CN107554335B - Vehicle-mounted power system and automobile - Google Patents

Vehicle-mounted power system and automobile Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107554335B
CN107554335B CN201710766128.2A CN201710766128A CN107554335B CN 107554335 B CN107554335 B CN 107554335B CN 201710766128 A CN201710766128 A CN 201710766128A CN 107554335 B CN107554335 B CN 107554335B
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power
voltage
converter
battery
switch
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CN107554335A (en
Inventor
杭孟荀
沙文瀚
王晓辉
王瑛
张�杰
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Chery New Energy Automobile Co Ltd
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Chery New Energy Automobile Technology Co Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/14Plug-in electric vehicles

Abstract

The invention discloses a vehicle-mounted power system and an automobile, and belongs to the field of electronics and electrics. The vehicle-mounted power system comprises a bidirectional DC/DC converter, a high-voltage power circuit, a power battery, an auxiliary battery, a power supply switch and a vehicle control unit VCU; the high-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter is connected with the power supply port of the high-voltage power circuit, and the low-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter is connected with the electrode of the auxiliary battery; the electrode of the power battery is connected with the power port of the high-voltage power circuit through a power switch, and the control end of the power switch is connected with the VCU; the VCU is configured to control the bidirectional DC/DC converter to switch to a boost conversion mode before controlling the power switch to close so that the auxiliary battery pre-charges a load capacitor of the high-voltage power utilization circuit through the boost conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter. The invention can solve the problem that the prior pre-charging circuit product occupies too large layout space in the automobile, improve the performance of the automobile in various aspects and obviously reduce the cost of the whole automobile.

Description

Vehicle-mounted power system and automobile
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of electronics and electricity, in particular to a vehicle-mounted power system and an automobile.
Background
With the increasing shortage of global petroleum resources and the increasing severity of environmental pollution, various energy-saving and environment-friendly new energy vehicles are emerging, such as pure electric vehicles, extended range electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cell power vehicles and the like. With the continuous technical progress of new energy vehicles and the continuous policy support of each country, the market scale of new energy vehicles is rapidly increasing year by year.
In an automobile capable of using electric energy as power, a power system using electric energy includes many high-voltage electric components, and a pre-charging process is required to be provided during power-on of the components to avoid high-voltage impact. As a conventional implementation manner of pre-charging, a pre-charging circuit is generally additionally arranged on the basis of an original vehicle-mounted power system to specially complete pre-charging of high-voltage power-consuming components. However, the current precharge circuit product is bulky and high in cost, and not only increases the cost of the whole vehicle, but also occupies a large amount of layout space in the vehicle when in application, thereby seriously affecting the design of the whole vehicle. Therefore, how to avoid the pre-charging circuit occupying too large space of the vehicle interior layout becomes a technical problem to be solved in the field.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a vehicle-mounted power system and an automobile, which can solve the problem that the conventional pre-charging circuit product occupies too large layout space in the automobile.
In a first aspect, the present invention provides a vehicle-mounted power system, comprising a bidirectional DC/DC converter, a high-voltage power circuit, a power battery, an auxiliary battery, a power switch, and a vehicle control unit VCU; wherein the content of the first and second substances,
the high-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter is connected with the power supply port of the high-voltage power circuit, and the low-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter is connected with the electrode of the auxiliary battery; the bi-directional DC/DC converter is configured to be switchable between a boost conversion mode and a buck conversion mode under control of the VCU; the electrode of the power battery is connected with the power port of the high-voltage power circuit through the power supply switch, and the control end of the power supply switch is connected with the VCU;
the electrode of the power battery is connected with the power port of the high-voltage power circuit through the power supply switch, and the control end of the power supply switch is connected with the VCU;
the high-voltage power utilization circuit comprises a load capacitor positioned between electrodes of a power supply port, and the VCU is configured to control the bidirectional DC/DC converter to be switched to a boost conversion mode before controlling the power supply switch to be closed, so that the auxiliary battery can pre-charge the load capacitor through the boost conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter.
In one possible implementation, the VCU is further configured to control the bidirectional DC/DC converter to switch to a buck conversion mode after controlling the power switch to be turned off, so that the load capacitor charges the auxiliary battery through buck conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter.
In one possible implementation, the power port of the VCU is connected to the electrode of the auxiliary battery, and the bidirectional DC/DC converter is configured to be able to end the sleep state under the control of the VCU;
the VCU is further configured to control the bidirectional DC/DC converter to end a sleep state when detecting that the output voltage of the auxiliary battery is less than a first preset voltage, and control the bidirectional DC/DC converter to switch to a buck conversion mode when the power switch is closed, so that the power battery charges the auxiliary battery through buck conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter.
