CN217705547U - Unmanned vehicle battery management system - Google Patents

Unmanned vehicle battery management system Download PDF

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CN217705547U
CN217705547U CN202221405338.1U CN202221405338U CN217705547U CN 217705547 U CN217705547 U CN 217705547U CN 202221405338 U CN202221405338 U CN 202221405338U CN 217705547 U CN217705547 U CN 217705547U
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battery
relay
control unit
unmanned vehicle
bmu
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王猛
苏张勇
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Neolix Technologies Co Ltd
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Neolix Technologies Co Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries

Abstract

The present disclosure provides an unmanned aerial vehicle battery management system. The system is applied to an autonomous vehicle or an unmanned vehicle, and comprises: the unmanned vehicle power supply system comprises two battery systems, a battery control unit and a controller, wherein the two battery systems supply power to the unmanned vehicle in turn, each battery system comprises one or more modularized battery packs, and the weight of each battery pack is smaller than a weight threshold value; when the battery control unit detects that the battery system powered currently needs to replace the battery, the pre-charging relay, the main negative relay and the BMU relay of the battery system powered currently are respectively disconnected through a circuit, and the unmanned vehicle is powered off; and after the unmanned vehicle is powered off, the controller transmits a power-on signal to the battery control unit through the CAN bus, closes the BMU relay of another battery system, controls the pre-charging relay to be closed, closes the main negative relay after meeting preset conditions, disconnects the pre-charging relay, and powers on the unmanned vehicle again. This openly can realize the manual work and change the battery, reduce unmanned car trade the electric cost and trade the electric consuming time, promote and trade electric efficiency.

Description

Unmanned vehicle battery management system
Technical Field
The disclosure relates to the technical field of battery management, in particular to a battery management system of an unmanned vehicle.
Background
An unmanned vehicle, also called an automatic driving vehicle, an unmanned vehicle or a wheeled mobile robot, is an integrated and intelligent new-age technical product integrating multiple elements such as environment perception, path planning, state recognition, vehicle control and the like, wherein the power of the unmanned vehicle is usually provided by a driving motor, and the energy is derived from a lithium battery. Receive the restriction of filling electric pile at present, the on-vehicle charging of unmanned car is very inconvenient, and on-vehicle charging time is longer simultaneously, influences the operation time.
At present, in order to prolong the working time of an unmanned vehicle, the size and the weight of a battery system of the unmanned vehicle are designed to be larger, however, when the battery system is low in electric quantity and needs to be replaced, the battery system needs to be replaced in a fixed place by mechanical equipment due to the fact that the size and the weight of the battery system are larger, so that the battery replacement cost is increased, the time consumed by battery replacement is longer, and the vehicle operation time is influenced; in addition, in the prior art, although a battery system with a large size and a large weight is split into a plurality of small battery packs, so that the weight of a single group of batteries is reduced, thereby achieving the purpose of manually replacing the batteries, the battery packs with the small size and the light weight usually have insufficient electric quantity, and in order to increase the electric quantity, the number of the battery packs needs to be increased, so that difficulties are caused to power-up management and switching management of the battery system along with the increase of the number of the battery packs, so that the time consumed by battery replacement is increased when the battery management system performs battery switching management facing multiple battery packs, the battery replacement efficiency is low, and the operation time of a vehicle is also affected.
SUMMERY OF THE UTILITY MODEL
In view of this, the embodiment of the present disclosure provides an unmanned vehicle battery management system to solve the problems in the prior art that the cost of battery switching management is high, the power change consumes long time, the power change efficiency is low, and the safety of automatic driving and the vehicle operation time are affected.
The embodiment of the present disclosure provides an unmanned vehicle battery management system, including: the unmanned vehicle comprises two battery systems, a battery control unit and a controller, wherein each battery system in the two battery systems supplies power to the unmanned vehicle in turn, each battery system comprises one or more modularized battery packs, and the weight of each battery pack is smaller than a weight threshold value; the battery control unit is used for detecting that the pre-charging relay, the main negative relay and the BMU relay of the battery system which is currently powered are respectively disconnected through a circuit when the battery system which is currently powered needs to be replaced, and at the moment, no person is powered off; the controller is used for transmitting an electrifying signal to the battery control unit through the CAN bus after the unmanned vehicle is powered off, the battery control unit closes a BMU relay of another battery system, then the battery control unit controls the pre-charging relay to be closed through a circuit, and after a preset condition is met, the main and negative relays are closed, the pre-charging relay is disconnected, and at the moment, the unmanned vehicle is powered on.
