CN112209616A - High-temperature melting process and system of thermal plasma torch - Google Patents

High-temperature melting process and system of thermal plasma torch Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112209616A
CN112209616A CN202011279028.5A CN202011279028A CN112209616A CN 112209616 A CN112209616 A CN 112209616A CN 202011279028 A CN202011279028 A CN 202011279028A CN 112209616 A CN112209616 A CN 112209616A
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China
Prior art keywords
furnace
melting
feeding
pipe
temperature
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CN202011279028.5A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
单鲁良
王�华
刘源
罗慈聪
邓春梅
张红飞
刘向阳
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Zhejiang Lantai Energy Engineering Co ltd
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Zhejiang Lantai Energy Engineering Co ltd
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Priority to CN202011279028.5A priority Critical patent/CN112209616A/en
Publication of CN112209616A publication Critical patent/CN112209616A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B37/00Manufacture or treatment of flakes, fibres, or filaments from softened glass, minerals, or slags
    • C03B37/01Manufacture of glass fibres or filaments
    • C03B37/06Manufacture of glass fibres or filaments by blasting or blowing molten glass, e.g. for making staple fibres
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B37/00Manufacture or treatment of flakes, fibres, or filaments from softened glass, minerals, or slags
    • C03B37/08Bushings, e.g. construction, bushing reinforcement means; Spinnerettes; Nozzles; Nozzle plates
    • C03B37/083Nozzles; Bushing nozzle plates

Abstract

The invention discloses a high-temperature melting process and a system of a thermal plasma torch, which comprises the following steps: mixing the fly ash and the glass powder in proportion to form a fly ash mixture, and selecting and proportioning appropriate additives according to the components of the fly ash; uniformly stirring the fly ash mixture and conveying the mixture into a middle bin; quantitatively feeding the fly ash mixture into a plasma melting system through a stokehole feeding device, wherein the stokehole feeding device adopts a continuous and uniform feeding mode, and the feeding amount is adjusted by changing the frequency of a motor in the stokehole feeding device so as to achieve material balance and energy balance; controlling a plasma melting system to melt the fly ash mixture; cooling and purifying the tail gas generated in the melting process, and recycling the slag. The invention realizes the reduction, stabilization, harmlessness and reclamation of solid waste incineration residues, has high electrothermal conversion efficiency and effectively reduces the use cost.

Description

High-temperature melting process and system of thermal plasma torch
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of reduction, stabilization and harmless treatment of solid waste incineration residues, in particular to a thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting process and a system thereof.
Background
With the development of economy and the improvement of industrialization level in China, the yield of industrial solid waste and the calorific value of municipal solid waste are increased rapidly. According to the annual book of Chinese statistics, the yield of industrial solid wastes in China is increased from 15.2 million tons in 2006 to 30.9 million tons in 2016, the annual growth rate reaches 7.35 percent, wherein the yield of hazardous wastes is 5347 ten thousand tons, and accounts for 1.73 percent of the total industrial solid wastes; the municipal solid waste and industrial solid waste are treated by a burning method in many cities of China, the reduction of the volume of the waste after burning can be up to about 90 percent, and in the burning process, various pathogens in the waste can be eliminated due to high temperature, so that the aim of high-temperature sterilization is fulfilled, and the harmlessness is realized. The waste heat generated by incineration can also be used for heating and power generation to realize the purpose of resource recycling. However, a large amount of fly ash is generated in the process of burning the garbage, and solid residues generated after the domestic garbage burning treatment account for 30-35% of the weight of the garbage, wherein bottom slag accounts for 25-30%, and the balance is fly ash, accounting for about 5%. The fly ash contains high-concentration leachable heavy metals, high-toxicity dioxin and chlorine salt, so that the fly ash is a dangerous waste and needs to be properly treated to avoid secondary pollution. The existing method is to carry out physical/chemical solidification landfill, cement kiln cooperative treatment and high-temperature heat treatment on fly ash generated by combustion, wherein the high-temperature heat treatment refers to a process of burning the fly ash at high temperature (700-1100 ℃) or melting/vitrifying (1000-1400 ℃) to decompose organic pollutants (such as dioxin) in the fly ash at high temperature, and separate or vitrify and stabilize heavy metals after melting. The incineration fly ash heat treatment has the advantages of volume reduction, weight reduction, good heavy metal stability and high decomposition degree of dioxin.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a high-temperature melting process of a thermal plasma torch and a system thereof. According to the invention, the fly ash is subjected to high-temperature pyrolysis, cracking and melting solidification to form molten glass, so that the volatilization of heavy metal flue gas is greatly reduced, the collection and separation in the later period are facilitated, the resource is recycled, and the reduction, harmlessness, stabilization and recycling of hazardous waste are realized; in addition, the invention adopts a plasma high-temperature melting treatment technology, has strong treatment capacity, high efficiency and high electrothermal conversion efficiency, thereby effectively reducing the use cost.
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows: a high-temperature melting process of a thermal plasma torch comprises the following steps:
s1: mixing the fly ash and the glass powder in proportion to form a fly ash mixture, and selecting and proportioning appropriate additives according to the components of the fly ash;
s2: uniformly stirring the fly ash mixture and conveying the mixture into a middle bin;
s3: quantitatively feeding the fly ash mixture into a plasma melting system through a stokehole feeding device; the stokehole feeding device adopts a continuous and uniform feeding mode, and the feeding amount is adjusted by changing the frequency of a motor in the stokehole feeding device so as to achieve material balance and energy balance;
s4: controlling a plasma melting system to melt the fly ash mixture;
s5: cooling and purifying the tail gas generated in the melting process, and recycling the slag.
In the thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting process, the method for controlling the plasma melting system to melt the fly ash mixture in step S4 is,
A. preparing before starting, detecting that water pressure is started normally, air is started normally, nitrogen is started normally, materials are in an intermediate bin, a power supply is normal and an induced draft fan is normal, starting a plasma melting system, supplying power to a plasma power cabinet, starting a first induced draft fan and starting a feeding device in a stokehole feeding device normally;
B. plasma ignition is carried out, when the current of a plasma power supply is normal, the plasma generator is successfully ignited, when the temperature in the hearth rises to 1200 ℃, a feeding device in a furnace front feeding device carries out feeding work, and a stirring device on the plasma melting furnace is started after M seconds are delayed to stir the fly ash mixture again; if the current of the plasma power supply cabinet is abnormal during ignition, the plasma generator fails to ignite, and the ignition starting work is carried out again;
C. carrying out melting work, constantly detecting the melting temperature in the hearth and recording the melting time;
D. performing fault detection when detecting one or more of current and voltage abnormity of a plasma power supply, abnormity of a plasma generator, water pressure abnormity of cooling water, temperature abnormity of a hearth, nitrogen pressure abnormity, feeding abnormity or combustion melting failure; and cutting off the control power supply and the power supply of the feeding device, closing the cooling water valve, the nitrogen valve and the air valve after the temperature of the hearth is cooled to be less than 150 ℃, and finally closing the induced draft fan to perform shutdown maintenance.
