DE102008056204A1 - Driver assistance system for avoiding collision of vehicle, has operation module for autonomous delay of speed of vehicle through initial negative acceleration after meeting critical driving situation - Google Patents

Driver assistance system for avoiding collision of vehicle, has operation module for autonomous delay of speed of vehicle through initial negative acceleration after meeting critical driving situation

Info

Publication number
DE102008056204A1
DE102008056204A1 DE102008056204A DE102008056204A DE102008056204A1 DE 102008056204 A1 DE102008056204 A1 DE 102008056204A1 DE 102008056204 A DE102008056204 A DE 102008056204A DE 102008056204 A DE102008056204 A DE 102008056204A DE 102008056204 A1 DE102008056204 A1 DE 102008056204A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
vehicle
driver assistance
assistance system
collision
condition
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
DE102008056204A
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Marcus Baijens
Harald Feifel
Martin Kallnik
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Continental Teves AG and Co oHG
Original Assignee
Continental Teves AG and Co oHG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Continental Teves AG and Co oHG filed Critical Continental Teves AG and Co oHG
Priority to DE102008056204A priority Critical patent/DE102008056204A1/en
Publication of DE102008056204A1 publication Critical patent/DE102008056204A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T7/00Brake-action initiating means
    • B60T7/12Brake-action initiating means for automatic initiation; for initiation not subject to will of driver or passenger
    • B60T7/22Brake-action initiating means for automatic initiation; for initiation not subject to will of driver or passenger initiated by contact of vehicle, e.g. bumper, with an external object, e.g. another vehicle, or by means of contactless obstacle detectors mounted on the vehicle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W30/00Purposes of road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. of systems using conjoint control of vehicle sub-units, or advanced driver assistance systems for ensuring comfort, stability and safety or drive control systems for propelling or retarding the vehicle
    • B60W30/08Active safety systems predicting or avoiding probable or impending collision or attempting to minimise its consequences
    • B60W30/09Taking automatic action to avoid collision, e.g. braking and steering
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08GTRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
    • G08G1/00Traffic control systems for road vehicles
    • G08G1/16Anti-collision systems
    • G08G1/161Decentralised systems, e.g. inter-vehicle communication
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2556/00Input parameters relating to data
    • B60W2556/45External transmission of data to or from the vehicle
    • B60W2556/50External transmission of data to or from the vehicle for navigation systems

Abstract

According to one exemplary embodiment of the invention, a driver assistance system for avoiding a collision of a vehicle and for carrying out an autonomous braking intervention is specified. In a first stage, a moderate braking takes place. If no driver reaction takes place during a certain time interval, the brake pressure is increased.