The embodiment of the present disclosure adopts at least one technical scheme that can achieve the following beneficial effects:
supplying power to the unmanned vehicle in turn through each of the two battery systems, wherein each battery system comprises one or more modularized battery packs, and the weight of each battery pack is smaller than a weight threshold value; the battery control unit is used for detecting that the pre-charging relay, the main negative relay and the BMU relay of the battery system which is currently powered are respectively disconnected through a circuit when the battery system which is currently powered needs to be replaced, and at the moment, no person is powered off; the controller is used for transmitting an electrifying signal to the battery control unit through the CAN bus after the unmanned vehicle is electrified, the BMU relay of another battery system is closed by the battery control unit, then the battery control unit controls the pre-charging relay to be closed through the circuit, and after a preset condition is met, the main negative relay is closed, the pre-charging relay is disconnected, and the unmanned vehicle is electrified at the moment. This is disclosed not only carries out the modularized design with the group battery that electric quantity is many, bulky, makes the weight reduction of single group battery, is convenient for the manual work to realize the battery quick change, reduces and trades electric facility cost, simultaneously, to a plurality of group batteries, can realize scientific trade electric management, has not only reduced and has traded electric cost and trade the electric consuming time, has greatly promoted and has traded electric efficiency, still reduces to trade the influence of electric process to vehicle operation time.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present disclosure, the drawings used in the embodiments or the prior art descriptions will be briefly described below, it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present disclosure, and other drawings can be obtained by those skilled in the art without inventive efforts.
Fig. 1 is a schematic view of the overall structure of a prior art unmanned vehicle battery system;
fig. 2 is a schematic product overall structure diagram of an unmanned vehicle battery management system provided by an embodiment of the disclosure;
fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of an internal component structure of the battery management system for the unmanned aerial vehicle according to the embodiment of the present disclosure.
Detailed Description
In the following description, for purposes of explanation and not limitation, specific details are set forth such as particular system structures, techniques, etc. in order to provide a thorough understanding of the disclosed embodiments. However, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that the present disclosure may be practiced in other embodiments that depart from these specific details. In other instances, detailed descriptions of well-known systems, devices, circuits, and methods are omitted so as not to obscure the description of the present disclosure with unnecessary detail.
As described in the background of the invention, as the technology of the unmanned vehicle matures with the development of the automatic driving technology and the new energy automobile technology, the application scenarios and the application range of the unmanned vehicle are gradually expanded, for example, the unmanned vehicle is divided into application scenarios including but not limited to an unmanned delivery vehicle, an unmanned retail vehicle, an unmanned sweeping vehicle, an unmanned patrol vehicle, and the like, and the unmanned vehicle may also be referred to as an automatic driving vehicle.
The automatic driving usually uses a new energy automobile as a carrier, so the power of the unmanned vehicle is usually provided by a driving motor, and the energy is derived from a lithium battery in a battery system. Receive the restriction of filling electric pile at present, unmanned car can adopt on-vehicle mode of charging, and on-vehicle charging means to charge the lithium cell of dress on the car through filling electric pile or on-vehicle machine that charges, and it needs external electric pile of filling to provide the power and unmanned car parks in fixed place and charges, and consequently the on-vehicle charging of unmanned car is also very inconvenient, and on-vehicle charge time is longer simultaneously, influences the operation time.
In the prior art, the energy supply problem of the unmanned vehicle can be solved by switching battery systems, a switching process between the battery systems is also called a battery replacement process, the battery replacement refers to a process of switching from one battery pack (or battery system) to another battery pack (or battery system), before battery replacement, a battery needs to be charged independently, and the battery pack with the fully charged battery pack replaces the battery pack with the depleted electric quantity on the unmanned vehicle. Although the problem of energy supply of unmanned vehicles can be solved by battery replacement, the following problems still exist in the existing battery replacement mode:
in a first battery replacement mode, a complete battery system with insufficient electric quantity in an unmanned vehicle is replaced by a battery system with sufficient electric quantity, but the complete battery system of the vehicle has larger volume and weight, so that battery replacement needs to be carried out in a fixed place by means of mechanical equipment, and the battery replacement mode is suitable for occasions where lithium batteries are heavier and manual work cannot replace the batteries; for example, assuming that an unmanned vehicle needs an electric quantity of 10kWh or more after one-day operation, according to the current battery technology, the weight of a required battery system is at least 50kg or more, but the battery replacement for a 50kg battery system needs to be replaced by mechanical equipment, and the battery replacement needs to be performed in a fixed place, so that the construction investment of a battery replacement place is large, and the time consumption for replacing the battery in the fixed place is long, which affects the operation time of the unmanned vehicle.