In the thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting process, tail gas generated in the melting process enters a high-temperature bag-type dust collector through a water-cooling flue to remove a small amount of secondary fly ash in the tail gas at a high-temperature section, then enters a flue gas cooling and salt collecting device along the circumferential tangential direction, most of salt separated out is dissolved by some condensate generated after the flue gas is condensed at the moment due to low cooling temperature, the salt solution is collected in a liquid storage tank to be recovered and utilized, the tail gas purified by the flue gas cooling and salt collecting device sequentially enters an SCR device and an active carbon spraying device to be subjected to denitration, dioxin removal and other treatments, then enters a low-temperature bag-type dust collector to remove a small amount of secondary fly ash in the tail gas at a low-temperature section, and finally is subjected to desulfurization treatment through an induced draft fan and FGD (flue gas desulfurization), and is discharged to the outside through; the collected secondary fly ash is mixed again and melted again.
In the thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting process, the method for recycling the molten slag in step S5 includes remelting and crystallizing the fly ash mixture after the fly ash mixture is subjected to high-temperature surface melting, forming a molten glass structure, feeding the molten glass in a flowing state into a molten glass fiber forming device, blowing and drawing the flowing molten glass into filaments by a high-pressure spray gun in the molten glass fiber forming device, extracting hot gas flow in the molten glass fiber forming device by an induced draft fan, and collecting and compacting the filaments perfectly, so that the filaments can be used as industrial raw materials.
A thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting system of a thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting process comprises a plasma melting furnace, a plasma generator system, a raw material pretreatment system, a raw material conveying system, a tail gas cooling and purifying system, a deslagging system, a power supply system, a water supply system and a gas supply system;
the plasma melting furnace comprises a furnace body, wherein a stirring device is arranged in the furnace body, and a furnace front feeding device which is butted with the discharge end of the raw material conveying system is arranged on the furnace body;
the plasma generator system comprises a plasma generator matching power supply cabinet and a plasma generator arranged on the furnace body;
the raw material pretreatment system comprises a crusher, a proportioning device and a stirring and mixing device;
the raw material conveying system comprises a bucket elevator and an intermediate bin; the feeding end of the hopper lifting machine is connected and butted with the discharging end of the stirring and mixing device, the intermediate bin is arranged at the discharging end of the hopper lifting machine, and the bottom end of the intermediate bin is butted with the stokehole feeding device;
the tail gas cooling and purifying system comprises a high-temperature bag-type dust collector, a flue gas cooling and salt collecting device, an activated carbon spraying device, an SCR device, an activated carbon spraying device, a low-temperature bag-type dust collector, a first induced draft fan and a chimney which are sequentially connected in series; the high-temperature bag-type dust collector is provided with a water-cooling flue, and the water-cooling flue is connected with the plasma melting furnace through a pipeline;
the slag removal system comprises a molten glass fiber forming device and a second induced draft fan, wherein a slag inlet on the molten glass fiber forming device is connected with the furnace body, and the second induced draft fan extracts hot gas fluid in the molten glass fiber forming device, and the hot gas fluid is introduced into the flue gas cooling salt collecting device for cooling and purification and other comprehensive utilization;
the water supply system comprises a plate heat exchanger, a softened water tank, a power cabinet water inlet main pipe, a power cabinet water outlet main pipe, a melting furnace water inlet main pipe and a melting furnace water outlet main pipe;
the air supply system comprises a compressed air tank, a cold dryer, a nitrogen making machine and a nitrogen buffer tank which are sequentially connected in series, wherein the compressed air tank is connected with a first water storage tank, the nitrogen buffer tank is connected with a second water storage tank, an air outlet pipe of the nitrogen buffer tank is connected with the furnace body, and the compressed air tank is connected with the furnace body through a pipeline.
In the thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting system, the stokehole feeding device comprises a feeding pipe arranged on the furnace body, and a gate valve and a feeding device are sequentially arranged on the feeding pipe from top to bottom; the furnace body is provided with a mounting pipe orifice which is transversely obliquely arranged at one end close to the feeding pipe, the stirring device is mounted in the mounting pipe orifice and extends into the furnace body, the furnace body is provided with a flue gas outlet pipe, the water-cooling flue is connected with the flue gas outlet pipe through a pipeline, the flue gas outlet pipe is provided with a physical property parameter measuring port, the furnace body is provided with an observation pipe orifice which is obliquely and downwardly arranged, and an observation device which extends into the furnace body is mounted in the observation pipe orifice; the slag tapping furnace is characterized in that a slag tapping pipe is arranged at the bottom of the furnace body, a slag tapping cavity channel connected with the slag tapping pipe is arranged on the furnace body, a slag tapping hole which is connected with the top of the slag tapping cavity channel and is transversely arranged is arranged on the furnace body, a movable closing mechanism for plugging the slag tapping hole is arranged on the furnace body, the movable closing mechanism comprises a cavity which is arranged on the furnace body and is right opposite to the slag tapping hole, an expansion joint is arranged in the cavity, a plug for plugging the slag tapping hole is arranged at the front end of the expansion joint, a slope which is butted with an observation pipe orifice is arranged in the furnace body, a water interlayer is arranged in the furnace body, a cooling water inlet and a cooling water outlet which are communicated with the water interlayer are arranged on the furnace body, a melting furnace water inlet main pipe is connected with the cooling water inlet, and a melting; the top of the furnace body is provided with a heat source pipe orifice, and the plasma generator is arranged on the furnace body through the heat source pipe orifice.
In the thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting system, the flue gas cooling and salt collecting device comprises a first shell, a flue gas inlet pipe is arranged on the first shell, a gas outlet pipe is arranged at the top of the first shell, a discharge pipe is arranged at the bottom of the first shell, the first shell comprises an inner cylinder, a jacket cylinder is arranged on the periphery of the inner cylinder, a water injection cooling cavity is formed between the jacket cylinder and the inner cylinder, and a cooling water inlet pipe and a cooling water outlet pipe which are connected with the water injection cooling cavity are arranged on the jacket cylinder; the bottom of the discharge pipe is connected with a liquid storage tank, the discharge pipe is provided with a switch valve, the flue gas inlet pipe is provided with a first parameter measuring port, and the gas outlet pipe is provided with a second parameter measuring port; the high-temperature bag-type dust collector is connected with the flue gas inlet pipe.
