CN211247720U - Plasma fusion vitrification device and waste incineration fly ash treatment system - Google Patents

Plasma fusion vitrification device and waste incineration fly ash treatment system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN211247720U
CN211247720U CN201921801054.2U CN201921801054U CN211247720U CN 211247720 U CN211247720 U CN 211247720U CN 201921801054 U CN201921801054 U CN 201921801054U CN 211247720 U CN211247720 U CN 211247720U
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plasma
furnace
fly ash
waste incineration
tail gas
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刘军
冉根柱
蔡琳琳
戴昕
郭燕
巩小丽
袁建海
刘丹丹
杨亚萍
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Nanjing Wondux Environmental Protection Technology Co ltd
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Nanjing Wondux Environmental Protection Technology Co ltd
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Abstract

The utility model discloses a device and waste incineration fly ash processing system of plasma melting vitrification. The device for melting and vitrifying the plasma comprises a furnace body, a furnace chamber inside the furnace body, and a plasma torch positioned at the top of the furnace body, wherein the plasma torch comprises a cathode, an anode, a process gas inlet, a circulating water cooling layer, feed inlets distributed on two sides of the plasma torch, a molten glass slag overflow port positioned on one side, a molten metal discharge port positioned on the other side, and a tail gas discharge port at the middle upper part of the device. The utility model discloses stabilize innocent treatment the waste incineration flying ash, realized getting rid of dioxin in the flying ash and the effective fixed of heavy metal, the glass slag of melting solidification can carry out the reutilization, has avoided the environmental problem that landfill probably produced after the useless solidification of danger, and processing technology is simple, has realized the dual effect of flying ash processing innocent recycle.