In one possible implementation, the bidirectional DC/DC converter is configured to detect whether a short circuit exists at a power port of the high-voltage power circuit based on a voltage at the high-voltage port while precharging the load capacitor, and to send a short circuit warning signal to the VCU when the short circuit exists at the power port of the high-voltage power circuit.
In one possible implementation, the onboard power system further includes a battery management system BMS, a charging circuit, a heating device, a charging switch, and a first heating switch; the BMS is connected with the charging circuit, a charging port of the charging circuit is connected with an electrode of the power battery through the charging switch, a power port of the heating device is connected with a charging port of the charging circuit through the first heating switch, and a control end of the charging switch and a control end of the first heating switch are both connected with the charging circuit;
the BMS is configured to send the detected ambient temperature of the power battery to the charging circuit before the charging circuit starts to charge the power battery, so that the charging circuit controls the first heating switch to be closed when the ambient temperature of the power battery is smaller than a first preset temperature value, and the heating device heats the power battery; the charging circuit is configured to control the charging switch to be closed when the temperature of the power battery is greater than or equal to a second preset temperature value, so as to charge the power battery through the charging port.
In a possible implementation manner, the vehicle-mounted power system further includes a battery management system BMS, a heating device, and a second heating switch, the BMS is connected to the VCU, a power port of the heating device is connected to the high-voltage port through the second heating switch, and a control terminal of the second heating switch is connected to the VCU;
the BMS is configured to send the detected temperature of the power battery to the VCU when a key signal is received, so that the VCU controls the bidirectional DC/DC converter to be switched to a boost conversion mode when the temperature of the power battery is smaller than a first preset temperature value, and controls the second heating switch to be closed, so that the auxiliary battery supplies power to the heating device through the boost conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter, and the heating device heats the power battery; the VCU is further configured to control the power switch to close when the temperature of the power battery is greater than or equal to a second preset temperature value after receiving a key signal.
In one possible implementation, the onboard power system further comprises a solar power generation device and a unidirectional voltage converter; wherein the content of the first and second substances,
the unidirectional voltage converter is provided with an input port and an output port, the electric energy output port of the solar power generation device is connected with the input port of the unidirectional voltage converter, and the output port of the unidirectional voltage converter is connected with the electrode of the auxiliary battery.
In one possible implementation, the VCU is further configured to control the bidirectional DC/DC converter to switch to a boost conversion mode when detecting that the output voltage of the auxiliary battery is greater than a second preset voltage, so that the auxiliary battery charges the power battery and/or supplies power to the high-voltage power circuit through the boost conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter.
In a possible implementation manner, the onboard power system further includes a low-voltage power utilization circuit, and an electrode of the auxiliary battery is connected to a power supply port of the low-voltage power utilization circuit and/or a power supply port of the VCU.
In a second aspect, the invention further provides an automobile, and the automobile comprises the vehicle-mounted power system.
According to the technical scheme, based on the bidirectional DC/DC converter, the high-voltage power circuit, the power battery, the auxiliary battery, the power switch and the vehicle control unit VCU, the invention can utilize the auxiliary battery to complete the pre-charging process of the high-voltage power circuit, so that an additional pre-charging circuit is not required to be arranged, and the problem that the conventional pre-charging circuit product occupies too large layout space in a vehicle can be solved. Compared with the prior art, the invention not only saves a pre-charging circuit, but also forms a bridge for transmitting electric energy between the power battery and the auxiliary battery by the bidirectional DC-DC converter, and realizes the large-range sharing of structures such as a control circuit, a voltage converter, an energy storage device and the like, thereby greatly simplifying the internal structure of the automobile, increasing the available layout space of the whole automobile, improving the processing efficiency of the control process, increasing the utilization rate of the electric energy, improving the performance of the automobile in various aspects, and obviously reducing the cost of the whole automobile.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments will be briefly introduced below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and reasonable variations of the drawings are also covered in the protection scope of the present invention.
Fig. 1 is a block diagram of a vehicle-mounted power system according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 2 is a block diagram of a vehicle-mounted power system according to still another embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of a power flow direction of an onboard power system according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. It is to be understood that the embodiments described are only a few embodiments of the present invention, and not all embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the described embodiments of the invention without any inventive step, are within the scope of protection of the invention. Unless defined otherwise, technical or scientific terms used herein shall have the ordinary meaning as understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. The use of "first," "second," and similar terms in the present application do not denote any order, quantity, or importance, but rather the terms are used to distinguish one element from another. The word "comprising" or similar words means that the element or item preceding the word covers the element or item listed after the word and its equivalents, without excluding other elements or items. The terms "connected" or "coupled" and the like are not restricted to physical or mechanical connections, but may include electrical connections, and the connections may be direct or indirect.