In the thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting system, the molten glass fiber forming device includes a second housing, a slag inlet and an air inlet are provided at the top of the second housing, a high-pressure spray gun is provided at the second housing, the high-pressure spray gun is provided at one side of the second housing, a glass fiber outlet is provided at one side of the second housing, a first conveying device is provided below the slag inlet, a glass fiber collecting device is provided at a discharge end of the first conveying device, a second conveying device is provided at an outer side of the glass fiber collecting device, the discharge end of the second conveying device is in butt joint with the glass fiber outlet, a shaping device is provided at an upper part of a front end of the second conveying device of the second housing, a compacting device is provided at a tail end of the second conveying device of the second housing, an air suction pipe is provided at an inner cavity of the second housing, the air suction pipe is provided below the first conveying device and the second conveying device, the air suction pipe is connected with the air inlet end of the second induced draft fan.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
1. the fly ash generated by refuse incineration and the glass powder crushed by the crusher are mixed in proportion, and the fly ash mixture after being mixed in proportion is quantitatively put into a plasma melting system, so that the fly ash is converted into uniform glass phase substances under the high-temperature melting action of the plasma melting system, and meanwhile, heavy metals and other harmful substances are coated in a Si-O crystal structure to form a rigid amorphous glassy substance. The fly ash is subjected to plasma treatment, organic matters such as dioxin and furan contained in the fly ash are almost thoroughly digested and destroyed at high temperature, heavy metals are transferred to vitreous slag, the leaching rate of the heavy metals is greatly reduced, the volatilization of smoke of the heavy metals is greatly reduced, the later collection and separation and the resource recycling are facilitated, tail gas generated in the melting process is cooled and purified, the molten slag is subjected to fiber forming treatment, and the resource recycling is realized. The fly ash is melted by the plasma melting system, the high energy density and the high temperature of the thermal plasma and the corresponding short-time quick reaction are achieved, the starting is quick, the temperature is quickly raised, the temperature is high, the decomposition speed is high, the electrothermal conversion efficiency is high, and the use cost is effectively reduced; and can quickly raise the temperature in a short time, the dangerous waste is efficiently pyrolyzed and cracked at high temperature, and all infectious viruses and other harmful and toxic substances are completely decomposed, so that the aims of thoroughly preventing toxicity and harmlessness are achieved. The invention has the characteristics of cleanness, safety and no pollution when the fly ash mixture is melted by the plasma melting system, and the plasma treatment system does not use coal or oil gas and only uses electricity, water and air. No additional contaminants are produced.
2. The invention controls the plasma melting system to melt the fly ash mixture by a specific method, can realize full-automatic control of melting work, and meets the control and operation of quick and frequent start required by hazardous waste disposal; the feeding amount of the fly ash mixture and the temperature in the melting process can be adjusted and controlled, continuous feeding and continuous slag discharging can be realized, the automatic stable operation can be realized, and the high-efficiency fly ash melting furnace has extremely high working efficiency. And in the system, when one or more conditions of plasma power supply abnormity, plasma generator abnormity, cooling water pressure abnormity, hearth temperature abnormity, nitrogen pressure abnormity, feeding abnormity and combustion melting failure are found, shutdown maintenance is carried out, a control power supply and a feeding device are cut off at the same time, after the hearth temperature is lower than 150 ℃, a cooling water valve, a nitrogen valve and an air valve are closed, finally, a first induced draft fan is closed, shutdown maintenance is carried out, and safe shutdown maintenance is carried out, so that the hearth of the plasma melting furnace is in a stable state, the plasma melting furnace cannot be damaged, and the plasma melting furnace has the functions of high-voltage protection, over-temperature protection, electric leakage protection and water leakage protection.
3. The tail gas generated in the melting process is cooled and purified, enters the high-temperature bag-type dust collector through the water-cooling flue to remove a small amount of secondary fly ash in the tail gas at the high-temperature section, and then enters the flue gas cooling and salt collecting device along the circumferential tangential direction, and because the cooling temperature is low, a large amount of precipitated salt is dissolved by some condensate generated after the flue gas is condensed, and the salt solution is collected in the liquid storage tank to be recycled and utilized; the tail gas purified by the smoke cooling and salt collecting device sequentially enters an SCR device and an activated carbon spraying device for denitration, dioxin removal and other treatment, then enters a low-temperature bag-type dust collector for removing a small amount of secondary fly ash in the tail gas at a low temperature section, finally is subjected to desulfurization treatment by an induced draft fan and FGD, and is discharged to the outside through a chimney after reaching the relevant national emission standard; the secondary fly ash collected is mixed and processed again, and is melted again, can retrieve a small amount of fly ash in the flue gas and reprocess to the tail gas device after simplifying greatly, make the flue gas after discharging accord with the relevant standard of the country completely, and can accomplish no black smoke and discharge.
4. The method comprises the steps of recycling molten slag in the melting process, remelting and crystallizing a fly ash mixture after melting the fly ash mixture on the high-temperature surface, forming a molten glass body structure, enabling the molten glass body in a flowing state to enter a molten glass fiber forming device, blowing and drawing the flowing molten glass body into filaments by a high-pressure spray gun in the molten glass fiber forming device, pumping hot gas fluid in the molten glass fiber forming device by a second induced draft fan, and completely collecting and compacting the filaments which can be used as industrial raw materials; the glass body slag formed by the fly ash mixture after high-temperature melting can be directly used as resources, such as greening bricks, microcrystalline glass, glass fiber and the like.
5. According to the invention, the air supply system is arranged, and the compressed air and the nitrogen are used as the working gas of the plasma melting furnace process system, so that the long-period stable operation of the whole system is realized, the service life of the equipment is prolonged, and the cost is reduced. The method comprises the steps that firstly, air is stored by using a compressed air tank, moisture formed in the compressed air tank is stored in a first water storage tank, a part of the compressed air acts on a designated position of a plasma melting furnace, a part of the compressed air enters a nitrogen making machine through a cold dryer to make nitrogen, then the nitrogen enters a nitrogen buffer tank, the buffered nitrogen serves as working protective gas of a plasma generator to prolong the service life, and the moisture formed in the nitrogen buffer tank is stored in a second water storage tank. Because the nitrogen is inert gas, the fly ash melting work of the plasma melting furnace can be smoothly and safely carried out.
6. According to the invention, by arranging the specific plasma melting furnace, when the working condition in the furnace meets the feeding condition, a certain amount of raw materials are fed into the furnace through the gate valve and the feeding device on the feeding pipe in sequence and continuously and uniformly; then a stirring device with a pipe orifice arranged at one side of the furnace body continuously and uniformly stirs the raw materials entering the furnace and sends the raw materials to the optimal melting position in the furnace body with the optimal melting atmosphere; within a certain period of time, the fly ash mixture is remelted and crystallized after being melted by the high-temperature surface to form a molten glass body structure, the molten glass body which is completely melted in a flowing state is discharged into a slag discharging cavity channel from a slag discharging hole at the bottom of the furnace body after the movable closing mechanism is opened, and a small amount of generated smoke is discharged through a smoke outlet pipe above the furnace body; a physical property parameter measuring port is arranged at the flue gas outlet pipe, the running state in the furnace can be monitored in real time according to the data, and guiding significance is provided for starting and stopping the furnace. And the furnace body is provided with a cooling water inlet and a cooling water outlet which are communicated with the water interlayer, so that the furnace body is cooled and protected.
7. According to the invention, by arranging the specific flue gas cooling and salt collecting device, during operation, high-temperature flue gas from the plasma melting furnace is firstly subjected to water cooling by the water cooling flue through the high-temperature bag-type dust collector to remove a small amount of secondary fly ash in tail gas at a high-temperature section, and then enters the first shell through the flue gas inlet pipe. Wherein recirculated cooling water gets into the heat transfer of interior barrel in the water injection cooling chamber by the cooling water inlet tube, and the recirculated cooling water by the heat transfer is discharged through the cooling water outlet pipe, and this process has reduced the temperature of high temperature flue gas, has guaranteed that the outer surface of equipment is unlikely for the people to be scalded because of the touch, has prolonged the life of equipment simultaneously, the cost is reduced.