Description

Plasma fusion vitrification device and waste incineration fly ash treatment system
Technical Field
The utility model relates to a solid waste handles the field, especially relates to a device and waste incineration flying dust processing system of plasma melting vitrification.
Background
The fly ash is a powder substance which is collected in a flue gas pipeline, a flue gas purification device, a separator, a dust remover device and the like in the waste incineration process and has light volume weight and fine particle size. The fly ash has complex components and high toxicity, not only contains a large amount of heavy metal inorganic harmful substances such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg and the like, but also enriches organic carcinogens such as dioxin and the like with the strongest toxicity, and is a dangerous waste (code HW18) specified by the country.
According to the national ' thirteen-five ' urban domestic garbage harmless treatment facility construction plan ', the proportion of the incineration capacity of the urban domestic garbage to the total harmless capacity reaches 50%, and the proportion of the incineration capacity of the urban domestic garbage to the eastern region reaches 60%. The waste incineration industry has exploded, and generally, about 3% -5% of fly ash is generated per ton of waste incineration, and the amount of fly ash generated in the future is huge. By 2020, the proportion of domestic waste grade incineration in China is increased to 50%, the daily incineration capacity is increased to 70 ten thousand tons/day, and the absolute quantity is doubled compared with that in 2017. The waste incineration fly ash contains higher chloride ions, the content of the chloride ions in the fly ash generated by different waste incineration processes is different, the content of the chloride ions in the fly ash generated by the grate furnace is about 12% -20%, the content of the chloride ions in the fly ash generated by the circulating fluidized bed is about 3% -5%, and the grate furnace technology gradually occupies the dominant position of the waste incineration treatment mode in China, so that more and more chloride ions are contained in the fly ash. The treatment of refuse incineration fly ash for harmlessness, reduction and reclamation is the trend of fly ash disposal.
The disposal of the waste incineration fly ash generally comprises solidification and stabilization, but the waste incineration fly ash still needs to be buried after solidification; and the cement kiln with mature technology at present is used for cooperative treatment and high-temperature sintering treatment, and the chlorine is removed by washing before treatment, so that the requirement of kiln entering treatment is met and the influence on rear-end products is reduced.
The utility model discloses utilize high temperature plasma melting technique to handle waste incineration fly ash, adopt plasma torch, do not need the washing preliminary treatment, simple process, the glass slag stability that the melting made is high, can regard as to build road sandstone aggregate, cement pavement brick, cast stone raw materials, has important value and meaning to the waste incineration fly ash resourceful treatment of present stage.
SUMMERY OF THE UTILITY MODEL
The embodiment of the utility model provides a device of plasma fused vitrification, including furnace body, the inside furnace chamber of furnace body, be located the plasma torch at furnace body top, the plasma torch contains negative pole, positive pole, and process gas air inlet and circulating water cooling layer distribute in the feed inlet of plasma torch both sides, are located the molten glass sediment overflow mouth of one side, the molten metal liquid discharge port of opposite side to and the tail gas discharge port of upper portion in the equipment.
The utility model discloses stabilize innocent treatment the waste incineration flying ash, realized getting rid of dioxin in the flying ash and the effective fixed of heavy metal, the glass slag of melting solidification can carry out the reutilization, has avoided the environmental problem that landfill probably produced after the useless solidification of danger, and processing technology is simple, has realized the dual effect of flying ash processing innocent recycle.
Further, the plasma torch electrode adopts a graphite electrode, and the process gas adopts nitrogen.
The waste incineration fly ash treatment system comprises the plasma fusion vitrification device, a bin, a screw conveyor, a plasma melting furnace, a cooling pool and a plasma melting furnace tail gas treatment device.
The system takes the waste incineration fly ash as a main raw material, adds sand with lower cost and common solid waste glass slag, carries out plasma melting solidification on the fly ash through granulation, and can carry out secondary utilization on the slag, thereby achieving the effect of treating waste by waste.
Furthermore, the outlet of a bin after mixing and granulating of the system is connected with the inlet of a screw conveyer, the outlet of the screw conveyer is connected with the feed inlet of a plasma melting furnace, the tail gas outlet of the device is connected with a tail gas treatment device of the plasma melting furnace, the overflow port of the vitreous body is connected with a cooling pool or a cooling grinding tool, and the metal overflow liquid is discharged periodically.
Further, the plasma melting furnace tail gas treatment device comprises a secondary combustion chamber, a quench tower, an active carbon injection device, a bag type dust collector, a hydrochloric acid recovery system, an induced draft fan and a continuous monitoring system.
Additional aspects and advantages of embodiments of the invention will be set forth in part in the description which follows and, in part, will be obvious from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention.
Drawings
The above and/or additional aspects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent and readily appreciated from the following description of the embodiments, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings of which:
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the structure of a plasma fusion vitrification apparatus of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic flow chart of the waste incineration fly ash treatment system of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The following disclosure provides many different embodiments or examples for implementing different features of the invention. In order to simplify the disclosure of the present invention, the components and arrangements of specific examples are described below. Of course, they are merely examples and are not intended to limit the present invention. Furthermore, the present invention may repeat reference numerals and/or reference letters in the various examples, which have been repeated for purposes of simplicity and clarity and do not in themselves dictate a relationship between the various embodiments and/or arrangements discussed. In addition, the present disclosure provides examples of various specific processes and materials, but one of ordinary skill in the art may recognize applications of other processes and/or use of other materials.
Referring to fig. 1 and 2, a device for melting and vitrifying plasma provided by an embodiment of the present invention includes a furnace body, a furnace chamber inside the furnace body, a plasma torch located at the top of the furnace body, the plasma torch including a cathode, an anode, a process gas inlet, a circulating water cooling layer, feed inlets distributed at both sides of the plasma torch, a molten glass slag overflow port located at one side, a molten metal discharge port at the other side, and a tail gas discharge port at the upper part of the device.
The utility model discloses stabilize innocent treatment the waste incineration flying ash, realized getting rid of dioxin in the flying ash and the effective fixed of heavy metal, the glass slag of melting solidification can carry out the reutilization, has avoided the environmental problem that landfill probably produced after the useless solidification of danger, and processing technology is simple, has realized the dual effect of flying ash processing innocent recycle.