Fig. 1 is a block diagram of a vehicle-mounted power system according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to fig. 1, the onboard power system includes a bidirectional DC/DC converter 11, a high-voltage power utilization circuit 12, a power battery 13, an auxiliary battery 14, a power supply switch 15, and a vehicle control unit VCU16, in which:
the poles of the power battery 13 are connected to the high-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 via the power switch 15, and the power port of the high-voltage consumer circuit 12 is also connected to the high-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11. Therefore, when the power switch 15 is closed, the electrode of the power battery 13 is connected to the power port of the high-voltage circuit 12 to supply high-voltage power to the high-voltage circuit 12.
The low voltage port of the bi-directional DC/DC converter 11 is connected to the poles of the auxiliary battery 14 and is configured to be switchable between a boost conversion mode and a buck conversion mode under the control of the VCU 16. Therefore, when the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 is in the step-up conversion mode, the low voltage output from the auxiliary battery 14 can be converted into the high voltage at the high-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 through the step-up conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11; when the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 is in the step-down conversion mode, the high voltage at the high voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 can be converted into a low voltage by the step-down conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 and applied to the electrode of the auxiliary battery 14.
It should be noted that the high voltage and the low voltage are relative to each other and may each be represented by a voltage value or a voltage range in practical applications. In one example, the standard value of the low voltage of the above-described vehicle-mounted electric power system is configured to be 12V, and the standard value of the high voltage is configured to be 380V.
Further, the control terminal of the power switch 15 is connected to the VCU 16. That is, VCU16 can control the closing and opening of power switch 15. When the VCU16 controls the power switch 15 to be closed, the electrode of the power battery 13 is connected to the power port of the high-voltage power utilization circuit 12 to provide high-voltage electric energy for the high-voltage power utilization circuit 12, so that the high-voltage power utilization circuit 12 starts to enter a working state; meanwhile, the poles of the power battery 13 are connected to the high voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11, so that the transfer of electric energy between the power battery 13 and the auxiliary battery 14 can occur. When the VCU16 controls the power switch 15 to be turned off, the electrode of the power battery 13 is disconnected from the high-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11, so that the auxiliary battery 14 can precharge the load capacitor C1 of the high-voltage circuit 12 through the step-up conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11.
It should be understood that the load capacitor C1 may be, for example, a capacitor with a sufficiently large capacitance value, a circuit structure formed by connecting a series of capacitors in parallel, or other circuit structures with corresponding capacitive reactance characteristics, as long as it is located between the electrodes of the power supply port of the high-voltage circuit 12, so as to relieve the high-voltage impact on the high-voltage circuit 12 when the high-voltage circuit is powered on. Of course, the manner in which the load capacitance C1 is provided may not be limited to the above example.
Thus, based on the configuration of VCU16, VCU16 is caused to execute instructions stored in memory, for example, to cause VCU16 to control bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 to switch to the boost conversion mode before controlling power switch 15 to close (i.e., before power battery 13 begins to supply power to high-voltage power-consuming circuit 12), such that auxiliary battery 14 precharges load capacitor C1 through the boost conversion of bidirectional DC/DC converter 11. In one implementation, the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 may be configured to pre-charge the load capacitor C1 with the high voltage after the boost conversion in a current-constant manner, so as to save the time required for pre-charging compared to the conventional resistor pre-charging method.
It should be understood that the auxiliary battery 14 may be a rechargeable battery with smaller volume and power than the power battery 13, so that the process of pre-charging the load capacitor C1 by the auxiliary battery 14 using the stored electric energy can be in a safe and controllable state, for example, the voltage across the load capacitor C1 can have a gentle rise process, so that other devices can easily find out an abnormal condition such as a short circuit in time by detecting the voltage across the load capacitor C1; furthermore, since the output power of the auxiliary battery 14 is limited, the high-voltage utilization circuit 12 is less likely to be damaged in the process.
It can be seen that based on the bidirectional DC/DC converter, the high-voltage power circuit, the power battery, the auxiliary battery, the power switch and the vehicle control unit VCU, the present invention can utilize the auxiliary battery to complete the pre-charging process for the high-voltage power circuit, so that an additional pre-charging circuit is not required, and the problem that the existing pre-charging circuit product occupies too much space in the vehicle interior can be solved. Compared with the prior art, the invention not only saves a pre-charging circuit, but also forms a bridge for transmitting electric energy between the power battery and the auxiliary battery by the bidirectional DC-DC converter, and realizes the large-range sharing of structures such as a control circuit, a voltage converter, an energy storage device and the like, thereby greatly simplifying the internal structure of the automobile, increasing the available layout space of the whole automobile, improving the processing efficiency of the control process, increasing the utilization rate of the electric energy, improving the performance of the automobile in various aspects, and obviously reducing the cost of the whole automobile.