Description

  • Field of the invention
  • The The invention relates to assistance and safety technology for vehicles. In particular, the invention relates to a driver assistance system for Avoiding a collision of a vehicle and fully autonomous Braking, a vehicle with a driver assistance system, the use a driver assistance system in a vehicle, a method for Avoiding a collision of a vehicle, a program element as well a computer readable medium.
  • Technological background
  • today Enable driver assistance systems a largely uniform autonomous braking up to a negative acceleration of 0.4 G. A stronger one autonomous braking is not allowed in order to avoid one incorrect assessment the current situation due to environment sensors and electronics the vehicle leads to a critical full braking.
  • faulty Braking with max. 0.3 to 0.4 g are included in the hazard analysis classified as uncritical and manageable for the driver. Indeed is such a system unable to avoid impact if stronger Brakes is necessary.
  • Summary of the invention
  • It It is an object of the invention to provide an increase in driving safety.
  • It are a driver assistance system to avoid a collision Vehicle and fully autonomous braking of the vehicle, a vehicle, a use, a method, a program element and a computer readable Medium according to the characteristics the independent one claims specified. Further developments of the invention will become apparent from the dependent claims.
  • The relate to described embodiments equally the driver assistance system, the vehicle, the use, the procedure, the Program element and the computer-readable medium. In other words can be mentioned below in terms of the driver assistance system Features in the method, the program element and the computer readable Implement medium, and vice versa.
  • According to one embodiment The invention is a driver assistance system for avoiding a Collision of a vehicle specified, the driver assistance system a detection and control module and an engagement module. The Detection and control module is used for detection and identification a critical driving situation of the vehicle resulting in a collision can lead. The intervention module is used for autonomous, ie fully automatic, deceleration of the Speed of the vehicle with a first negative acceleration, if a first condition is met is. Furthermore, the intervention module is used for the subsequent autonomous Delay the speed of the vehicle with a second, larger negative Acceleration when a second condition is met and before the last Time to avoid a collision has passed.
  • In In other words, the autonomous braking process takes place in two stages. In a first stage brakes the braking system, controlled by a Electronic Stability Program (ESP) control unit, the vehicle Moderate if the first condition is met.
  • at For example, the first condition is that the environment sensor detects a situation that in principle too may cause an impact or other accident.
  • Becomes now for a later If the second condition is fulfilled, the vehicle will still be stronger braked to avoid the collision. Due to the moderate braking In the first stage, the accident risk is reduced early. This will Time gained, so that the driver intervene in the driving can.
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention is the engagement module for increasing the second negative Acceleration during braking.
  • So the deceleration in the second stage is not abrupt. Much more can the negative acceleration be continuously increased until, for example, a full braking occurs.
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention, the increase of the second negative acceleration linear with time. Also it is possible that the increase the braking force is steady, so that the time course of Braking force has no "kink".
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention is the first condition then fulfilled when a predetermined Time to a collision time estimated by the detection and control module is reached.
  • For this purpose, the detection and Steuermo Dul one or more environment sensors and a control unit, which can detect the current traffic situation, evaluate and assess.
  • Of the predetermined time to the estimated collision time, for example from the current vehicle speed as well as from the ambient conditions and road conditions. For example this time is longer if the road surface one has a lower coefficient of friction, ie is more slippery, as if the street a higher one Has friction coefficient, that is less slippery, as in second case stronger can be slowed down.
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention is the second condition then fulfilled when the driver of the vehicle over a certain time interval since fulfillment of the first condition does not interfere with the ride.
  • In In other words, it is first moderately slowed down. Attacks the driver now over for example, the period of one second or half a second not in the driving action (so he does not dodge, brakes not, does not accelerate, etc.), then the second stage takes place of the autonomous intervention, namely the stronger one Braking.
  • Of the So driver has the option abort the autonomous braking process.
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention is the intervention module for calculating the specific time interval executed on the basis of measured data. Depending on the vehicle speed and / or environmental conditions can the time available to the driver for intervention varies.
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention is the intervention module for canceling the autonomous braking process executed when an operation the accelerator pedal takes place.
  • By activity of the gas pedal or by dodging, the driver can do the autonomous Stop intervention of the driver assistance system. This avoids that the system becomes independent. This can be particularly important if a misjudgment of the Traffic situation is present through the driver assistance system.
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention, the engagement module corresponds to the safety standard SIL3. SIL stands for Safety Integrity Level. For however, the detection and control module is a lower safety standard sufficient as SIL3.
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention, the detection and control module is equipped with an environment sensor system, with which it detects the critical driving situation.
  • in this connection For example, it is a camera, a radar sensor or a lidar sensor.
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention is the detection and control module with a digital Card, which makes it to identify the critical Situation.
  • According to one another embodiment of the The invention is a vehicle having a driver assistance system described above specified.
  • According to one another embodiment of the The invention is the use of a driver assistance system described above indicated in a vehicle.
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention is a method for avoiding a collision of a Vehicle specified in which a critical driving situation of the vehicle is detected, whereby this critical driving situation can lead to a collision, if no intervention takes place. Furthermore, an identification takes place the critical driving situation by the vehicle electronics.
