretreatment, and to achieve a fuel revaluation by means of this oxygen depletion, in order to thereby improve the quality of the synthesis gas to be produced.

 For Torrefizierung of biomasses various methods are known in the art. A general overview of the basic procedure is available, for example. Kaltschmitt et al., "Energy from Biomass," ISBN 978-3-540-85094-6, 2009, pages 703-709. Accordingly, various basic reactor types are used for biomass tetorrefining, such as fixed bed or moving bed reactor, drum reactor, disk reactor and screw or paddle reactors. A moving bed reactor is also proposed, for example, in WO 2007/078199 A1. The circuit variant of a method for torrefaction is presented for example in WO 2005/056723 A1.

All of these mentioned methods have in common that they have the thermal treatment of biomass target. The subsequent preparation of the torrefied Biomass, ie comminution, is not intended and must be done in a subsequent step. The comminution or grinding thus requires in the abovementioned examples from the prior art mandatory another process stage and thus other aggregates.

The object of the invention is therefore to provide a device-simplified apparatus and a more energy-saving method available, with the torrefaction and crushing can be done in one step, wherein the solid or pasty energy raw materials are pretreated so that they for a Residual flow gasification is operational without further measures.

 The invention achieves the object by a device comprising

A baffle reactor with a rotor and baffles that is temperature resistant up to 350 degrees Celsius,

A hot Torrefizierungsgas supply device in the lower part of the impact reactor,

A feed device for solid or pasty energy raw materials in the head region of the impact reactor,

 • at least one extraction device for a crushed and Torrefizierte energy raw material particles containing gas stream, and

 A separation and extraction device for comminuted and Torrefizierte fuel raw material from the gas stream, which is withdrawn from the impingement reactor.

 In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the Torrefizierungsgas is introduced in the region of a labyrinth seal and / or through a labyrinth seal into the baffle reactor, which is arranged in the rotor shaft of the baffle reactor, and separated by the interior of the baffle reactor fluidly from the outside environment becomes. This advantageously results in a particularly efficient distribution of the Torrefizierungsgases within the impingement reactor and also from the bottom of the reactor upwardly directed product flow, in which the Torrefizierten particles are transported in the upward direction.

 In a further embodiment of the invention Abweiseradsichter be provided as a separation and withdrawal device for crushed and torrefied energy commodity particles.

In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, a circuit circuit is also provided, the gas cycle containing additional A post-combustion device for the gas stream depleted in comminuted and torrefied energy raw material particles and obtained from the precipitation device, with a device for utilizing waste heat of the resulting flue gas,

An adding device of nitrogen into the recycle gas stream,

 • a pressure-increasing device in the recycle gas stream, and

• A device for coupling the waste heat obtained from the flue gas into the recycle gas stream.

 For the supply in the bottom area or at a suitable procedural point of the baffle reactor, the cycle gas stream also forms the Torrefizierungsgasstrom that transports the required heat.

 In an advantageous embodiment of the invention is further provided to provide a branch for a recycle gas stream and a residual gas stream after the separation and withdrawal device for crushed and Torrefizierte energy raw material from the withdrawn from the baffle gas flow after the branch for the circulation stream a Aufheizbrenner in the circulation stream to arrange. This Aufheizbrenner can be arranged both in the secondary stream and in the main stream of the cycle gas.

 A suitable impact reactor is described for example in the OS DE 196 00 482 A1. This apparatus is surprisingly capable of producing biomass, e.g. Treat straw or green waste in the same way as the plastic fractions described there. To improve the mode of action, devices as described in the application DE 10 2005 055 620 A1 can also be usefully used.

 Another object of the device according to the invention relates to the deduction of Torrefiziertem material, wherein different fractions of different particle sizes should be deducted from the impingement reactor. The invention solves the problem by side screens are provided as a separation and withdrawal device for crushed and dried energy raw material particles. By different design and mesh sizes can be deposited in this way different grain fractions.