Fig. 2 is a block diagram of a vehicle-mounted power system according to still another embodiment of the present invention. Referring to fig. 2, the vehicle-mounted circuit system of the present embodiment includes, in addition to the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11, the high-voltage power circuit 12, the power battery 13, the auxiliary battery 14, the power supply switch 15, and the vehicle control unit VCU16, a battery management system BMS17, a charging circuit 18, a heating device 19, a charging switch S5, a first heating switch S4, a second heating switch S3, a solar panel 1A, a unidirectional voltage converter 1B, a low-voltage power circuit 1C, and fuses F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, and F8. As shown in fig. 2, the power source switch of the present embodiment includes a first power switch S1 provided between the positive electrode of the power battery 13 and the positive electrode of the high-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11, and a second power switch S2 provided between the negative electrode of the power battery 13 and the negative electrode of the high-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11. Not shown in fig. 2, the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11, the vehicle control unit VCU16, the battery management system BMS17, and the switches S1 to S5 are each connected to a bus (e.g., connected together via two controller area network CAN buses, CAN-H and CAN-L), and CAN transmit information or control commands based thereon. It is to be understood that any one or more of the switches S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 in fig. 2 may be implemented by a switching element such as a transistor, a relay, a hall switch, and may not be limited thereto.
In one aspect of the present embodiment, VCU16 is configured to control bi-directional DC/DC converter 11 to switch to a boost conversion mode prior to controlling power supply switch 15 to close, such that auxiliary battery 14 pre-charges load capacitor C1 via boost conversion by bi-directional DC/DC converter 11. Also, the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 is configured to detect whether there is a short circuit at the power supply port of the high-voltage electric circuit 12 based on the voltage at the high-voltage port when the load capacitor C1 is precharged, and to transmit a short circuit warning signal to the VCU16 when it is detected that there is a short circuit at the power supply port of the high-voltage electric circuit 12. For example, the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 switches to the step-up conversion mode in response to a command from the VCU16, and starts converting the low voltage output from the auxiliary battery 14 into a constant current high voltage to precharge the load capacitor C1 of the high-voltage power circuit 12. During the pre-charging process, the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 continuously monitors the voltage between the positive pole and the negative pole of the high-voltage port (i.e., the voltage across the load capacitor C1, hereinafter referred to as the pre-charging voltage). When the precharge voltage reaches the preset voltage value corresponding to the precharge target, it can be considered that the precharge process is completed, so that the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 stops outputting the voltage at the high-voltage port and sends a message indicating completion of the precharge to the VCU16 based on the bus connection. If the pre-charging voltage is lower than the preset lower limit voltage value during the pre-charging process, it is determined that there is a short circuit at the power port of the high-voltage circuit 12 (possibly caused by an internal short circuit of the high-voltage circuit 12), so that the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 stops outputting the voltage at the high-voltage port and sends a short-circuit alarm signal to the VCU 16. In response to the short circuit alarm signal, VCU16 may, for example, initiate a process of alerting service personnel to troubleshoot the fault, such as at least one of sounding a beep alarm, adding an event entry to a fault log, sending a pre-stored short circuit fault message to the service personnel, and may not be so limited. Therefore, the embodiment can trigger the undervoltage protection of the bidirectional DC/DC converter and report the undervoltage protection to the VCU in time when the precharge voltage is pulled down due to the short circuit in the high-voltage circuit, and the problem that the precharge resistor is easily burnt by the internal short circuit of the high-voltage circuit in the prior art is avoided. Moreover, the bidirectional DC/DC converter of the embodiment can report the state information when the short circuit is detected to the VCU, which can provide great convenience for the maintenance or repair personnel to carry out fault diagnosis and fault removal, thereby reducing the maintenance difficulty and cost of the automobile and improving the reliability of the vehicle-mounted power system.