In the second battery replacement mode, the complete battery system is split into a plurality of small battery packs, so that the weight of a single battery pack is reduced, and the purpose of manual battery replacement is achieved. Although the manual battery replacement mode is not limited by places and equipment, the manual battery replacement mode is suitable for vehicle models with small lithium battery size, light weight and easy operation; however, since the electric quantity of the battery with small volume and light weight is low, the number of the battery packs needs to be increased in order to increase the upper limit of the electric quantity, and along with the increase of the number of the battery packs, difficulties are caused to the power-on management and the switching management of the battery system, so that when the battery management system performs battery switching management for multiple battery packs, the time consumed for battery replacement is increased, the battery replacement efficiency is low, and the operation time of the vehicle is also influenced.
In order to further explain the problems of the conventional battery management system, the following describes the structure of the battery system in the prior art and the battery replacement method based on the structure in detail with reference to the drawings. Fig. 1 is a schematic view of an overall structure of a battery system of an unmanned vehicle in the prior art, and as shown in fig. 1, when battery replacement management is performed based on the battery system in the prior art, the battery replacement management specifically includes the following contents:
in the prior art, if the cell capacity of the battery used in the battery system is 3.2Ah and the voltage platform is 3.6V, it is necessary to design a battery system with a voltage platform of 72V and an electric quantity of 12.9kWh, and the battery system is generally designed as a battery system with 20 strings and 56 parallel in a whole pack. However, the weight of the battery system is up to 65kg when the battery system is calculated according to the maximum energy density of 200Wh/kg, and when the whole battery system is replaced, the unmanned vehicle needs to be driven to a fixed place by mechanical equipment to replace the battery, so that the time consumption for replacing the battery is prolonged, the cost of a battery replacement facility needs to be increased, and great inconvenience is brought to the actual operation of the unmanned vehicle.
Although, in the prior art, a battery system with a large weight can be split into a plurality of battery packs, the weight of a single battery pack is reduced, and manual battery replacement is convenient. For example, the battery system with the weight of 65kg is split into four small battery packs, the battery packs are designed in parallel to form a new battery system, and when the electric quantity of one battery pack cannot meet the power supply requirement, the low-electric-quantity battery pack is replaced by the high-electric-quantity battery pack in a manual power replacement mode.
However, since the single battery pack has a smaller size and lighter weight, the electric quantity of the single battery pack is reduced, and in order to increase the electric quantity upper limit of the battery system, the number of the battery packs needs to be increased, however, as the number of the battery packs increases, difficulties are caused in power-up management and switching management of the battery system, so that when the battery management system performs battery switching management on multiple battery packs, not only the time consumed by battery replacement is increased, but also the battery replacement efficiency is reduced, and the operation time of the vehicle is also affected.
In view of the problems in the prior art, the embodiment of the present disclosure provides an improved battery management system for an unmanned vehicle, in which an existing battery system is modularly designed, the battery system with large electric quantity, large volume and heavy weight is modularly designed, one battery system with large electric quantity is split into a plurality of small battery packs, and the weight of each battery pack is reduced to the weight that battery replacement can be achieved by pure manpower, so as to achieve the purpose of manually replacing the battery packs; when the number of the battery packs is increased, in order to realize battery replacement management, when the battery control unit detects that a battery system which is currently powered needs to replace the battery, firstly, the unmanned vehicle is controlled to stop at a safe position, and a pre-charging relay, a main negative relay and a BMU relay of the battery system which is currently powered are respectively disconnected through a circuit, so that the unmanned vehicle is powered off; and then, the controller transmits the power-on signal to the battery control unit, the battery control unit closes the BMU relay of another battery system, the battery control unit controls the closing of the pre-charging relay through a circuit, and after a preset condition is met, the main negative relay is closed, the pre-charging relay is disconnected, and the switching of the battery systems is completed.