  • thereupon an autonomous delay takes place Vehicle speed with a first negative acceleration, if a first condition is met is. If a second condition is fulfilled, then takes place an autonomous delay the vehicle speed with a second, larger negative Acceleration before the last time to avoid one Collision has passed.
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention is a program element specified, which, if it is on a Processor executed will guide the processor, the process steps described above perform.
  • According to one another embodiment of the Invention is given a computer readable medium on which a Program element is stored that when on a processor accomplished will instruct the processor, the process steps given above perform.
  • In this case, the program element z. B. part of a software that is stored on a processor of the driver assistance system. The processor can also be the subject of the invention. Furthermore, this embodiment of the invention comprises a program element, which already from the beginning, the invention, as well as a program element, which by updating an existing program for use of the invention causes.
  • in the Below, with reference to the figures, embodiments of the invention.
  • Brief description of the figures
  • 1 shows a vehicle according to an embodiment of the invention.
  • 2 shows a traffic situation in which a driver assistance system according to an embodiment of the invention can be used.
  • 3A and 3B show further traffic situations in which a driver assistance system according to an embodiment of the invention can be used.
  • 4 shows a driver assistance system.
  • 5 shows a driver assistance system according to an embodiment of the invention.
  • 6 shows a braking course according to an embodiment of the invention.
  • 7 shows a flowchart of a method according to an embodiment of the invention.
  • Detailed description of exemplary embodiments
  • The Representations in the figures are schematic and not to scale.
  • In The following figure description will be for the same or similar Elements use the same reference numbers.
  • 1 shows a vehicle 103 according to an embodiment of the invention, which is a driver assistance system 100 having. The driver assistance system 100 includes a detection and control module 101 as well as an engagement module connected thereto 102 , The detection and control module 101 has, for example, a communication unit with a corresponding antenna 115 on which it can communicate with neighboring vehicles, a center, or the environment of the road installed local broadcast facilities.
  • This allows the driver assistance system 100 receive valuable information that describes, for example, the current road conditions, changes in a digital map or dangerous situations.
  • It should be noted that the communication within the vehicle (for example, the communication between the detection and control module 101 and intervention module 102 ) can be both wired and wireless.
  • If hereinafter from "digital Cards "the There are also cards for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) without a navigation takes place.
  • at the vehicle is, for example, a motor vehicle, such as cars, buses or trucks, or even a rail vehicle or a motorcycle.
  • By the driver assistance system according to the invention can increase driving safety be reduced and the number of traffic accidents. This we you. a. achieved by the number of situations in the Traffic (use cases), in which a collision prevention system (driver assistance system) may intervene autonomously, increased becomes. Furthermore, the delay level while autonomous intervention, ie autonomous braking.
  • The functional properties of the driver assistance system do not lead to additional requirements for the detection and control module 101 (see, for example 5 ). Also, the requirements for the system architecture, which arise in terms of the security concept, not increased.
  • Much more The security concept is based on already used system components in the vehicle and the system architecture used. This acts these are non-redundant environment sensors and a control unit (ECU processor), which is also not redundant. However, that is the brake system design (ie the ESP) redundant, to meet the safety standard ASIL3.
  • 2 shows a first driving situation in which an autonomous intervention of a driver assistance system according to the invention can take place. A vehicle 103 approaching a vehicle 204 , The collision can be avoided by the driver of the rear vehicle 103 an evasive maneuver 202 performs, causing the vehicle from the position 201 in a laterally shifted position 203 next to the vehicle 204 is offset. For this purpose, for example, a lateral acceleration alert of 12 m / s 2 is required.
  • In this case, it is possible that the driver assistance system according to the invention already at the position 201 engages by a moderate braking occurs. As a result, the driver has more time to perform the evasive maneuver, since the speed of the vehicle is already reduced.
  • Becomes no evasive maneuver performed, increases the driver assistance system the brake pressure after the passage of a certain Time interval automatically, so that the collision is avoided.
  • The 3A and 3B show other situations in which such a driver assistance system can be used. 3A shows a Auffahrsituation in which the object 301 , which is for example a car, has a speed of 100 km / h. The speed is constant. The following vehicle 103 has a much higher speed of 200 km / h. Also this speed is constant.
  • Without Intervention would it comes to an accident.
  • 3B shows another situation where a vehicle ahead 302 that is on a different track 304 as your own vehicle 103 (Track 303 ), suddenly einschert. Here is the vehicle ahead 302 much slower (for example, 100 km / h) whereas the vehicle 103 a speed of 160 km / h drives.
  • The preceding vehicle 302 shears at a distance of 15 m to the following vehicle. Again, an accident can only be avoided if an intervention on the part of the driver or autonomously by the driver assistance system takes place.
  • 4 shows a driver assistance system, which has a CMS system (Collision Mitigation System). The system has a detection and control module 101 as well as an intervention module 102 on.
  • The detection and control module 101 meets the high safety standard SIL3. Likewise the intervention module 102 ,
  • The detection and control module 101 has a submodule 105 for describing the environment of the vehicle. This module analyzes data provided by corresponding environmental sensors 104 (For example, a camera) and a digital map and / or an ESP control unit 109 be supplied. Here, the current vehicle status, the current position of the vehicle and the current traffic situation can be analyzed. In particular, obstacles, such as other vehicles, may be detected.
  • The result of this environment and situation analysis then becomes a second sub-module 106 to hand over. The second submodule 106 has an interpretation and prediction module 107 which analyzes the data supplied and makes predictions for the future (for example, regarding an expected impact time). The results are then a kinematic control module (KCM) 108 to hand over.