In yet another aspect of the present embodiment, VCU16 is further configured to control bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 to switch to buck conversion mode after controlling power switch 15 to be turned off, such that load capacitor C1 charges auxiliary battery 14 through buck conversion by bidirectional DC/DC converter 11. For example, after the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 completes the pre-charging and sends a message indicating the completion of the pre-charging to the VCU16 based on the bus connection, the BMS17 simultaneously closes the first power switch S1 and the second power switch S2 (e.g., simultaneously closes the positive relay and the negative relay) upon detecting the completion of the pre-charging and sends a message indicating the successful closing of the power switches to the VCU16, so that the VCU16 sends an instruction to the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 to switch to the buck conversion mode, whereby the power supply 13 starts charging the auxiliary battery 14 through the buck conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11. After the high-voltage circuit 12 stops operating and the first power switch S1 and the second power switch S2 are turned off simultaneously, the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 may continue to operate in the buck conversion mode for a period of time, so that the load capacitor C1 charges the auxiliary battery 14 by using the stored charge thereof through the buck conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11. Based on this, can transfer the remaining electric energy of load capacitance to auxiliary battery 14 when power battery stops the power supply and store, can not only avoid the various safety risks that remaining electric charge brought, can also promote the utilization ratio of electric energy, make the automobile accord with green's design theory more.
In yet another aspect of the present embodiment, the power port of VCU16 is connected to the poles of auxiliary battery 14, and bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 is configured to be able to end the sleep state under the control of VCU 16; furthermore, the VCU16 is further configured to control the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 to end the sleep state when detecting that the output voltage of the auxiliary battery 14 is less than the first preset voltage, and control the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 to switch to the step-down conversion mode in a state where the power supply switch 15 is closed, so that the power battery 13 charges the auxiliary battery 14 through the step-down conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11. For example, as shown in FIG. 2, VCU16 is connected to the poles of auxiliary battery 14 via fuse F8, enabling VCU16 to detect the output voltage of auxiliary battery 14 while auxiliary battery 14 is powering VCU 16. When detecting that the output voltage of the auxiliary battery 14 is lower than the first preset voltage, the VCU16 wakes up the BMS17 and the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11, which may be in a sleep state, and controls the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 to complete the process of precharging the load capacitor C1 by the auxiliary battery 14. Then, the VCU16 controls the first power switch S1 and the second power switch S2 to be closed, and controls the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 to switch to the step-down conversion mode, so that the power battery 13 charges the auxiliary battery 14 through the step-down conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11, until the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 is controlled to stop working and return to the sleep state when the output voltage of the auxiliary battery 14 is detected to be higher than the third preset voltage. Based on this, the present embodiment can solve the problem that the vehicle cannot be started due to long-term non-use, that is, deep power shortage of the auxiliary battery caused by long-term non-use of the vehicle can be avoided, and the auxiliary battery can be charged to a specified degree (corresponding to the third preset voltage, which should be obviously higher than the first preset voltage) by using the electric energy of the power battery each time the auxiliary battery reaches the power shortage boundary (corresponding to the first preset voltage), so as to avoid frequent power shortage and/or deep power shortage of the auxiliary battery, prolong the service life of the auxiliary battery, and reduce the probability of damage of the auxiliary battery.
In yet another aspect of the present embodiment, the BMS17 is connected to the charging circuit 18, the charging port of the charging circuit 18 is connected to the poles of the power battery 13 through the charging switch S5, the power supply port of the heating device 19 is connected to the charging port of the charging circuit through the first heating switch S4, and the control terminal of the charging switch S5 and the control terminal of the first heating switch S4 are both connected to the charging circuit 18. On this basis, the BMS17 is configured to send the detected ambient temperature of the power battery 13 to the charging circuit 18 before the charging circuit 18 starts charging the power battery 13, so that the charging circuit 18 controls the first heating switch S4 to close when the ambient temperature of the power battery 13 is less than a first preset temperature value, so that the heating device 19 heats the power battery 13. Further, the charging circuit 18 is configured to control the charging switch S5 to close to charge the power battery 13 through the charging port when the temperature of the power battery 13 is greater than or equal to a second preset temperature value. For example, some batteries, such as lithium batteries, can become very slow to charge in low temperature environments and can affect the useful life of the battery; with respect to this problem, before the power battery 13 is charged by the charging circuit 18, the BMS17 may be awakened by the charging signal through a pre-configuration, and the awakened BMS17 detects the ambient temperature of the power battery 13 and transmits it to the charging circuit 18. Since the charging circuit 18 is also connected to the bus and can control the first heating switch S4 and the charging switch S5, the charging circuit 18 can control the first heating switch S4 to close when the ambient temperature of the power battery 13 is lower than the first preset temperature value, so that the charging circuit 18 can utilize the charging voltage to function as the heating device 19 and maintain the heating state of the heating device 19; until the ambient temperature of the power battery 13 from the BMS17 is greater than or equal to the second preset temperature value, the charging circuit 18 opens the first heating switch S4 to stop heating the heating device 19, and controls the charging switch S5 and the second power switch S2 to close so that the charging circuit 19 starts charging the power battery 13 with the charging voltage. Based on this, this embodiment can carry out the judgement whether the temperature is too low (its standard corresponds to above-mentioned first preset temperature value) before charging power battery to utilize charging circuit energy supply to heat power battery when the temperature is too low, charge power battery again after the temperature reaches the requirement (corresponding to above-mentioned second preset temperature value), consequently can solve the slow problem that can shorten battery life of charge speed when charging at low temperature, make on-vehicle circuit system also can normal use and have relatively longer battery life under extremely cold environment.