 Further embodiments of the device according to the invention relate to the supply of the Torrefizierungsgases in the lower part of the Torrefizierungsreaktors. Here, the object of the invention to be able to bring in larger amounts of Torrefizierungsgas in the impingement reactor.

The invention solves the problem by provided as a feeder for hot Torrefizierungsgas in the lower region of the baffle reactor distributed over the circumference holes. In a further embodiment of the invention, it is provided that the holes are made inclined in the radial direction. In a further advantageous embodiment of the invention can be provided that the bores are aligned tangentially to the direction of rotation of the baffle elements. In this case, the outlet direction of the holes can be aligned with or against the direction of rotation of the rotor of the baffle reactor. The process-technically more favorable solution depends on the interaction of the properties of the material to be comminuted and the geometric configurations of the rotor and the impact elements and the operation of the rotor, so for example the speed and the resulting influence on the local flow processes from.

 Alternatively, the invention achieves the object by providing as a hot Torrefizierungsgas supply device in the lower region of the baffle reactor distributed over the circumference slit-shaped openings. In this case, the slots may also have a radial inclination.

 In a further embodiment of the invention, the slots are formed by overlapping mounting of floor panels.

 All feed types for Torrefizierungsgas can also be used additively. It is therefore possible to introduce Torrefizierungsgas both on the described labyrinth seal, as well as the feeding device for energy resources, as well as holes and slots in the bottom of the baffle reactor in the preweakening and thus process technology to react to a variety of raw materials, which is an advantage of the invention.

 The object of the invention is also achieved by a method for producing a fine-grained fuel from solid or pasty energy resources by Torrefizierung and crushing using a baffle reactor with a rotor and baffles, wherein

 Solid or pasty energy raw materials are fed to an impact reactor in the head region of the impact reactor at 190 to 350 degrees Celsuis,

Hot Torrefizierungsgas is supplied in the bottom region of the baffle reactor,

The solid or pasty energy raw materials in the impact reactor are comminuted, dried and torrefied, and

 • comminuted and Torrefizierte energy raw material particles are guided in a gas stream containing them from the impingement reactor in a particle separator.

In the present invention, the thermal treatment is provided in the typical temperature range of torrefaction, ie from 190-350 ° C. This has the consequence that the mass decreases by about 30%, but the energy content only by about 10%, which sets a specific significantly higher calorific value. On the other hand, the biomass structure changes from fibrous to brittle due to the torrefaction, which greatly reduces the energy required for comminution. Depending on Torrefizierungsgrad and type of biomass energy consumption for comminution by 50% can be reduced to 85%, see Kaltschmitt et al .: "Energy from biomass", ISBN 978-3-540-85094-6, 2009, pages 703-709.

 Characterized in that in the present invention, the Torrefizierung and comminution take place simultaneously, synergy effects, of which both processes receive benefits. In the prior art, torrefaction takes place in a separate reactor, i. The particles require a certain residence time in accordance with their size and the reactor-dependent heat transfer behavior in order to be torrefied completely and continuously. At constant reactor temperature, this residence time in the reactor can only be achieved by reducing the particle size, which must be carried out before entry. Subsequently, the torrefizierten particles are crushed to a target size.

 Due to the simultaneous treatment in the invention, a rapid drying takes place after entry of the coarse particles and takes place by the further particle heating, from outside to inside, a corresponding torrefaction also takes place from the particle exterior to the particle interior. While in the known methods of the prior art, the particle size is maintained during Torrefizierung, here takes place at the same time a crushing by the impact effect. In this case, the already torrefizierten outer particle layers are preferably knocked off on contact with the baffle elements due to its brittle material properties. The remaining, not yet completely torrefigte particle core is thereby exposed again and is again exposed to the full heat transfer at the same time reduced size. The continuous comminution and mechanical removal of the torrefied layers significantly reduces the total torrefaction time of a single particle. At the same time, the mechanical complexity of comminution is reduced because the already torrefied and thus brittle parts of the particles can be crushed much more effective.