The following describes an overall product structure of an unmanned vehicle battery management system according to an embodiment of the present disclosure in practical application with reference to the accompanying drawings. Fig. 2 is a schematic view of an overall product structure of the battery management system for the unmanned aerial vehicle provided in the embodiment of the present disclosure, and as shown in fig. 2, the overall product structure of the battery management system for the unmanned aerial vehicle may specifically include the following contents:
according to the characteristics of the lithium batteries and the technical characteristics of the battery management system, the battery system of the unmanned vehicle is subjected to modularization packet dividing design again, the battery system with large electric quantity and large weight is divided into a plurality of battery packs, the weight of a single battery pack is lightened, every two or more battery packs are connected in series to form one battery system, the whole battery system is divided into a plurality of battery systems with small scale, and the battery packs in each battery system can achieve the weight that manual replacement can be realized.
In a specific scenario, as shown in fig. 2, a previously complete large battery system is split into 4 small battery packs, wherein each 2 battery packs are connected in series to form a battery system, for example, each unmanned vehicle may be equipped with 4 battery packs, and two battery systems connected in parallel, that is, a battery system a and a battery system b, are formed together. Taking a complete large battery system with a voltage platform of 72V and an electric quantity of 12.9kWh as an example, the specifically adopted splitting method may be to split a large battery pack of 12.9kWh into 4 small battery packs, for example, into a battery pack a, a battery pack B, a battery pack C and a battery pack D; the electric quantity of each battery pack is 3.2kWh, and a 10-string 28-parallel battery combination mode can be adopted, so that the voltage platform corresponding to each battery pack is 36V, and the weight is 17.5kg. The battery pack A and the battery pack B are connected in series to form a battery system A, the battery pack C and the battery pack D are connected in series to form a battery system B, voltage platforms corresponding to the battery system A and the battery system B are both 72V, and electric quantity is both 6.45kWh.
The product overall structure of the Battery management system for the unmanned Vehicle provided by the embodiment of the disclosure is composed of a VCU (Vehicle Control Unit), a BCU (Battery Control Unit) and two Battery systems, wherein the VCU is an electric Control system of the unmanned Vehicle, and may also be called a Control Unit, a Vehicle controller or an electronic Control Unit, and is a core electronic Control Unit for implementing a Vehicle Control decision in the unmanned Vehicle, and can be used for collecting Vehicle information, controlling Vehicle operation, diagnosing Vehicle faults, and the like. The VCU of the embodiment of the present disclosure integrates the BMS Battery system, and the Battery control Unit BCU can control the opening and closing of the main and negative relays and the pre-charge relay according to the feedback information of the BMU (Battery Management Unit) to realize the switching of the Battery system.
Furthermore, each battery pack comprises a battery management unit BMU, and the BMU is responsible for detecting the voltage and the temperature of a single battery, controlling the on-off of a BMU relay, detecting the SOC of each battery pack and feeding back the information of the battery pack to the BCU through a CAN bus. The BCU is responsible for the intelligent management of the whole battery system, and the BCU can control the waking up and sleeping of the BMU through an activation signal, wherein the activation signal refers to a power supply signal transmitted by a circuit between the BCU and the BMU, for example, the BMU is controlled to wake up or sleep through a 12V power supply signal. The CAN1 and the CAN2 in fig. 2 are respectively used for transmitting information collected by BMUs of battery packs in the battery system a and the battery system b, and then the BCU performs unified management on information of four groups of batteries.
It should be noted that, in the overall product structure of the battery management system for the unmanned aerial vehicle provided in the embodiment of the present disclosure, two parallel battery systems composed of four battery packs are taken as an example for description, and therefore, the following specific embodiment takes battery replacement management between two battery systems as an example for description. However, it should be understood that the unmanned vehicle battery management system according to the embodiment of the present disclosure is not limited to the management of two sets of battery systems, and the number of the battery systems and the number of the battery packs do not constitute a limitation to the technical solution of the present disclosure. The technical scheme of the disclosure is explained in detail by combining specific embodiments.
Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of an internal component structure of the battery management system for the unmanned aerial vehicle according to the embodiment of the present disclosure. As shown in fig. 3, the internal structure of the battery management system of the unmanned aerial vehicle may specifically include:
two battery systems, namely a first battery system 301 and a second battery system 302, and a battery control unit 303 and a controller 304, wherein each of the two battery systems supplies power to the unmanned vehicle in turn, each battery system comprises one or more modular battery packs, and the weight of each battery pack is less than a weight threshold value; the battery control unit 303 is configured to detect that the pre-charge relay 305, the main negative relay 306, and the BMU relay of the currently-powered battery system are respectively turned off through a circuit when the currently-powered battery system needs to be replaced, and at this time, no vehicle is powered off; the controller 304 is configured to transmit a power-on signal to the battery control unit 303 through the CAN bus after the unmanned vehicle is powered off, the battery control unit 303 closes a BMU relay of another battery system, then the battery control unit 303 controls the pre-charge relay 305 to be closed through a circuit, and after a preset condition is met, the main negative relay 306 is closed and the pre-charge relay 305 is opened, so that the unmanned vehicle is powered on.
Specifically, a currently-powered battery system may also be referred to as a first battery system, another battery system may also be referred to as a second battery system, and the substitution in terms does not constitute a limitation on the technical solution of the present disclosure. The first battery system 301 comprises at least one battery pack, a first relay 307 connected with the battery pack, and a first battery management unit 308 for controlling the first relay 307 to open and close; the second battery system 302 also includes at least one battery pack, a second relay 309 connected to the battery pack, and a second battery management unit 310 for controlling the second relay 309 to open and close. A pre-charging resistor 311 is connected in series with the pre-charging relay 305.
Further, the power-off state of the embodiment of the present disclosure may be regarded as a low-voltage state, and the power-on state may be regarded as an upper-voltage state, and the unmanned vehicle enters the low-voltage state by turning off the currently-powered battery system (i.e., the first battery system) and turning off all the relays; and then, the battery control unit BCU transmits an activation signal to the BMUs of each battery system to activate the BMUs, the controller transmits a power-on signal to the battery control unit through the CAN bus, the battery control unit starts another battery system (namely, a second battery system) and controls the pre-charging relay to be closed, after a preset condition is met, the main negative relay is closed again and the pre-charging relay is disconnected, the unmanned vehicle is changed from a low-voltage state to a high-voltage state, the unmanned vehicle power supply battery system is switched from the first battery system to the second battery system, and the battery replacement management of the battery systems is completed.
Further, in the battery replacement management process, the unmanned vehicle needs to be stopped at a proper position, all relays (including the pre-charging relay, the main negative relay and the first BMU relay) are switched off, and the unmanned vehicle is powered off; and after the unmanned vehicle is powered off, closing the second BMU relay so as to start a second battery system, then controlling the pre-charging relay to be closed, and after a preset condition is met, closing the main negative relay, disconnecting the pre-charging relay and powering on the unmanned vehicle. Because this disclosed embodiment when trading the electric management to battery system, earlier with the battery system of current power supply power down, accomplish the switching of battery system under the state of cutting off the electricity, consequently, this disclosed embodiment can not appear the situation that the relay of two battery systems is closed simultaneously, can not take place high-voltage battery system and charge to low-voltage battery system yet, lead to battery and relay to cause the problem of harm.
In some embodiments, the battery systems are connected in parallel, each battery system is provided with two battery packs connected in series, each battery pack is provided with a BMU relay and a BMU, the BMU is a battery management unit, and the weight threshold is 20kg.
Specifically, each battery system may include two sets of battery packs connected in series, for example, a battery pack a and a battery pack B are provided in the battery system a in fig. 2, the battery packs in the same battery system are connected in series, different battery systems are connected in parallel, and each battery pack includes a battery management unit relay (BMU relay) and a battery management unit.
Further, in order to enable the disassembled modularized battery pack to be convenient for manual battery replacement, the weight of each battery pack needs to be set in a reasonable interval, for example, the weight interval of the battery pack in the embodiment of the disclosure is 15-20 kg, and the weight of each battery pack is not greater than 20kg, so that the purpose of manual battery replacement can be achieved, the phenomenon that the quantity of the battery packs is too large due to too small electric quantity of a single battery pack and equipment redundancy of a battery system are avoided, and the quantity which needs to be replaced when the batteries are manually replaced can also be reduced.
In some embodiments, the battery control unit is configured to send a stop signal to an automatic driving module of the unmanned vehicle through a CAN bus when detecting that a battery system currently supplying power needs to be replaced through the CAN bus connected to the battery system during operation of the unmanned vehicle, and control the unmanned vehicle to stop at a safe position by using the automatic driving module.