In yet another aspect of this embodiment, the BMS17 is connected to the VCU16, the power port of the heating device 19 is connected to the high voltage port through the second heating switch S3, and the control terminal of the second heating switch S3 is connected to the VCU 16. On this basis, the BMS17 is configured to send the detected temperature of the power battery 13 to the VCU16 upon receiving the key signal, so that the VCU16 controls the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 to switch to the boost conversion mode when the temperature of the power battery 13 is less than the first preset temperature value, and controls the second heating switch S3 to be closed, so that the auxiliary battery 14 supplies power to the heating device 19 through the boost conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11, so that the heating device 19 heats the power battery 13; VCU16 is also configured to control the power supply 13 switch to close when the temperature of power battery 13 is greater than or equal to a second preset temperature value after receiving the key signal. For example, before the vehicle starts, BMS17 may be caused to end the sleep in response to a key signal (a signal generated when a vehicle key is inserted) by a predetermined configuration, and BMS17 after the wake-up detects the ambient temperature of power battery 13 and transmits it to VCU 16. Since the VCU16 can control the operation modes of the first power switch S1, the second power switch S2, the second heating switch S3 and the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11, when the ambient temperature of the power battery 13 is lower than the first preset temperature value, the VCU16 can control the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 to complete the pre-charging of the auxiliary battery 14 to the load capacitor C1, and make the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 output a constant high voltage at the high voltage port after the pre-charging process is completed (constant current output during pre-charging), and at the same time, the VCU16 controls the second heating switch S3 to be closed, so that the auxiliary battery 14 is converted into the heating device 19 function through the boost of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11, and the heating state of the heating device 19 is maintained; until the ambient temperature of the power battery 13 from the BMS17 is greater than or equal to a second preset temperature value, the VCU16 controls the second heating switch S3 to be turned off, controls the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 to stop the step-up conversion, and then controls the first power switch S1 and the second power switch S2 to be turned on, so that the power battery 13 starts to function as the high-voltage power circuit 12, thereby completing the process of starting the vehicle. Based on this, this embodiment can be before starting the car go on the temperature too low judgement (its standard corresponds to above-mentioned first preset temperature value) to utilize auxiliary battery energy supply to heat the power battery when the temperature is too low, make the power battery begin the discharge function again after the temperature reaches the requirement (corresponds to above-mentioned second preset temperature value), consequently can solve the low discharge rate and can shorten the problem of battery life-span when low temperature charges, make on-vehicle circuit system also can normally use and have relatively longer battery life-span under extremely cold environment.
In still another aspect of the present embodiment, the one-way voltage converter 1B has an input port and an output port, and the power output port of the solar cell panel 1A (e.g., provided on the roof of the vehicle) as one of the solar power generation devices is connected to the input port of the one-way voltage converter 1B, and the output port of the one-way voltage converter 1B is connected to the electrode of the auxiliary battery 14. Based on this, the embodiment can use the electric energy generated by the solar power generation device to charge the auxiliary battery and/or provide the electric energy to the high-voltage power circuit after the boost conversion, thereby being beneficial to saving space and reducing cost because the requirement for the electric energy capacity of the power battery can be reduced. Moreover, the solar power generation system (the combination of the one-way voltage converter and the solar panel is an exemplary implementation) is provided in the low-voltage portion of the in-vehicle electric power system in the present embodiment, which is safer and easier to control than that provided in the high-voltage portion; moreover, the unidirectional voltage converter can limit the transmission direction of the electric energy generated by the solar power generation device, so that the solar power generation system does not need to be isolated from other circuits, the working efficiency of the unidirectional voltage converter is facilitated, and the cost of a single piece is reduced. It should be understood that a unidirectional voltage converter having at least one of AC-DC, DC-AC, and AC-AC voltage conversion functions may be selected according to the voltage conversion requirements. Furthermore, a solar control algorithm of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) may be provided in the unidirectional voltage converter to output the energy collected by the solar Power generation device to the auxiliary battery and the low-voltage Power circuit as much as possible.