 By the invention, on the one hand, the expenditure on equipment of the usual treatment chain is significantly reduced and at the same time the required specific time required also reduced.

 In embodiments of the method, the circulation operation is provided, wherein

At least a part of the gas stream, which is obtained from the particle separator, is subjected to a post-combustion device, the energy of the obtained NEN flue gas is used directly or indirectly for heating the cycle gas stream,

Nitrogen is added to the cycle gas stream,

• the pressure loss in the recycle gas flow is compensated, and

• The heated recycle gas stream is returned to the lower part of the impingement reactor.

 In further embodiments of the method it is provided that the withdrawn from the particle separator dust-containing gas is branched into a recycle gas stream and a residual gas stream and the circulating stream is additionally heated in the secondary stream or in the main stream or in both.

 In a further improved embodiment of the method, it is provided that at least a portion of the Torrefizierungsgases is performed together with the energy raw materials through the feed device into the reactor. It is important to ensure that the Torrefizierungsgas is sufficiently cool introduced into the feeder. The introduction of the Torrefizierungsgases a drying of the outer surface of the energy raw materials, especially in the case of solid energy resources, causes, which leads to improved conveyability and significantly reduces the tendency to stick. The passage of the Torrefizierungsgases can be carried out both in countercurrent and in direct current.

 In a further embodiment of the method it is provided that the supply device is heated indirectly. Due to the drying effect, the Torrefizierungsgas cools during passage through the feeding device. The heating counteracts this cooling. For heating, the hot Torrefizierungsgas be used, which itself cools and then passed through the feeder.

If it is provided to initially discharge the energy raw materials with a screw conveyor from the silo and make the dosage in the baffle reactor with a rotary valve, this order would turn over in the present case. This prevents that Torrefizierungsgas passed through the conveyor can flow back into the silo. Via the screw conveyor, which is open to the baffle reactor, the Torrefizierungsgas can be freely introduced into the baffle reactor. It is advantageous in this case if the energy raw materials and the Torrefizierungsgas be passed in direct current through the screw conveyor. The invention also relates to the use of the solid energy raw materials pretreated in an entrained flow gasification, in an entrained flow combustion, in a fluidized bed gasification and in a fluidized bed combustion.

 The invention will be explained in more detail with reference to 5 process sketches with circulation mode, with biomass torrefiziert example. 1 shows the method according to the invention with indirect additional heating of the recycle gas, FIGS. 2 and 3 provide a branch, in FIG. 4 a method with direct additional heating without branching is shown. In Fig. 5 the erfindungssgemäße labyrinth seal is shown.

 From the storage tank 1, the biomass 2 is conveyed via the screw conveyor 3 and the rotary valve 4 in the baffle reactor 5. There it is crushed by means of the rotor 7. In the bottom region of the impingement reactor 5 Torrefizierungsgas is supplied in the form of hot recycle gas 8a and 8b. The comminuted, dried and torrefied particles 11 are withdrawn via a separator 6, which is preferably a motor-operated rotary separator, with the gas stream 9 from the impingement reactor 5 and into the particle separator 10, here shown as centrifugal.

 It is advantageous that the size of the exiting with the gas stream 9 particles can be adjusted by the use of the classifier 6. It may also be advantageous to dispense with the motor-driven rotary sifter and to use screens or perforated plates, by which the particle size of the solids contained in the gas stream 9 can be influenced.

 Depending on the desired use of the pretreated fuel, the target particle size of the torrefied particles 11 is defined by various requirements of the gasification or incineration plant. These are e.g. Requirements for the interaction of reactivity and particle size, on the conveying properties or further, thus may be advantageous for different starting materials, a different particle size or particle size distribution. Therefore, different methods for pre-separation such as sifters or sieves are useful. Depending on the desired particle size can be useful as a particle separator 10 and a mass separator or a filtering separator used.

 In the particle separator 10, the torrefizierten particles 11 are separated and discharged by the rotary valve 12, then they are given with the screw conveyor 13 in the storage tank 14.