Specifically, a Battery Management Unit (BMU) in the battery system transmits detected residual electric quantity information corresponding to each battery pack to a Battery Control Unit (BCU) through a Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, the BCU determines the residual electric quantity of the currently-powered battery system according to the residual electric quantity information of each battery pack, and when the residual electric quantity of the currently-powered battery system is lower than an electric quantity threshold value, the battery management unit (BCU) replaces the currently-powered battery system.
Further, the remaining capacity refers to the SOC of the battery system, and the SOC refers to the state of charge, which is used to reflect the remaining capacity of the battery, and is numerically defined as the ratio of the remaining capacity to the battery capacity, and is usually expressed in percentage; the SOC of the battery can be estimated through parameters such as terminal voltage, charging and discharging current, internal resistance and the like of the battery. In practical application, the electric quantity threshold value can be set to be 20%, and when the SOC of the battery system which is currently powered is less than 20%, the battery system is replaced.
Further, before the battery replacement is carried out, the unmanned vehicle needs to be parked at a safe position or a proper position, the battery control unit BCU transmits a parking signal to the automatic driving module through a CAN bus connected with the automatic driving module, and the automatic driving module controls the unmanned vehicle to be parked at the safe position after receiving the parking signal.
In some embodiments, the pre-charging relay and the main negative relay are connected with the battery control unit through a circuit, the BMU relay of the currently powered battery system is connected with the battery control unit through a CAN bus, the main negative relay is connected with the pre-charging relay in parallel, the pre-charging relay is connected with a pre-charging resistor in series, and the controller and the battery control unit are in signal transmission through the CAN bus.
Specifically, after the unmanned vehicle is controlled to stop at a proper position by the automatic driving module, firstly, the battery control unit BCU controls all relays to be disconnected through a circuit, the whole vehicle is high-voltage, then, the battery system is manually replaced, the battery box of the unmanned vehicle is manually opened firstly, the power line of the first battery system after being closed is pulled out, then the power line of the second battery system is inserted into the anode of the second battery system, one end of the power line is connected with the anode of the battery system, and the other end of the power line is connected with a power supply circuit of the whole vehicle.
In some embodiments, the disclosed system further comprises a high-voltage loop, wherein one end of the high-voltage loop is respectively connected with the positive electrode of the battery pack in each battery system, the other end of the high-voltage loop is connected with a power supply circuit of the unmanned vehicle, and the high-voltage loop is used for transmitting electric energy to a driving motor controller of the unmanned vehicle and other electric appliances; the main negative relay, the pre-charging relay and the pre-charging resistor are all arranged on the power supply circuit, and the main negative relay is used for controlling the voltage of the power supply circuit.
Specifically, the battery systems supply power to the driving motor controller of the unmanned vehicle and other electric appliances in turn through a high-voltage loop, namely, the two battery systems can work alternately, the power supply circuit of the unmanned vehicle is connected with the driving motor controller and each electric appliance installed on the unmanned vehicle, the driving motor controller is used for controlling the driving motor to work and driving the unmanned vehicle to run, and the electric appliances on the unmanned vehicle comprise but are not limited to a camera, a laser radar, a liquid crystal display and the like. In practical applications, the main and negative relays are also called total negative relays, and the main and negative relays are used for controlling the voltage of the power supply circuit, and the power supply circuit has the voltage only after the main and negative relays are closed.
In some embodiments, the battery control unit is configured to transmit a disconnection signal to the BMU of the currently-powered battery system through the CAN bus connected to the currently-powered battery system, and the BMU of the currently-powered battery system controls the BMU relay of the currently-powered battery system to be disconnected after receiving the disconnection signal.
Specifically, the battery control unit BCU transmits an open signal or a close signal to each battery management unit BMU in the battery system through a CAN bus connected with the battery system, and the battery management unit BMU controls the opening and closing of a BMU relay according to the open signal or the close signal, so that the opening and closing management of the battery system is realized. The open signal and the close signal are CAN signals transmitted through a CAN bus.
In some embodiments, the battery control unit is further configured to transmit an activation signal to a BMU of the battery system via an activation circuit connected to the BMU before the controller transmits the power-on signal to the battery control unit via the CAN bus, and wake up the BMU using the activation signal, wherein the activation circuit is a 12V electrical signal.
Specifically, before the battery control unit BCU is used for controlling the unmanned vehicle to be powered on, the battery control unit BCU transmits an activation signal to the battery management units BMUs in the respective battery systems through activation circuits respectively connected with the battery management units BMUs in the first battery system and the second battery system, so that the battery management units BMUs are activated, and the BMUs in all the battery systems are enabled to enter a working state.