In yet another aspect of the present embodiment, the VCU16 is further configured to control the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 to switch to the boost conversion mode when detecting that the output voltage of the auxiliary battery 14 is greater than the second preset voltage, so that the auxiliary battery 14 charges the power battery 13 and/or supplies power to the high-voltage power circuit 12 through the boost conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11. For example, when the output voltage of the solar panel 1A is greater than a predetermined value (for example, when the electric power has been stably generated), the unidirectional voltage converter starts to operate, while the VCU16 detects the voltage between the electrodes of the auxiliary battery 14, and sends a command or wakes up the bidirectional DC/DC converter 11 and the BMS17 when the output voltage of the auxiliary battery 14 is greater than a second preset voltage, so that the electric power generated by the solar power generation apparatus and the auxiliary battery together supply the power battery 13 and/or the high-voltage power circuit 12 (specifically, why the structure supply depends on the state of each switch at that time). Based on this, the embodiment can directly supply the electric energy generated by the solar power generation device to the high-voltage side when the auxiliary battery is fully charged or is nearly fully charged (corresponding to the second preset voltage), so that the waste of the electric energy can be reduced, and the utilization rate of the electric energy can be improved.
In still another aspect of the present embodiment, the in-vehicle electric power system further includes a low-voltage power circuit 1C, and the electrode of the auxiliary battery 14 is connected to a power supply port of the low-voltage power circuit 1C, and/or the electrode of the auxiliary battery 14 is connected to a power supply port of the VCU 16. The low-voltage power consumption circuit 1C may be, for example, a component or a structure having a set low voltage of a power supply voltage in an automobile, and the connection with the auxiliary battery 14 may directly use low-voltage power, so that a plurality of power consumption devices share the same power supply as compared with a conventional vehicle-mounted power system, thereby greatly simplifying an internal structure of the vehicle-mounted power system.
It should be understood that the fuses F1 through F8 shown in fig. 2 are all configured for overcurrent protection, and those skilled in the art may increase the number of fuses, decrease the number of fuses, modify the configuration positions of fuses, etc. according to the actual application scenario to implement the required overcurrent protection function, and the implementation manner thereof may not be limited thereto.
With respect to the vehicle-mounted power system shown in fig. 2, fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of a power flow direction of the vehicle-mounted power system according to an embodiment of the invention. Referring to fig. 2 and 3, the bidirectional DC-DC converter is used as a bridge, the electric energy on the high-voltage side can be transmitted to the low-voltage side, and the electric energy on the low-voltage side can also be output to the high-voltage side. On the high-voltage side, the power battery can supply power for the high-voltage power circuit and the heating device and can receive the electric energy transmitted by the charging circuit. Meanwhile, the power battery, the heating device and the high-voltage power circuit can also receive electric energy from the low-voltage side, and the heating device can also receive electric energy transmitted by the charging circuit. On the low-voltage side, the auxiliary battery is able to power the low-voltage consumer circuit (and the VCU) and to receive the electrical energy delivered by the solar panel through the unidirectional voltage converter. At the same time, both the low-voltage power circuit and the auxiliary battery can receive electric energy from the high-voltage side. It can be seen that the architecture of the onboard power system shown in fig. 2 can achieve flexible control of power flow between the low-voltage side and the high-voltage side, and based on this, can achieve simplification of the overall structure.
Based on the same inventive concept, the present embodiment provides an automobile including the vehicle-mounted power system of any one of the above. It should be noted that the vehicle may be, for example, a pure electric vehicle, an extended range electric vehicle, a hybrid vehicle, a fuel cell powered vehicle, and the like, and may not be limited thereto. Based on the beneficial effects that can be obtained by the included vehicle-mounted power system, the automobile of the embodiment can also obtain corresponding beneficial effects, which are not repeated herein.
In an exemplary embodiment, any one or more of the VCU, BMS, bidirectional DC-DC converter, charging circuit may be implemented by an apparatus or device including one or more Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), Digital Signal Processing Devices (DSPDs), Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), controllers, microcontrollers, microprocessors, or other electronic components for performing the respective operations described.
In an exemplary embodiment, a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium is also provided that includes instructions, such as a memory that includes instructions, that may be executed by the VCU, or the charging circuit, or the bidirectional DC-DC converter, or the BMS. For example, the non-transitory computer readable storage medium may be a ROM, a Random Access Memory (RAM), a CD-ROM, a magnetic tape, a floppy disk, an optical data storage device, and the like.
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention, and any modifications, equivalents, improvements and the like that fall within the spirit and principle of the present invention are intended to be included therein.