8. The invention carries out fiber forming work by arranging a specific molten glass fiber forming device, the molten glass in a flowing state enters the molten glass fiber forming device through a slag inlet, a high-pressure spray gun blows and draws the molten glass into filiform glass fibers, an air suction pipe is arranged in an inner cavity of a second shell and is positioned below a first conveying device and a second conveying device, a second induced draft fan is in a negative pressure state in the shell in the operation process, outside air enters from an air inlet, simultaneously the generated filiform glass fibers are adsorbed on the first conveying device, the first conveying device conveys the filiform glass fibers to a collecting device at a proper conveying speed, the second conveying device matched with the collecting device conveys the collected filiform glass fibers to a shaping device at a proper conveying speed for shaping, the shaped filiform glass fibers with the constraint appearance size are compacted to a certain thickness by the compacting device and then are discharged from a glass fiber outlet, can be used as industrial raw material; the air entering the second shell exchanges heat with the high-temperature molten glass body, and the formed hot waste gas is pumped out by a second induced draft fan through an air suction pipe; can be introduced into a flue gas cooling and salt collecting device for cooling and purification, or introduced into a chimney and can be used comprehensively.
9. The invention has the advantages of simple process flow, safety, reliability and practicability, simple operation of system equipment, quick start and stop, quick temperature rise, high operation temperature, quick decomposition speed, full automatic control, complete control mechanism, less maintenance, low operation, investment and plant building cost, high energy density, high efficiency, continuous and stable operation, high efficiency and low cost. The molten glass body after melting and solidifying is an inert by-product, so that the resource can be recycled, and the cost is reduced. Meanwhile, the construction period of the system is short, and is only 3-5 months under normal conditions.
10. The invention has small floor area and miniaturized structure, and greatly simplifies the tail gas treatment mainly by plasma treatment. Example (c): the medium-sized plasma melting furnace with the treatment capacity of 20t/d occupies a floor area of less than 100 square meters. The electrothermal conversion efficiency is high and is more than 90 percent; the operation temperature is high; the temperature in the furnace is more than 1300 ℃, so the method has obvious superiority in the aspect of controlling the dioxin, and the emission of the content of the smoke and the dioxin completely meets the relevant national standard and specification. Extremely high operating temperature, oxygen deficient environment and dioxin/furan content less than 0.1ng/m3Far below the national emission standard; and the smoke amount is very small, and the smoke amount is only 1/4 of the incineration smoke amount.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a system block diagram of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the structure of a plasma melting furnace;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of a flue gas cooling and salt collecting device;
FIG. 4 is a schematic structural view of a molten glass-forming apparatus;
fig. 5 is a flow chart of the logic control of the plasma melting system.
1. A plasma melting furnace; 101. a furnace body; 102. a stokehold feed device; 103. a stirring device; 104. a feed pipe; 106. a gate valve; 107. a feeding device; 108. installing a pipe orifice; 109. a flue gas outlet pipe; 110. a physical property parameter measuring port; 111. observing the pipe orifice; 112. an observation device; 113. a slag pipe; 114. a slag discharging cavity channel; 115. a slag outlet; 116. a movable closing mechanism; 117. a cavity; 118. an expansion joint; 119. a plug; 120. a slope; 121. a cooling water inlet; 122. a cooling water outlet; 123. a heat source pipe orifice; 2. a plasma generator system; 201. a power supply cabinet matched with the plasma generator; 202. a plasma generator; 3. a raw material pretreatment system; 301. a crusher; 302. a proportioning device; 303. a stirring and mixing device; 4. a feedstock delivery system; 401. a bucket elevator; 402. an intermediate storage bin; 5. a tail gas cooling and purifying system; 501. a flue gas cooling and salt collecting device; 502. an activated carbon injection device; 503. a low-temperature bag-type dust collector; 504. a first induced draft fan; 505. a chimney; 506. water cooling the flue; 507. a first housing; 508. a high temperature bag-type dust collector; 509. introducing flue gas into a pipe; 510. a gas outlet pipe; 511. an SCR device; 513. a discharge pipe; 514. an inner cylinder; 515. a jacket cylinder; 516. a water injection cooling cavity; 517. a cooling water inlet pipe; 518. a cooling water outlet pipe; 519. an on-off valve; 520. a liquid storage tank; 523. a flow regulating valve; 527. a first parameter measurement port; 528. a second parameter measurement port; 6. a deslagging system; 601. a molten glass fiberizing apparatus; 602. a second induced draft fan; 604. a second housing; 605. a slag inlet; 606. an air inlet; 607. a high pressure spray gun; 608. a glass fiber outlet; 609. a first conveying device; 610. a glass fiber collection device; 611. a second conveying device; 612. a shaping device; 613. a compaction device; 614. an air intake duct; 7. a power supply system; 8. a water supply system; 801. a plate heat exchanger; 802. a softened water tank; 803. a power supply cabinet water inlet main pipe; 804. a power supply cabinet water outlet main pipe; 805. a melting furnace water inlet main pipe; 806. a water outlet main pipe of the melting furnace; 807. other high-temperature equipment and a pipeline water inlet main pipe; 808. other high temperature equipment and pipelines go out of the main pipe 808; 9. an air supply system; 901. a compressed air tank; 902. a cold dryer; 903. a nitrogen making machine; 904. a nitrogen buffer tank; 905. a first water storage tank; 906. a second water storage tank.
Detailed Description
The invention is further illustrated by the following figures and examples, which are not to be construed as limiting the invention.
Example (b): a thermal plasma torch high temperature melting process, as shown in fig. 1-5, comprising the steps of:
s1: the fly ash and the glass powder are proportioned and mixed to form a fly ash mixture, and proper additives are selected and proportioned according to the components of the fly ash to realize thorough melting and inhibit the volatilization of heavy metals. The fly ash and the additive are uniformly mixed, and the particle size after mixing is 1-2 mm, so that the service performance of technical equipment is met, and the melting energy consumption and cost are reduced.
S2: uniformly stirring the fly ash mixture and conveying the mixture into a middle bin;
s3: quantitatively feeding the fly ash mixture into a plasma melting system through a stokehole feeding device; the stokehole feeding device adopts a continuous and uniform feeding mode, and the feeding amount is adjusted by changing the frequency of a motor in the stokehole feeding device so as to achieve material balance and energy balance and adapt to rated treatment amounts of different stokeholes;
s4: and controlling a plasma melting system to melt the fly ash mixture.