In some embodiments, the battery control unit is configured to send a close signal to a BMU of another battery system through the CAN bus, and after receiving the close signal, the BMU of the another battery system controls a BMU relay of the another battery system to close.
Specifically, after the unmanned vehicle is powered off and the battery management units BMUs in all the battery systems are reactivated, the battery control unit BCU transmits a closing signal to the battery management unit BMU in another battery system through the CAN bus connected to the other battery system, and the battery management unit BMU controls the BMU relay to be closed according to the closing signal, thereby starting another battery system.
Further, another battery system in the embodiment of the present disclosure is a target battery system that needs to be a switching target in addition to a currently-supplied battery system, and if a first battery system is used as the currently-supplied battery system, then the another battery system is a second battery system.
In some embodiments, the battery control unit is further configured to control the closing of the pre-charge relay through the circuit, and close the main negative relay after a preset condition is met, including: after the battery control unit closes the pre-charging relay, the pre-charging relay pre-charges a capacitor of a driving motor controller of the unmanned vehicle, and when the voltage of the capacitor is the same as that of another battery system, the main negative relay is closed.
Specifically, the preset condition in the embodiment of the present disclosure means that after the pre-charge relay is closed, the pre-charge relay pre-charges the pre-charge capacitor, and the main negative relay can be closed only after the voltage of the pre-charge capacitor reaches a certain value, for example, when the voltage of the pre-charge capacitor is close to the voltage value of the second battery system, the main negative relay is closed again.
Further, the pre-charging relay and the pre-charging resistor jointly form a pre-charging circuit, and the pre-charging circuit pre-charges the pre-charging capacitor when the unmanned vehicle is in high voltage: the battery system is connected with the driving motor controller, the driving motor controller is internally provided with a capacitor with larger capacity, if the capacitor is in a zero state before being electrified, namely no energy exists in the capacitor, the current is very large at the moment of closing the circuit, and if the current is not limited, the battery and the relay are greatly impacted. Therefore, the pre-charging process is one of necessary links when the unmanned vehicle is in high voltage, and the pre-charging capacitor of the driving motor controller is charged, so that spark arcing when the high-voltage relay is closed is reduced, high-voltage impact is prevented from damaging high-voltage parts, and the safety of a high-voltage system is improved.
In some embodiments, the battery control unit is a BCU unit, the controller includes a vehicle control unit VCU, the BMU relay is a battery management unit relay, and the battery in the battery pack is a lithium battery.
Specifically, the battery control unit of the embodiment of the present disclosure employs a BCU unit, the BCU unit is used for charging and discharging control of the storage battery pack and controlling and managing the ambient temperature of the storage battery pack, and implements functions of receiving data and feeding back an open circuit state through an internal CAN bus and a vehicle control unit VCU, and the vehicle control unit VCU and a BMS battery system are integrated in the controller; the battery management unit adopts a BMU unit, and various parameters and state information corresponding to each battery in the battery pack can be acquired through the BMU.
The above embodiments describe the internal structure and connection relationship of the unmanned vehicle battery management system of the present disclosure, and the following describes in detail the power exchange management process of the unmanned vehicle with reference to the structure of the unmanned vehicle battery management system in the above embodiments. The power swapping management process of the unmanned vehicle specifically includes the following contents:
a large battery pack is divided into 4 small battery packs, so that the weight of each battery pack is lightened, manual battery replacement is facilitated, and every two battery packs are connected in series to form one battery system, so that two battery systems, namely a first battery system and a second battery system, can be formed, the electric quantity of each battery system is 6.45kWh, and the voltage platform is 72V. The BCU master control carries out intelligent power-on management and switching management on the two sets of battery systems, so that the two sets of battery systems can be alternately used. Firstly powering off the unmanned vehicle, disconnecting all relays by the BCU, carrying out power-on process management on the unmanned vehicle after the unmanned vehicle is powered off, activating all BMUs by the BCU through an activation signal, sending a power-on signal to the BCU by the VCU, sending an instruction for closing the BMU relays of the second battery system to the second BMU by the BCU through the CAN2, and immediately closing the BMU relays after the second BMU receives the instruction so as to open the second battery system; and then, the BCU controls the pre-charging relay to be closed, the main negative relay is closed after a certain condition is reached, the pre-charging relay is disconnected, and the power-on operation is finished. The second battery system starts to work normally, and similarly, when the electric quantity of the second battery system is used up, the first battery system after the battery pack is replaced manually can work, the two battery systems can work alternately, and the weight of a single battery is light, so that manual replacement is facilitated.