Claims (7)

1. A vehicle-mounted electric system is characterized by comprising a bidirectional DC/DC converter, a high-voltage power circuit, a power battery, an auxiliary battery, a power switch and a vehicle control unit VCU; wherein the content of the first and second substances,
the high-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter is connected with the power supply port of the high-voltage power circuit, and the low-voltage port of the bidirectional DC/DC converter is connected with the electrode of the auxiliary battery; the bi-directional DC/DC converter is configured to be switchable between a boost conversion mode and a buck conversion mode under control of the VCU; the electrode of the power battery is connected with the power port of the high-voltage power circuit through the power supply switch, and the control end of the power supply switch is connected with the VCU;
the high-voltage power circuit comprises a load capacitor positioned between electrodes of a power port; the VCU is configured to control the bidirectional DC/DC converter to switch to a boost conversion mode before controlling the power switch to be closed, so that the auxiliary battery pre-charges the load capacitor in a current-constant manner through the boost conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter, the bidirectional DC/DC converter is configured to detect whether a short circuit exists at a power port of the high-voltage power utilization circuit based on a voltage at the high-voltage port when the load capacitor is pre-charged, and send a short circuit alarm signal to the VCU when the short circuit exists at the power port of the high-voltage power utilization circuit; the VCU is further configured to control the bidirectional DC/DC converter to switch to a buck conversion mode after controlling the power switch to close, so that the load capacitor charges the auxiliary battery through buck conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter;
the vehicle-mounted electric power system further comprises a charging circuit and a heating device, wherein the heating device is configured to communicate with the charging circuit to heat the power battery before the power battery is charged and when the ambient temperature of the power battery is lower than a first preset temperature value; the heating device is also configured to communicate the auxiliary battery to heat the power battery when a key signal is received and the temperature of the power battery is lower than a first preset temperature value;
the vehicle-mounted power system further comprises a solar power generation device and a unidirectional voltage converter; the unidirectional voltage converter is provided with an input port and an output port, the electric energy output port of the solar power generation device is connected with the input port of the unidirectional voltage converter, and the output port of the unidirectional voltage converter is connected with the electrode of the auxiliary battery.
2. The on-board power system of claim 1, wherein a power port of the VCU is connected to a pole of the auxiliary battery, the bi-directional DC/DC converter being configured to be able to end a sleep state under control of the VCU;
the VCU is further configured to control the bidirectional DC/DC converter to end a sleep state when detecting that the output voltage of the auxiliary battery is less than a first preset voltage, and control the bidirectional DC/DC converter to switch to a buck conversion mode in a state that the power switch is closed, so that the power battery charges the auxiliary battery through buck conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter.
3. The on-vehicle power system according to claim 1, further comprising a battery management system BMS, a charging switch, and a first heating switch; the BMS is connected with the charging circuit, a charging port of the charging circuit is connected with an electrode of the power battery through the charging switch, a power port of the heating device is connected with a charging port of the charging circuit through the first heating switch, and a control end of the charging switch and a control end of the first heating switch are both connected with the charging circuit;
the BMS is configured to send the detected ambient temperature of the power battery to the charging circuit before the charging circuit starts to charge the power battery, so that the charging circuit controls the first heating switch to be closed when the ambient temperature of the power battery is smaller than a first preset temperature value, and the heating device heats the power battery; the charging circuit is configured to control the charging switch to be closed when the temperature of the power battery is greater than or equal to a second preset temperature value, so as to charge the power battery through the charging port.
4. The on-board power system of claim 1, further comprising a Battery Management System (BMS) and a second heating switch, wherein the BMS is connected to the VCU, a power port of the heating device is connected to the high voltage port via the second heating switch, and a control terminal of the second heating switch is connected to the VCU;
the BMS is configured to send the detected temperature of the power battery to the VCU when a key signal is received, so that the VCU controls the bidirectional DC/DC converter to be switched to a boost conversion mode when the temperature of the power battery is smaller than a first preset temperature value, and controls the second heating switch to be closed, so that the auxiliary battery supplies power to the heating device through the boost conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter, and the heating device heats the power battery; the VCU is further configured to control the power switch to close when the temperature of the power battery is greater than or equal to a second preset temperature value after receiving a key signal.
5. The on-board power system of claim 1, wherein the VCU is further configured to control the bidirectional DC/DC converter to switch to a boost conversion mode when detecting that the output voltage of the auxiliary battery is greater than a second preset voltage, so that the auxiliary battery charges the power battery and/or powers the high-voltage power utilization circuit through the boost conversion of the bidirectional DC/DC converter.
6. The on-board power system according to any one of claims 1 to 5, further comprising a low-voltage power utilization circuit, wherein an electrode of the auxiliary battery is connected to a power supply port of the low-voltage power utilization circuit and/or a power supply port of the VCU.
7. An automobile characterized by comprising the onboard electric power system according to any one of claims 1 to 6.
CN201710766128.2A 2017-08-30 2017-08-30 Vehicle-mounted power system and automobile Active CN107554335B (en)

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