The method for controlling the plasma fusion system to fuse the fly ash mixture in step S4 is, as shown in fig. 5,
A. preparing before starting, detecting that water pressure is started normally, air is started normally, nitrogen is started normally, materials are in an intermediate bin, a power supply is normal and an induced draft fan is normal, starting a plasma melting system, supplying power to a plasma power cabinet, starting the induced draft fan and starting a feeding device in a stokehole feeding device normally;
B. plasma ignition is carried out, when the current of a plasma power supply is normal, the plasma generator is successfully ignited, when the temperature in the hearth rises to 1200 ℃, a feeding device in a furnace front feeding device carries out feeding work, M seconds are delayed (delay time and interval time are set according to operation experiences such as different materials, accumulation degree and the like), a stirring device on the plasma melting furnace is started, and the fly ash mixture is stirred again; if the current of the plasma power supply cabinet is abnormal during ignition, the plasma generator fails to ignite, and the ignition starting work is carried out again;
C. carrying out melting work, constantly detecting the melting temperature in the hearth and recording the melting time;
D. performing fault detection when detecting one or more of current and voltage abnormity of a plasma power supply, abnormity of a plasma generator, water pressure abnormity of cooling water, temperature abnormity of a hearth, nitrogen pressure abnormity, feeding abnormity or combustion melting failure; and cutting off the control power supply and the power supply of the feeding device, closing the cooling water valve, the nitrogen valve and the air valve after the temperature of the hearth is cooled to be less than 150 ℃, and finally closing the induced draft fan to perform shutdown maintenance.
The invention controls the plasma melting system to melt the fly ash mixture by a specific method, can realize full-automatic control of melting work, and meets the control and operation of quick and frequent start required by hazardous waste disposal; the feeding amount and the melting process temperature of the fly ash mixture can be adjusted and controlled, continuous feeding and continuous slag discharging can be carried out, the automatic and stable operation of the invention can be realized, and the working efficiency is high. And when the plasma power supply abnormity, the plasma generator abnormity, the cooling water pressure abnormity, the hearth temperature abnormity, the nitrogen pressure abnormity, the feeding abnormity and the signal abnormity phenomena such as combustion melting failure are found in the system, shutdown maintenance is carried out, meanwhile, the control power supply and the feeding device are cut off, after the hearth temperature is less than 150 ℃, the cooling water valve, the nitrogen valve and the air valve are closed, finally, the first draught fan is closed, shutdown maintenance is carried out, the hearth of the plasma melting furnace is in a stable state, the plasma melting furnace cannot be damaged, and the system has the functions of high-voltage protection, over-temperature protection, leakage protection and leakage protection
S5: cooling and purifying the tail gas generated in the melting process, and recycling the slag.
The method for cooling and purifying the tail gas in the step S5 is that the tail gas generated in the melting process enters a high-temperature bag-type dust collector through a water-cooling flue to remove a small amount of secondary fly ash in the tail gas at the high-temperature section, then enters a flue gas cooling and salt collecting device along the circumferential tangential direction, because the cooling temperature is lower, most of precipitated salt is dissolved by condensate generated after the flue gas is condensed, the salt solution is collected in a liquid storage tank to be recycled and utilized, the tail gas purified by the flue gas cooling and salt collecting device sequentially enters an SCR device and an activated carbon spraying device to be subjected to denitration, dioxin removal and other treatment, then enters a low-temperature bag-type dust collector to remove a small amount of secondary fly ash in the tail gas at a low temperature section, finally is subjected to desulfurization treatment by an induced draft fan and FGD, and finally is subjected to desulfurization treatment by the induced draft fan and FGD, and is discharged to the outside through a chimney after reaching the relevant national emission standard; the collected secondary fly ash is mixed again and melted again.
The method for recycling the molten slag in the step S5 includes remelting and crystallizing the fly ash mixture after the fly ash mixture is melted on the high-temperature surface, forming a molten glass structure, feeding the molten glass in a flowing state into a molten glass fiber forming device, blowing and drawing the flowing molten glass into filaments by a high-pressure spray gun in the molten glass fiber forming device, drawing out hot gas flow in the molten glass fiber forming device by a draught fan, and completely collecting and compacting the filaments, so that the filaments can be used as industrial raw materials. The glass body slag formed by the fly ash mixture after high-temperature melting can be directly used as resources, such as green bricks, microcrystalline glass, glass fiber and the like, and the heat emitted by the molten glass body in the fiber forming process can be recycled or comprehensively utilized, so that the use cost and the energy consumption of the whole system can be effectively reduced.
The fly ash generated by refuse incineration and the glass powder crushed by the crusher are mixed in proportion, and the fly ash mixture after being mixed in proportion is quantitatively put into a plasma melting system, so that the fly ash is converted into uniform glass phase substances under the high-temperature melting action of the plasma melting system, and meanwhile, heavy metals and other harmful substances are coated in a Si-O crystal structure to form a rigid amorphous glassy substance. The fly ash is subjected to plasma treatment, organic matters such as dioxin and furan contained in the fly ash are almost thoroughly digested and destroyed at high temperature, heavy metals are transferred to vitreous slag, the leaching rate of the heavy metals is greatly reduced, the volatilization of smoke of the heavy metals is greatly reduced, the later collection and separation and the resource recycling are facilitated, tail gas generated in the melting process is cooled and purified, the molten slag is subjected to fiber forming treatment, and the resource recycling is realized. The fly ash is melted by the plasma melting system, the high energy density and the high temperature of the thermal plasma and the corresponding short-time quick reaction are achieved, the starting is quick, the temperature is quickly raised, the temperature is high, the decomposition speed is high, the electrothermal conversion efficiency is high, and the use cost is effectively reduced; and can quickly raise the temperature in a short time, the dangerous waste is efficiently pyrolyzed and cracked at high temperature, and all infectious viruses and other harmful and toxic substances are completely decomposed, so that the aims of thoroughly preventing toxicity and harmlessness are achieved. The invention has the characteristics of cleanness, safety and no pollution when the fly ash mixture is melted by the plasma melting system, and the plasma treatment system does not use coal or oil gas and only uses electricity, water and air. No additional contaminants are produced.
A thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting system of a thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting process is shown in figures 1-4 and comprises a plasma melting furnace 1, a plasma generator system 2, a raw material pretreatment system 3, a raw material conveying system 4, a tail gas cooling and purifying system 5, a deslagging system 6, a power supply system 7, a water supply system 8 and a gas supply system 9;
the plasma melting furnace 1 comprises a furnace body 101 with a stirring device 103 arranged inside, and a furnace front feeding device 102 butted with the discharge end of the raw material conveying system 4 is arranged on the furnace body 101;
the plasma generator system 2 comprises a plasma generator matching power supply cabinet 201 and a plasma generator 202 arranged on the furnace body 101;
the raw material pretreatment system 3 comprises a crusher 301, a proportioning device 302 and a stirring and mixing device 303;
the raw material conveying system 4 comprises a bucket elevator 401 and an intermediate bunker 402; the feeding end of the hopper lifting machine 401 is connected and butted with the discharging end of the stirring and mixing device 303, the intermediate bin 402 is arranged at the discharging end of the hopper lifting machine 401, and the bottom end of the intermediate bin 402 is butted with the stokehole feeding device 102;
the tail gas cooling and purifying system 5 comprises a high-temperature bag-type dust collector 508, a flue gas cooling and salt collecting device 501, an activated carbon injection device 502, an SCR device 511, an activated carbon injection device 502, a low-temperature bag-type dust collector 503, a first induced draft fan 504 and a chimney 505 which are sequentially connected in series; a water-cooling flue 506 is arranged on the high-temperature bag-type dust collector 508, and the water-cooling flue 506 is connected with the plasma melting furnace 1 through a pipeline;
the deslagging system 6 comprises a molten glass fiber forming device 601 and a second induced draft fan 602, wherein a slag inlet on the molten glass fiber forming device 601 is connected with a slag outlet pipe on the furnace body 101, and hot gas fluid in the molten glass fiber forming device 601 is pumped out by the second induced draft fan 602; the flue gas can be introduced into the flue gas cooling and salt collecting device 501 for cooling and purification, or introduced into the chimney 505 for other comprehensive utilization.