  • The resulting data is then transmitted via the vehicle bus (Controller Area Network, CAN) 110 to the intervention module 102 to hand over.
  • The intervention module 102 has a submodule 111 which is a dynamic control module. The control data from this module 111 are then sent to an actuator control 112 which, for example, controls the ESP system and thus the brake system 114 can operate.
  • Since all modules (including environmental sensors) must meet a high safety standard, they are redundant. The system of 4 can be executed for autonomous full braking regardless of the driver's reaction, if a collision is unavoidable. In this case, the autonomous braking function is not restricted unless, for example, the threshold for an accelerator pedal position is exceeded.
  • The Requirements for Such a system is high because the failure rates are very low have to and the object (other vehicle) must be detected safely (ie low systematic errors in the environment detection thus redundant environment sensor probable necessary z. Radar + camera). All relevant components are at SIL3 level.
  • 5 shows a driver assistance system according to an embodiment of the invention, in which the detection and control module 101 can also be implemented as a non-redundant hardware platform, so that the probability of malfunction of the system compared to a SIL3 platform is increased. Of course, the module can 101 also be more elaborate, so that it meets the SIL3 standard.
  • According to the invention is a Emergency emergency braking enables before the collision is unavoidable when after initiating a collision Braking the driver over has not intervened for a certain period of time.
  • To check the required boundary conditions is a filter module 113 within the intervention module 102 provided, which with the Aktu taxation data from the module 112 is supplied. The brake system 114 is only controlled autonomously if the first or the second condition is met.
  • is the first condition is fulfilled (So the system comes to the conclusion that a dangerous situation is present, which requires a brake), is a weak-autonomous Intervention started (for example, a braking between 0.3 to 0.4 g). This weak autonomous intervention is only allowed when the position of the accelerator pedal and the gradient below certain Thresholds are located. In other words, the driver can apply the brake abort. This can be achieved that the function is only canceled when the driver quickly increases the accelerator pedal position A strong intervention is only allowed if the driver brakes at the same time or if the driver is not within for example one second after insertion the autonomous braking and / or warning has reacted.
  • 6 shows a braking course during an intervention of a driver assistance system according to an embodiment of the invention. The vertical axis 612 denotes the braking force and the transverse axis 604 denotes the time.
  • At the time 601 (0.8 seconds before the braking intervention TTB) is the vehicle 103 behind the second vehicle 301 , where there is a speed difference of over 50 km / h. The time to a possible collision is about 1.4 seconds.
  • Before the time 601 is the braking force 605 Zero. At the time 601 Then the braking force is increased to, for example, 0.4 g (see reference numeral 606 ). Point of time 602 is the time when full braking would be required without any delay. Between the two times 601 and 602 About 800 milliseconds have passed.
  • Later 607 (It has been about one second since the braking operation passed), the second braking phase is initiated by the braking force is increased linearly (see reference numeral 608 ).
  • So far, the driver has not intervened. The braking force will be at the maximum value for about one second 609 elevated. From this point on, the braking force 610 kept constant. The area 611 below the curve is a measure of the additional reduction in the speed of the vehicle.
  • at Driver assistance systems with only one environment sensor are only weak autonomous interventions (maximum 0.3 to 0.4 g). Strength Interventions are only allowed if the driver is at the same time slows down or if the driver does not stop within a second Use of autonomous braking and / or warning has responded. Strength Interventions are characterized by a gradual increase in brake pressure achieved, d. H. there is no critical abrupt increase in (negative) vehicle acceleration. The brake interventions can always by an operation of the accelerator pedal are broken off by the driver. In case of a Failure of the system will basically affect the driver's activation of the system, by the warning and / or by autonomous braking, made aware and it is made possible within a second (or any other period determined by the system) by pressing the To react to accelerators and cancel the (faulty) autonomous intervention.
  • The driver assistance system is able to control the kinetic energy up to the impact at the in 3A to reduce the illustrated case to 4% of the output energy (so-called "Auffahrsituation"). In the case of a "follow-up situation" in which the distance to the object is 10 m, the speed of the preceding object 100 km / h, the negative acceleration of the object -8 m / s 2 and the speed of your own vehicle 100 km / h, the kinetic energy can be reduced to 15% until impact.
  • Driver assistance systems, which only perform emergency emergency braking if the collision is unavoidable is (so max brake or steering intervention), reduce the kinetic Energy in the two cases only 36% and 42%, respectively.
  • Driver assistance systems, which allow only a weak autonomous braking up to 0.4 g reduce the kinetic energies in the two cases only to 40% and 48% respectively.
  • 7 shows a flowchart of a method in which in step 701 An analysis of the environment of the vehicle takes place. In step 702 the first stage of an autonomous braking process takes place with a moderate negative delay. In step 703 The electronics clarifies whether the condition for heavy braking is fulfilled. The strong braking is then in step 704 introduced by the brake pressure is increased steadily.
  • On this way the safety for the driver can be increased, because the number of use cases for one Fully autonomous braking intervention is extended without sacrificing the requirements to significantly increase the system.
  • For an inattentive driver (who, for example, is still on the gas pedal) is allowed autonomous braking intervention and can already before the spä test avoidance time. In this way, the time still available for effective speed reduction and avoidance maneuvers can be increased, so that the pressure increase gradient for the braking intervention can remain moderate.
  • In addition to that noted that "comprising" and "having" none excludes other elements or steps and excludes "one" or "one" no multiplicity. Further It should be noted that features or steps with reference to one of the above embodiments have been described, also in combination with other features or steps of other embodiments described above can. Reference signs in the claims are not limitations to watch.