In addition, the foregoing is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention and the technical principles applied thereto. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the present invention is not limited to the particular embodiments described herein, but is capable of various obvious modifications, rearrangements and substitutions as will now become apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the invention. Therefore, although the present invention has been described in greater detail with reference to the above embodiments, the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and may include other equivalent embodiments without departing from the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. An unmanned aerial vehicle battery management system, comprising: the system comprises two battery systems, a battery control unit and a controller, wherein each battery system in the two battery systems supplies power to an unmanned vehicle in turn, each battery system comprises one or more modularized battery packs, and the weight of each battery pack is smaller than a weight threshold value;
the battery control unit is used for detecting that a battery system which is powered currently needs to be replaced, and respectively disconnecting a pre-charging relay, a main negative relay and a BMU relay of the battery system which is powered currently through a circuit, and at the moment, the unmanned vehicle is powered off;
the controller is used for transmitting a power-on signal to the battery control unit through the CAN bus after the unmanned vehicle is powered off, the battery control unit closes a BMU relay of another battery system, then the battery control unit controls the pre-charging relay to be closed through a circuit, and after a preset condition is met, the main negative relay is closed, the pre-charging relay is disconnected, and the unmanned vehicle is powered on at the moment.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the battery systems are connected in parallel, each battery system is provided with two battery packs connected in series, each battery pack is provided with a BMU relay and a BMU, the BMU is a battery management unit, and the weight threshold is 20kg.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein the battery control unit is configured to send a stop signal to an automatic driving module of the unmanned vehicle through a CAN bus when detecting that the currently-powered battery system needs to be replaced through the CAN bus connected to the battery system during operation of the unmanned vehicle, and control the unmanned vehicle to stop at a safe position by using the automatic driving module.
4. The system of claim 1, wherein the pre-charge relay and the main negative relay are electrically connected to the battery control unit, the BMU relay of the currently-powered battery system is electrically connected to the battery control unit through a CAN bus, the main negative relay is connected in parallel to the pre-charge relay, the pre-charge relay is connected in series with a pre-charge resistor, and the controller and the battery control unit are in signal transmission through the CAN bus.
5. The system of claim 4, further comprising a high-voltage loop, wherein one end of the high-voltage loop is connected with the positive electrode of the battery pack in each battery system, the other end of the high-voltage loop is connected with a power supply circuit of the unmanned vehicle, and the high-voltage loop is used for transmitting electric energy to a driving motor controller of the unmanned vehicle and electric equipment on the unmanned vehicle; the main negative relay, the pre-charging relay and the pre-charging resistor are all arranged on the power supply circuit, and the main negative relay is used for controlling the voltage of the power supply circuit.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein the battery control unit is configured to transmit a disconnection signal to the BMU of the currently-powered battery system through a CAN bus connected to the currently-powered battery system, and the BMU of the currently-powered battery system controls the BMU relay of the currently-powered battery system to be disconnected after receiving the disconnection signal.
7. The system of claim 1, wherein the battery control unit is further configured to transmit an activation signal to a BMU of the battery system via an activation circuit connected to the BMU, the activation circuit being a 12V electrical signal, and to wake up the BMU with the activation signal, before the controller transmits a power-on signal to the battery control unit via the CAN bus.
8. The system of claim 1, wherein the battery control unit is configured to send a close signal to the BMU of the another battery system through the CAN bus, and the BMU of the another battery system controls the BMU relay of the another battery system to close after receiving the close signal.
9. The system of claim 1, wherein the battery control unit is further configured to control the pre-charge relay to close through a circuit, and close the main negative relay after a preset condition is met, including:
after the battery control unit closes the pre-charging relay, the pre-charging relay pre-charges a capacitor of a driving motor controller of the unmanned vehicle, and when the voltage of the capacitor is the same as that of the other battery system, the main negative relay is closed.
10. The system of any one of claims 1-9, wherein the battery control unit is a BCU unit, the controller includes a vehicle control unit VCU therein, the BMU relay is a battery management unit relay, and the battery in the battery pack is a lithium battery.
CN202221405338.1U 2022-06-02 2022-06-02 Unmanned vehicle battery management system Active CN217705547U (en)

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