The water supply system 8 comprises a plate heat exchanger 801, a softened water tank 802, a power cabinet water inlet main pipe 803, a power cabinet water outlet main pipe 804, a melting furnace water inlet main pipe 805 and a melting furnace water outlet main pipe 806; the cooling medium entering the equipment and the pipeline to be cooled is softened water, the softened water tank 802 with proper volume stores enough softened water, the softened water respectively enters the power cabinet, the furnace body, other high-temperature equipment and the pipeline matching with the plasma generator through the power cabinet water inlet main pipe 803, the melting furnace water inlet main pipe 805, other high-temperature equipment and the pipeline water inlet main pipe 807, the softened water respectively flows out through the power cabinet water outlet main pipe 804, the melting furnace water outlet main pipe 806, other high-temperature equipment and the pipeline water outlet main pipe 808 after heat exchange, the softened water finally flowing out is merged into the plate heat exchanger 801 together to continuously carry out heat exchange and temperature reduction with industrial circulating water, the softened water after temperature reduction returns to the softened water tank 802 to continuously carry out heat exchange and temperature reduction, when the required amount of the softened water in the softened water tank 802 is insufficient, the supplemented softened water enters the softened water tank 802 to ensure the safe and stable operation of the whole system, the service life of the equipment is prolonged, and the cost is reduced.
The power supply system 7 is used for supplying power to the plasma generator matching power cabinet 201 and other electric equipment.
The gas supply system 9 comprises a compressed air tank 901, a cold dryer 902, a nitrogen making machine 903 and a nitrogen buffer tank 904 which are sequentially connected in series, wherein the compressed air tank 901 is connected with a first water storage tank 905, the nitrogen buffer tank 904 is connected with a second water storage tank 906, an air outlet pipe of the nitrogen buffer tank 904 is connected with the furnace body 101, the compressed air tank 901 is connected with the furnace body 101 through a pipeline, and compressed air and nitrogen are used as working gases of a plasma melting furnace process system through the arrangement of the gas supply system 9, so that the long-period stable operation of the whole system is realized, the service life of equipment is prolonged, and the cost is reduced. The air is stored by using the compressed air tank 901, the moisture formed in the compressed air tank 901 is stored in the first water storage tank 905, a part of the compressed air acts on a designated position of the plasma melting furnace, a part of the compressed air enters the nitrogen making machine 903 through the cold drying machine 902 to make nitrogen, then the nitrogen enters the nitrogen buffer tank 904, the buffered nitrogen serves as working protective gas of the plasma generator to prolong the service life, and the moisture formed in the nitrogen buffer tank 904 is stored in the second water storage tank. Because the nitrogen is inert gas, the fly ash melting work of the plasma melting furnace can be smoothly and safely carried out.
As shown in fig. 2, the stokehole feeding device 102 comprises a feeding pipe 104 arranged on the furnace body 101, and a gate valve 106 and a feeding device 107 are arranged on the feeding pipe 104 from top to bottom in sequence; the furnace body 101 is provided with a transverse inclined installation pipe orifice 108 at one end close to the feeding pipe 104, the stirring device 103 is installed in the installation pipe orifice 108 and extends into the furnace body 101, the furnace body 101 is provided with a flue gas outlet pipe 109, a water-cooling flue 506 is connected with the flue gas outlet pipe 109 through a pipeline, the flue gas outlet pipe 109 is provided with a physical property parameter measuring port 110, the furnace body 101 is provided with an inclined downward observation pipe orifice 111, and an observation device 112 extending into the furnace body 101 is installed in the observation pipe orifice 111; the bottom of furnace body 101 is equipped with slag discharging pipe 113, be equipped with the chamber 114 of slagging tap that is connected with slag discharging pipe 113 on the furnace body 101, be equipped with on the furnace body 101 with the chamber 115 of slagging tap that 114 top is connected and transversely set up, be equipped with the activity closing mechanism 116 with shutoff slag notch 115 on the furnace body 101, activity closing mechanism 116 is including setting up on furnace body 101 and with slag notch 115 positive relative cavity 117, be equipped with telescopic joint 118 in the cavity 117, telescopic joint 118's front end is equipped with the end cap 119 that is used for plugging up slag notch 115, be equipped with in the furnace body 101 with the slope 120 of observing the butt joint of mouth of pipe 111, the decurrent angle of observing the slope of mouth of pipe 111 is 40 ~ 85. The operation condition in the furnace can be observed by the observation device 112 at the nozzle 111, and the accumulation degree of a small amount of fine ash collected at the slope 120 and discharged along with flue gas, when the accumulation is influenced by sight or the furnace is shut down subsequently and the observation device 112 is disassembled, the accumulated ash can be removed along the slope 120 by the nozzle 111, so that the melting state of the slag in the furnace can be observed at the optimal fire observation point and whether the feeding state is normal or not can be detected.
A water interlayer is arranged in the furnace body 101, a cooling water inlet 121 and a cooling water outlet 122 which are communicated with the water interlayer are arranged on the furnace body 101, the melting furnace water inlet main pipe 805 is connected with the cooling water inlet 121, and the melting furnace water outlet main pipe 806 is connected with the cooling water outlet 122; the plasma generator is characterized in that a heat source pipe orifice 123 is arranged at the top of the furnace body 101, the plasma generator 202 is installed on the furnace body 101 through the heat source pipe orifice 123, a water-cooling pipe seat is arranged on the heat source pipe orifice 123, the plasma generator and the water-cooling pipe seat are connected in a flange mode, the plasma generator is convenient to disassemble, assemble and maintain, meanwhile, the sealing performance in the furnace is guaranteed, and the phenomenon that the plasma generator is damaged at high temperature to affect normal operation is effectively avoided.
When the working condition in the furnace meets the feeding condition, a certain amount of raw materials continuously and uniformly enter the furnace through the feeding pipe 104 sequentially through the gate valve 106 and the feeding device 107 on the feeding pipe 104; then, the stirring device 103 with the pipe orifice 108 arranged on one side of the furnace body continuously and uniformly stirs the raw materials entering the furnace and sends the raw materials to the optimal melting position in the furnace body 101 with the optimal melting atmosphere; within a certain period of time, the fly ash mixture is remelted and crystallized after being melted by the high-temperature surface to form a molten glass body structure, the completely melted molten glass body in a flowing state is discharged into a slag discharging cavity channel 114 from a slag discharging hole 115 at the bottom of the furnace body 101 after a movable closing mechanism 116 is opened, and a small amount of generated smoke is discharged through a smoke outlet pipe 109 above the furnace body 101; a physical property parameter measuring port 110 is arranged at the flue gas outlet pipe 109, and the running state in the reaction furnace can be monitored in real time according to the data, so that the guiding significance is provided for starting and stopping the furnace. And a cooling water inlet 121 and a cooling water outlet 122 which are communicated with the water interlayer are arranged on the furnace body 101, so that the furnace body 101 is cooled and protected. The inside of stove body 101 is equipped with high temperature resistant inside lining, has played fine guard action.