The recycle gas 15 obtained from the centrifugal separator 10 contains only small amounts of dust and, in addition, the gas components released during torrefaction of the feed, which must be post-combusted. After the branch 16, a residual gas stream 17 is passed by means of the blower 18 in the burner 19, where the residual gas is post-combusted together with air 20 and fuel gas 21. The hot flue gas transfers its heat in the heat exchanger 22 to the recycle gas 27 and can then be discharged into the atmosphere 23.

 Nitrogen 25 is added to the circulating gas 24 in approximately the amount which is discharged to residual gas 17, with an oxygen content of not more than 8% being regulated at the entrance of the impingement reactor. The pressure loss is compensated in the cycle gas compressor 26, the recycle gas 27 is heated in the heat exchanger and fed as hot recycle gas 8 back to the impingement reactor. In this case, the feed devices are arranged by way of example so that the hot cycle gas 8 is supplied in the region of the labyrinth seal 33 and at the same time the labyrinth seal 33 flows through itself.

 2, a secondary stream 28 is branched off from the circulating gas 16, which is conveyed by a support fan 29 for operated with air 30 additional burner 31 and heated. The hot gas 32 is added to the cycle gas 8 again.

 In Fig. 3, the heat exchanger 22 is saved compared to Fig. 1 by the flue gas 33 is fed back directly into the recycle gas 27 after a part thereof has been discharged to the atmosphere 23.

 In Fig. 4, the burner 19 is arranged directly in the recycle gas 27. This method variant is preferable, for example, when the gas components released from the torrefaction contribute a significant amount and calorific value.

 The process for the thermal pretreatment of coal-containing and hydrogen-containing solid fuels can also be carried out without circulation according to the invention. This is particularly advantageous if integration into an existing plant infrastructure is provided. If, for example, the co-gasification of biomass and coal in an entrained-flow gasifier is desired, coupling may take place in such a manner that the gas stream 15 leaving the gasification, here e.g. the Aufheizbrenner the Kohlenmahlanlage, is supplied. At the same time, the preheated gas stream 8a, 8b to be supplied can likewise be made available from the gasification plant. This may be, for example, a partial flow from the heated mill cycle gas of the coal grinding plant or, for example, consist of an inert gas stream preheated within the gasification plant.

The obtained torrefizierten particles 11 can be entered via the feed tank 14 for co-gasification either in the coal dust stream or together with the raw coal in the coal grinding plant, which essentially depends on the degree of crushing, which was set in the impact reactor 5. The described coupling with the gasification plant is only an example and can be done in many other ways, since within a complex gasification with upstream coal grinding plant a variety of partial and auxiliary currents are available and a variety of ways for heat extraction exist.

 In the same way, a coupling can be made with a power plant process with an incinerator, wherein the resulting torrefizierten particles 11 are guided through the feed tank 14 in such a case for co-combustion.

 Furthermore, FIG. 5 shows a fragmentary detailed view of the impact reactor 5 in the region of the rotor shaft 34, via which the rotor 7 is driven by a motor not shown in more detail. As can be seen from the illustration of FIG. 5, a rotor receptacle 35 is located at the front end of the rotor shaft 34, in the underside of which a circumferential depression or groove 36 is introduced, which for example has a rectangular cross-section. In the circumferential recess 36 extends from below a circumferential projection 37, which is preferably arranged on the bottom plate 38 of the baffle reactor 5. The projection 37 has a width which is smaller than the width of the recess 36, and does not extend completely with its top to the bottom of the recess, so that between the outer surface of the projection 37 and the inner surface of the recess 36, a labyrinth seal 33rd is formed with a labyrinth passage 33a through which the Torrefizierungsgas or other gas is introduced into the interior of the baffle reactor 5. For example, the labyrinth passage may have a width in the range of 2mm to 20mm.