Specifically, the furnace body structure used in the present invention is shown in fig. 1. The inner wall of the furnace body 6 is provided with a furnace lining 61 made of refractory materials and a heat insulation layer, the side surface of the bottom of a hearth of the furnace body 6 is provided with a molten metal outlet 62 and a molten glass flow outlet 63, the furnace wall is provided with a tail gas outlet 64, and the top of the furnace body is also provided with 2 feed inlets 66; a plasma torch 65 is provided in the centre of the furnace cover and extends into the furnace, the plasma torch having a passage for process gas inside.
The plasma torch 65 has a cathode and an anode on the left and right sides, respectively, and forms an arc region in a nitrogen atmosphere to generate thermal plasma.
The utility model provides an inside temperature of furnace body can reach 5000 + 10000 ℃, can be relatively fast with the material processing who drops into in the stove for molten glass liquid and molten metal liquid.
Meanwhile, the middle part of the plasma torch 65 is surrounded by a cooling structure 67, cooling water enters from an inlet and is discharged from an outlet, and the cooling is realized by the way of circulating and reciprocating.
Further, the plasma torch electrode adopts a graphite electrode, and the process gas adopts nitrogen. Thus, the damage of the chlorine ions to the electrode is avoided.
The waste incineration fly ash treatment system comprises the plasma fusion vitrification device, a bin 1, a screw conveyor 2, a plasma melting furnace 6, a cooling pool 5 and a plasma melting furnace tail gas treatment device 7.
The system takes the waste incineration fly ash as a main raw material, adds sand with lower cost and common solid waste glass slag, carries out plasma melting solidification on the fly ash through granulation, and can carry out secondary utilization on the slag, thereby achieving the effect of treating waste by waste.
Further, the outlet of the bin 1 after mixing and granulating of the system is connected with the inlet of the screw conveyer 2, the outlet of the screw conveyer 2 is connected with the feed inlet of the plasma melting furnace 6, the tail gas outlet of the device is connected with the tail gas treatment device 7 of the plasma melting furnace, the overflow port of the vitreous body is connected with the cooling pool 5 or the cooling grinding tool, and the metal overflow liquid is discharged periodically.
Further, the plasma melting furnace tail gas treatment device 7 comprises a secondary combustion chamber 3, a quench tower 4, an active carbon injection device, a bag type dust collector, a hydrochloric acid recovery system 9, an induced draft fan 10 and a continuous monitoring system 8. The hydrochloric acid recovery system 9 comprises an acid solution absorption tower and a wet scrubber, waste gas sequentially passes through the acid solution absorption tower and the wet scrubber, the obtained hydrochloric acid is collected at the acid solution absorption tower, and the rest clean gas is discharged at the wet scrubber.
Meanwhile, a gas cleaning procedure is carried out after the continuous monitoring system 8, so that the gas discharged into the air is ensured to be non-toxic and pollution-free gas.
Further, the level of the molten metal in the furnace generated by the system 3 is constantly raised, and the molten alloy is discharged by opening the molten metal discharge port once at regular intervals, usually depending on the amount of the fed molten metal.
Preferably, the cooling of the system 4, outside the continuous overflow of the molten glass, can be carried out by flowing into moulds or water quenching tanks or slowly cooling through a conveying device, so as to obtain different glass products.
Further, the secondary fly ash generated by the system 5, mainly including non-melted fly ash carried by the exhaust gas, volatilized salts, activated carbon, etc.) will be captured by the bag filter.
To sum up, the utility model discloses a work flow roughly as follows:
the fly ash, sand, broken glass slag and granulating agent are granulated according to the weight proportion by adding raw materials into the mixing granulation bin 1. The granulated incineration fly ash is fed into a melting furnace 6 through a screw conveyor 2.
In a plasma fusion vitrification apparatus: the granulated fly ash falling into the furnace is rapidly melted by the high temperature of 5000-10000 ℃ generated by the plasma, the temperature in the furnace is kept at 1400-1600 ℃, and the dioxin in the fly ash is almost completely destroyed by the high temperature plasma, the ultraviolet rays generated by the high temperature plasma and the molten glass liquid. Most heavy metals are fixed in the molten glass, and a small part enters the tail gas system through carrying or volatilization.
The molten glass flows out of the furnace, and flows into a cooling conveyer or a water quenching tank for cooling to obtain different glass products, and the heavy metal molten slag in the melting furnace 6 is periodically discharged from a slag discharge port at one side.
The tail gas of the plasma melting furnace is in butt joint with the second combustion chamber 3, and the combustible gas is thoroughly oxidized at the high temperature of 1100 ℃. In order to avoid the regeneration of dioxin, the tail gas of the secondary combustion furnace is rapidly cooled to 180-class 200 ℃ in the quenching tower. And then spraying activated carbon on the tail gas to absorb the formed trace dioxin again. The generated secondary fly ash is captured by the bag type dust collector and then enters a hydrochloric acid recovery system 9 to recover the hydrogen sulfide gas in the tail gas.
For example, the following steps are carried out:
the incineration fly ash of a certain household garbage incineration plant is treated, wherein the fly ash comprises 8.7 percent of silicon (Si), 3.22 percent of aluminum (Al), 1.34 percent of iron (Fe), 25.24 percent of calcium (Ga), 13.18 percent of chlorine (Cl), 1585 mu g/g of copper (Cu) and 2114 mu g/g of lead (Pb).
1t of fly ash, sand, broken glass slag and granulating agent in each batch are mixed and granulated in a material mixing and granulating bin 1.
The granulated incineration fly ash is fed into a melting furnace 6 through a screw conveyor 2.
In a plasma melting vitrification system, nitrogen is introduced from a process air inlet, the temperature in the furnace is maintained at 1400-1600 ℃, the granulated fly ash falls into the furnace and is melted, dioxin in the fly ash is decomposed by high-temperature plasma, the fly ash is changed into a molten state, and a small part of the fly ash enters a tail gas system through carrying or volatilization.
After the molten-state fly ash in the melting furnace 6 reaches a certain height, the molten-state fly ash flows out of the overflow port and is discharged into the cooling pool 5, and then is discharged and collected by the slag remover; the heavy metal molten slag at the bottom of the melting furnace 6 is periodically discharged from a bottom slag discharge port.
Tail gas of the plasma melting furnace enters a tail gas treatment system of a system (5), the tail gas of the plasma melting furnace is butted with a secondary combustion chamber 3, and CO is rapidly removed from combustible gas at the high temperature of 1100 ℃; in order to avoid the secondary generation of dioxin, the tail gas of the secondary combustion furnace is rapidly cooled to 180-200 ℃ in the quenching tower; then spraying activated carbon on the tail gas, and absorbing the formed trace dioxin again; the generated secondary fly ash is captured by a bag type dust collector and then enters a hydrochloric acid recovery system 9 to recover hydrogen sulfide gas in tail gas; finally, after wet cleaning and gas cleaning, qualified discharge is carried out.
The leaching toxicity of heavy metal of molten glass slag is lower than the identification standard of hazardous waste, and the leaching concentration (mg/L) of heavy metal is as follows: copper, zinc, chromium, lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury are respectively 0.09, 0.21, 0.004, 0.05, 0.005, ND and 0.00017(ND represents undetected), the detection standards are respectively 100, 5, 1, 5 and 0.1, the results are all lower than the detection standards, and the purified tail gas meets the emission requirements of hazardous waste incineration pollution control standard.
While embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that: various changes, modifications, substitutions and alterations can be made to the embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined by the claims and their equivalents.