The furnace body 101 comprises a shell, a top cover is arranged at the top of the shell, and a detachable furnace top cover form is adopted, so that the maintenance is convenient, and the sealing performance in the furnace is guaranteed. The inlet pipe 104 and the heat source mouth of pipe 123 all set up on the top cap, the bottom of casing is equipped with the support, adopts the structure of support furnace body, is convenient for carry out dismouting maintenance to the furnace body alone, can adjust the support height according to the slag discharging pipe height of demand simultaneously and do not change furnace body structure, save area, reduce equipment material, reduce cost.
As shown in fig. 3, the flue gas cooling and salt collecting device 501 includes a first housing 507, a flue gas inlet pipe 509 is arranged on the first housing 507, a gas outlet pipe 510 is arranged at the top of the first housing 507, a discharge pipe 513 is arranged at the bottom of the first housing 507, the first housing 507 includes an inner cylinder 514, a jacket cylinder 515 is arranged on the periphery of the inner cylinder 514, a water injection cooling cavity 516 is formed between the jacket cylinder 515 and the inner cylinder 514, and a cooling water inlet pipe 517 and a cooling water outlet pipe 518 connected to the water injection cooling cavity 516 are arranged on the jacket cylinder 515; the bottom of the discharge pipe 13 is connected with a liquid storage tank 520, the discharge pipe 13 is provided with a switch valve 519, the high-temperature bag-type dust collector 508 is connected with a flue gas inlet pipe 509, when the device works, high-temperature flue gas from the plasma melting furnace firstly passes through the water-cooling flue 506 and the high-temperature bag-type dust collector 508 to remove a small amount of secondary fly ash in tail gas at a high-temperature section, and then enters the first shell 507 through the flue gas inlet pipe 509, because the cooling temperature is low, most of precipitated salt is dissolved by some condensate generated after the flue gas is condensed, and the salt solution is collected in the liquid storage tank 520 to be recovered and utilized, so that the pollution of the secondary fly ash and. The circulating cooling water enters the water injection cooling cavity 516 from the cooling water inlet pipe 517 to exchange heat with the inner cylinder 514, and the heat-exchanged circulating cooling water is discharged from the cooling water outlet pipe 518, so that the temperature of high-temperature flue gas is reduced, the outer surface of the equipment is ensured not to be scalded by touch, the service life of the equipment is prolonged, and the cost is reduced; the flue gas inlet pipe 509 is provided with a first parameter measuring port 527, and the gas outlet pipe 510 is provided with a second parameter measuring port 528, so that the operation condition of the flue gas cooling and salt collecting device 501 can be monitored in real time.
The end part of the jacket cylinder is provided with a first flange, the end part of the inner cylinder is provided with a second flange matched with the first flange, the lower end of the jacket cylinder is provided with a lower end socket, and the water injection cooling cavity 8 is formed by enclosing the jacket cylinder, the inner cylinder and the lower end socket and is convenient for assembling and manufacturing the first shell.
As shown in FIG. 4, the molten glass forming apparatus 601 includes a second housing 604, a slag inlet 605 and an air inlet 606 are provided at the top of the second housing 604, a high pressure lance 607 which is provided at an angle and is engaged with the slag inlet 605 is provided at the second housing 604, a glass fiber outlet 608 is provided at one side of the second housing 604, a first conveyor 609 is provided below the slag inlet 605 at the second housing 604, a glass fiber collecting device 610 is provided at the discharge end of the first conveyor 609, a second conveyor 611 is provided outside the glass fiber collecting device 610, the discharge end of the second conveyor 611 is abutted against the glass fiber outlet 608, a setting device 612 is provided at the upper portion of the front end of the second conveyor 611 at the second housing 604, a compacting device 613 is provided at the end of the second conveyor 611 at the second housing 604, and a suction gas is provided in the inner cavity of the second housing 604 below the first conveyor 609 and the second conveyor 611 A pipe 614, a suction pipe 614 is connected with the air inlet end of the second induced draft fan 602 for fiber forming, the molten glass in a flowing state enters the molten glass fiber forming device 601 through a slag inlet, a high pressure spray gun blows and draws the molten glass into filiform glass fibers, the inner cavity of the second shell 604 is provided with the suction pipe 614 below the first conveying device 609 and the second conveying device 611, the second induced draft fan 602 is in a negative pressure state in the second shell 604 during operation, outside air enters from the air inlet 606, simultaneously the generated filiform glass fibers are adsorbed on the first conveying device 609, the first conveying device 609 conveys the filiform glass fibers to the glass fiber collecting device 610 at a proper conveying speed, the second conveying device 611 matched with the glass fiber collecting device 610 conveys the collected filiform glass fibers to the shaping device 612 at a proper conveying speed for shaping, the shaped filiform glass fibers with the constraint overall dimension are compacted to a certain thickness by a compacting device 613 and then discharged from a glass fiber outlet 608, and can be used as industrial raw materials; the air entering the second housing 604 exchanges heat with the high-temperature molten glass, and the formed hot exhaust gas is extracted by the second induced draft fan 602 through the air suction pipe; the flue gas can be introduced into the flue gas cooling and salt collecting device 501 for cooling and purification, or introduced into the chimney 505 for other comprehensive utilization.

Claims (8)

1. A high-temperature melting process of a thermal plasma torch is characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps:
s1: mixing the fly ash and the glass powder in proportion to form a fly ash mixture, and selecting and proportioning appropriate additives according to the components of the fly ash;
s2: uniformly stirring the fly ash mixture and conveying the mixture into a middle bin;
s3: quantitatively feeding the fly ash mixture into a plasma melting system through a stokehole feeding device; the stokehole feeding device adopts a continuous and uniform feeding mode, and the feeding amount is adjusted by changing the frequency of a motor in the stokehole feeding device so as to achieve material balance and energy balance;
s4: controlling a plasma melting system to melt the fly ash mixture;
s5: cooling and purifying the tail gas generated in the melting process, and recycling the slag.