 According to an embodiment of the invention, not shown, the labyrinth seal 33 seen to improve the sealing effect in the radial direction also have two or more projections 37 which extend into associated recesses 36 which are adapted in shape of the shape of the projections ,

The supply of Torrefizierungsgases 8a, 8b is preferably carried out by one or more below the bottom plate 38 in the shaft guide 39 arranged holes 40 therethrough along the direction indicated by the arrows 42 Zufuhrweges. This runs first in the direction of the rotor shaft 34, ie the center of rotation of the rotor 7, then substantially parallel to the rotor shaft or axis of rotation of the rotor 7 in the upward direction and then above the bottom plate 38 again in the opposite direction through the labyrinth passage 33a therethrough radially outside of the center of rotation of the baffle reactor 5 away, resulting in a particularly efficient sealing and distribution of Torrefizierungsgases inside the reactor. This can be achieved through the use of one or more, the labyrinth passage 33a fluidly downstream Schleuderleisten 41 additionally be improved.

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS

Reservoir 23 atmosphere

 Biomass 24 cycle gas

 Feed screw 25 Nitrogen

 Rotary valve 26 Circulating gas compressor

Impact reactor 27 recycle gas

 Classifier 28 bypass

 Rotor 29 support fan hot recycle gas / 30 air

 Torrefizierungsgas 31 auxiliary burner

Gas stream 32 hot gas

 Particle separator 33 Labyrinth seal Torrefied particles 33a Labyrinth passage

 Rotary valve 34 rotor shaft

 Feed screw 35 Rotor mount

Reservoir 36 recess

 Cycle gas 37 projection

 Recycle gas 38 bottom plate

 Residual gas 39 waveguide

Blower 40 bore

 Burner 41 skid strip

Air 42 arrows

 Fuel gas M engine

 heat exchangers

Claims

claims
Apparatus for producing a fine-grained fuel from solid or pasty energy raw materials by torrefaction and comminution, comprising
 A baffle reactor (5) with a rotor (7) and impact elements, which is temperature-resistant up to at least 350 degrees Celsius,
At least one hot Torrefizierungsgas supply device (8, 8a, 8b) in the lower region of the baffle reactor (5),
 At least one feed device (3, 4) for solid or pasty energy raw materials in the head region of the impact reactor (5),
 • at least one take-off device for a crushed and torrefizierte fuel particles containing gas stream (9), and
 • a separation and extraction device (10) for shredded and torrefied
 Energy raw material particles (11) from the gas stream (9), which is withdrawn from the impingement reactor (5).
 Apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the Torrefizierungsgas (8, 8a, 8b) is introduced in the region of a labyrinth seal (33) and / or through a labyrinth seal in the baffle reactor (5), which in the region of the rotor shaft of the baffle reactor (5 ) is arranged.
 Device according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that Abweiseradsichter be provided as a separation and withdrawal device for crushed and Torrefizierte energy raw material particles.
 Device according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized by a circuit circuit with a gas circulation, additionally containing
 At least one post-combustion device (19, 31) for the gas stream (15) depleted in comminuted and torrefied energy raw material particles and obtained from the precipitation device,
 At least one nitrogen addition device (25) into the recycle gas stream,
At least one pressure-increasing device (18, 26, 29) in the recycle gas stream,
• at least one device for coupling the waste heat obtained from the flue gas into the recycle gas stream.
5. Device according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that a branch for a recycle gas stream and a residual gas stream after the separation and withdrawal device (10) for crushed and Torrefizierte biomass particles from the withdrawn from the impingement reactor gas stream (15) is provided and that after the branch (28) for the circulation flow a Aufheizbrenner (31) is arranged in the circulation stream.
 6. Apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that a Aufheizbrenner is arranged in the main stream of the circulating stream.
 7. Apparatus according to claim 6, characterized in that a Aufheizbrenner is arranged in the secondary flow of the circulating stream.
 8. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that side screens are provided as separation and extraction device for crushed and dried energy raw material particles.
 9. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that as a feeding device for hot Torrefizierungsgas in the lower region of the baffle reactor (5) distributed over the circumference holes are provided.