Claims (5)

1. The device for melting and vitrifying plasma is characterized by comprising a furnace body, a furnace chamber inside the furnace body, and a plasma torch positioned at the top of the furnace body, wherein the plasma torch comprises a cathode, an anode, a process gas inlet, a circulating water cooling layer, feed inlets distributed on two sides of the plasma torch, a molten glass slag overflow port positioned on one side, a molten metal discharge port on the other side, and a tail gas discharge port on the upper middle part of the device.
2. The apparatus for plasma fusion vitrification of claim 1 wherein the plasma torch electrode is a graphite electrode and the process gas is nitrogen.
3. Waste incineration fly ash treatment system, characterized by comprising the plasma fusion vitrification device according to any one of claims 1 to 2, a silo (1), a screw conveyor (2), a plasma melting furnace (6), a cooling tank (5), a plasma melting furnace tail gas treatment device (7).
4. The waste incineration fly ash treatment system according to claim 3, wherein an outlet of a bin after mixing and granulating of the system is connected with an inlet of a screw conveyor, an outlet of the screw conveyor is connected with a feed inlet of a plasma melting furnace, an outlet of device tail gas is connected with a tail gas treatment device of the plasma melting furnace, an overflow port of a glass body is connected with a cooling pool or a cooling grinding tool, and metal overflow liquid is periodically discharged.
5. The waste incineration fly ash treatment system according to claim 4, wherein the plasma melting furnace tail gas treatment device comprises a secondary combustion chamber (3), a quenching tower (4), an activated carbon injection device, a bag type dust collector, a hydrochloric acid recovery system (9), an induced draft fan (10) and a continuous monitoring system (8).
CN201921801054.2U 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 Plasma fusion vitrification device and waste incineration fly ash treatment system Active CN211247720U (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201921801054.2U CN211247720U (en) 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 Plasma fusion vitrification device and waste incineration fly ash treatment system

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201921801054.2U CN211247720U (en) 2019-10-24 2019-10-24 Plasma fusion vitrification device and waste incineration fly ash treatment system

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
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