Claims (15)

  1. Driver assistance system for avoiding a collision of a vehicle, the driver assistance system ( 100 ) comprising: a detection and control module ( 101 ) for detecting and identifying a critical driving situation of the vehicle ( 103 ), which can lead to a collision; an intervention module ( 102 ) for autonomously decelerating a speed of the vehicle ( 103 ) with a first negative acceleration when a first condition is met and for the subsequent autonomous deceleration of the speed of the vehicle ( 103 ) with a second, larger negative acceleration when a second condition is met and before the last time to avoid a collision has elapsed.
  2. Driver assistance system according to claim 1, wherein the intervention module ( 102 ) for increasing the second negative acceleration during deceleration.
  3. Driver assistance system according to claim 2, wherein the Increasing the second negative acceleration occurs linearly.
  4. Driver assistance system according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the first condition is satisfied when a predetermined time to one from the detection and control module ( 101 ) estimated collision time is reached.
  5. Driver assistance system according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the second condition is satisfied when the driver of the vehicle ( 103 ) does not intervene in the driving event over a specific time interval since the fulfillment of the first condition.
  6. Driver assistance system according to claim 5, wherein the intervention module ( 102 ) is performed to calculate the determined time interval based on measurement data.
  7. Driver assistance system according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the intervention module ( 102 ) is executed to cancel the delay when an operation of the accelerator pedal takes place.
  8. Driver assistance system according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the intervention module ( 102 ) meets the safety standard SIL3; and wherein the detection and control module ( 101 ) only corresponds to a lower safety standard than SIL3.
  9. Driver assistance system according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the detection and control module ( 101 ) is equipped with environmental sensors, with which it detects the critical driving situation.
  10. Driver assistance system according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the detection and control module ( 101 ) is equipped with a digital map, which it uses to identify the critical situation.
  11. Vehicle with a driver assistance system after a the claims 1 to 10.
  12. Use of a driver assistance system after a the claims 1 to 10 in a vehicle.
  13. A method of avoiding a collision of a vehicle, the method comprising the steps of: detecting a critical driving situation of the vehicle ( 103 ), which can lead to a collision; Identification of the critical driving situation; autonomous deceleration of a speed of the vehicle ( 103 ) with a first negative acceleration when a first condition is met; autonomous deceleration of the speed of the vehicle ( 103 ) with a second, larger negative acceleration when a second condition is met and before the last time to avoid a collision has elapsed.
  14. Program element that, when executed on a processor, instructs the processor to perform the following steps: detection of a critical driving situation of the vehicle ( 103 ), which can lead to a collision; Identification of the critical driving situation; autonomous deceleration of a speed of the vehicle ( 103 ) with a first negative acceleration when a first condition is met; autonomous deceleration of the speed of the vehicle ( 103 ) with a second, larger negative acceleration when a second condition is met and before the last time to avoid a collision has elapsed.
  15. A computer-readable medium having stored thereon a program element which, when executed on a processor, instructs the processor to perform the following steps: detection of a critical driving situation of the vehicle ( 103 ), which can lead to a collision; Identification of the critical driving situation; autonomous deceleration of a speed of the vehicle ( 103 ) with a first negative acceleration when a first condition is met; autonomous deceleration of the speed of the vehicle ( 103 ) with a second, larger negative acceleration when a second condition is met and before the last time to avoid a collision has elapsed.
DE102008056204A 2008-11-06 2008-11-06 Driver assistance system for avoiding collision of vehicle, has operation module for autonomous delay of speed of vehicle through initial negative acceleration after meeting critical driving situation Pending DE102008056204A1 (en)

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