 10 Apparatus according to claim 9, characterized in that the bores are performed inclined in the radial direction.
 11. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that the bores are aligned tangentially to the direction of rotation of the baffle elements.
 12. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that as a feeding device for hot Torrefizierungsgas in the lower region of the baffle reactor distributed over the circumference slotted openings are provided.
 13. The apparatus according to claim 12, characterized in that the slots have a radial inclination.
 14. Device according to one of claims 12 or 13, characterized in that the slots are formed by overlapping mounting of floor panels.
 15. A method for producing a fine-grained fuel from solid or pasty energy by Torrefizierung using a baffle reactor (5) with a rotor (7) and baffles, wherein
Solid or pasty energy raw materials are fed to the impact reactor (5) in the head region of the impact reactor (5), Hot Torrefizierungsgas (8, 8a, 8b) in the bottom region of the baffle reactor (5) is supplied,
• crushing, drying and torrefying the energy raw materials in the impact reactor, and
• Comminuted and torrefied energy raw material particles are guided in a gas stream containing them from the impingement reactor into a particle separator (10).
16. The method according to claim 15, characterized in that a cycle operation is provided, wherein
 At least part of the gas stream which is obtained from the particle separator (10) is subjected to a post-combustion device (19), the energy of the resulting flue gas being used directly or indirectly for heating the cycle gas stream,
 Adding nitrogen (25) to the recycle gas stream,
• the pressure loss in the recycle gas flow is compensated, and
 • The heated circulation stream is returned to the bottom of the baffle reactor.
 17. The method according to any one of claims 15 or 16, characterized in that the circulation stream is additionally heated in the secondary stream or in the main stream.
18. The method according to any one of claims 15 to 17, characterized in that the deducted from the particle separator dust-containing gas (5) is branched into a recycle gas stream and a residual gas stream.
 19. The method according to any one of claims 5 to 18, characterized in that at least a portion of the Torrefizierungsgases is fed together with the energy raw materials through its supply device into the reactor.
 20. The method according to claim 15, characterized in that the supply device for the energy raw material is indirectly heated in the reactor.
 21. Use of a produced by a method of claims 15 to 20
 Fuel in an entrainment gasification.
 22. Use of a produced by a method of claims 15 to 20
 Fuel in an air stream combustion.
 23. Use of a produced by a method of claims 15 to 20
Fuel in a fluidized bed gasification. Use of a fuel produced by a process of claims 15 to 20 in a fluidized bed combustion.
EP10784261A 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 Device and method for creating a fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like raw energy materials by means of torrefaction and crushing Withdrawn EP2501790A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

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DE102009053059A DE102009053059A1 (en) 2009-11-16 2009-11-16 Device, useful for producing fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like energy resource by torrefying and crushing, comprises impact reactor with rotor and impact elements, feeding devices for hot torrefying gas and energy resource
DE201010006921 DE102010006921A1 (en) 2010-02-04 2010-02-04 Device, useful for producing fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like energy resource by torrefying and crushing comprises impact reactor with rotor and impact element, feeding devices for hot torrefying gas and energy resource
PCT/EP2010/006955 WO2011057822A1 (en) 2009-11-16 2010-11-16 Device and method for creating a fine-grained fuel from solid or paste-like raw energy materials by means of torrefaction and crushing

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EP (1) EP2501790A1 (en)
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CN (1) CN102822322B (en)
AU (1) AU2010318258B2 (en)
BR (1) BR112012011205A2 (en)
CA (1) CA2779350A1 (en)
RU (1) RU2569369C2 (en)
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RU2569369C2 (en) 2015-11-27
AU2010318258B2 (en) 2015-04-09
US20120266485A1 (en) 2012-10-25
CA2779350A1 (en) 2011-05-19
CN102822322B (en) 2015-12-09
RU2012121603A (en) 2013-12-27
CN102822322A (en) 2012-12-12
BR112012011205A2 (en) 2018-04-10
WO2011057822A1 (en) 2011-05-19
TW201127492A (en) 2011-08-16
KR20120117774A (en) 2012-10-24

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