2. The thermal plasma torch pyrometallurgical process in accordance with claim 1, wherein the method for controlling the plasma fusion system to fuse the fly ash mixture in step S4 is,
A. preparing before starting, detecting that water pressure is started normally, air is started normally, nitrogen is started normally, materials are in an intermediate bin, a power supply is normal and an induced draft fan is normal, starting a plasma melting system, supplying power to a plasma power cabinet, starting the induced draft fan and starting a feeding device in a stokehole feeding device normally;
B. plasma ignition is carried out, when the current of a plasma power supply is normal, the plasma generator is successfully ignited, when the temperature in the hearth rises to 1200 ℃, a feeding device in a furnace front feeding device carries out feeding work, and a stirring device on the plasma melting furnace is started after M seconds are delayed to stir the fly ash mixture again; if the current of the plasma power supply cabinet is abnormal during ignition, the plasma generator fails to ignite, and the ignition starting work is carried out again;
C. carrying out melting work, constantly detecting the melting temperature in the hearth and recording the melting time;
D. performing fault detection when detecting one or more of current and voltage abnormity of a plasma power supply, abnormity of a plasma generator, water pressure abnormity of cooling water, temperature abnormity of a hearth, nitrogen pressure abnormity, feeding abnormity or combustion melting failure; and cutting off the control power supply and the power supply of the feeding device, closing the cooling water valve, the nitrogen valve and the air valve after the temperature of the hearth is cooled to be less than 150 ℃, and finally closing the induced draft fan to perform shutdown maintenance.
3. The thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting process of claim 1, wherein the method for cooling and purifying the tail gas in the step S5 comprises the steps of feeding the tail gas generated in the melting process into a high-temperature bag-type dust collector through a water-cooling flue to remove a small amount of secondary fly ash in the tail gas in the high-temperature section, feeding the tail gas into a flue gas cooling and salt collecting device along the circumferential tangential direction, wherein due to the low cooling temperature, most of precipitated salt is dissolved by some condensate generated after the flue gas is condensed, the salt solution is collected in a liquid storage tank to be recovered and utilized, feeding the tail gas purified by the flue gas cooling and salt collecting device into an SCR device and an activated carbon spraying device in sequence to perform denitration, dioxin removal and the like, feeding the tail gas into a low-temperature bag-type dust collector to remove a small amount of secondary fly ash in the tail gas in the low-temperature section, and finally performing desulfurization treatment by an induced draft fan and, after reaching the relevant national emission standard, the waste gas is discharged to the outside through a chimney; the collected secondary fly ash is mixed again and melted again.
4. The thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting process of claim 1, wherein the method for recycling the molten slag in step S5 is that the fly ash mixture is melted by the high-temperature surface, remelted and crystallized to form a molten glass structure, the molten glass in a flowing state enters the molten glass fiber forming device, a high-pressure spray gun in the molten glass fiber forming device blows and draws the flowing molten glass into filaments, a draught fan is used to draw out the hot gas flow in the molten glass fiber forming device, and the filaments are perfectly collected and compacted to be used as industrial raw materials.
5. A thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting system of a thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting process according to any one of the claims 1-4, characterized by comprising a plasma melting furnace (1), a plasma generator system (2), a raw material pre-treatment system (3), a raw material conveying system (4), a tail gas cooling and purifying system (5), a deslagging system (6), a power supply system (7), a water supply system (8) and a gas supply system (9);
the plasma melting furnace (1) comprises a furnace body (101) internally provided with a stirring device (103), wherein the furnace body (101) is provided with a stokehole feeding device (102) butted with the discharge end of the raw material conveying system (4);
the plasma generator system (2) comprises a plasma generator matching power supply cabinet (201) and a plasma generator (202) arranged on the furnace body (101);
the raw material pretreatment system (3) comprises a crusher (301), a proportioning device (302) and a stirring and mixing device (303);
the raw material conveying system (4) comprises a bucket elevator (401) and an intermediate bin (402); the feeding end of the bucket elevator (401) is connected and butted with the discharging end of the stirring and mixing device (303), the intermediate bin (402) is arranged at the discharging end of the bucket elevator (401), and the bottom end of the intermediate bin (402) is butted with the stokehole feeding device (102);
the tail gas cooling and purifying system (5) comprises a high-temperature bag-type dust collector (508), a smoke cooling and salt collecting device (501), an activated carbon injection device (502), an SCR device (511), an activated carbon injection device (502), a low-temperature bag-type dust collector (503), a first induced draft fan (504) and a chimney (505) which are sequentially connected in series; a water-cooling flue (506) is arranged on the high-temperature bag-type dust collector (508), and the water-cooling flue (506) is connected with the plasma melting furnace (1) through a pipeline;
the deslagging system (6) comprises a molten glass fiber forming device (601) and a second induced draft fan (602), wherein a slag inlet on the molten glass fiber forming device (601) is connected with the furnace body (101), and the second induced draft fan (602) extracts hot gas fluid in the molten glass fiber forming device (601), and the hot gas fluid is introduced into the flue gas cooling salt collecting device (501) for cooling and purification and other comprehensive utilization;
the water supply system (8) comprises a plate heat exchanger (801), a softened water tank (802), a power cabinet water inlet main pipe (803), a power cabinet water outlet main pipe (804), a melting furnace water inlet main pipe (805) and a melting furnace water outlet main pipe (806);
the air supply system (9) comprises a compressed air tank (901), a cold dryer (902), a nitrogen making machine (903) and a nitrogen buffer tank (904) which are sequentially connected in series, wherein the compressed air tank (901) is connected with a first water storage tank (905), the nitrogen buffer tank (904) is connected with a second water storage tank (906), an air outlet pipe of the nitrogen buffer tank (904) is connected with the furnace body (101), and the compressed air tank (901) is connected with the furnace body (101) through a pipeline.
6. The thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting system according to claim 5, wherein the stokehole feeding device (102) comprises a feeding pipe (104) arranged on the furnace body (101), and a gate valve (106) and a feeding device (107) are arranged on the feeding pipe (104) from top to bottom in sequence; the furnace body (101) is provided with an installation pipe orifice (108) which is transversely obliquely arranged at one end close to the feeding pipe (104), the stirring device (103) is installed in the installation pipe orifice (108) and extends into the furnace body (101), the furnace body (101) is provided with a flue gas outlet pipe (109), a water-cooling flue (506) is connected with the flue gas outlet pipe (109) through a pipeline, the flue gas outlet pipe (109) is provided with a physical property parameter measuring port (110), the furnace body (101) is provided with an observation pipe orifice (111) which is obliquely and downwardly arranged, and an observation device (112) which extends into the furnace body (101) is installed in the observation pipe orifice (111); the bottom of furnace body (101) is equipped with slag discharging pipe (113), be equipped with the slag discharging chamber way (114) of being connected with slag discharging pipe (113) on furnace body (101), be equipped with slag notch (115) that just transversely set up with being connected at slag discharging chamber way (114) top on furnace body (101), be equipped with movable closing mechanism (116) with shutoff slag notch (115) on furnace body (101), movable closing mechanism (116) is including setting up cavity (117) just relative with slag notch (115) on furnace body (101), be equipped with telescopic joint (118) in cavity (117), the front end of telescopic joint (118) is equipped with end cap (119) that are used for plugging up slag notch (115), be equipped with slope (120) with observation mouth of pipe (111) butt joint in furnace body (101), be equipped with the water interlayer in furnace body (101), be equipped with cooling water inlet (121) and cooling water outlet (122) with the water interlayer intercommunication on furnace body (101), the melting furnace water inlet main pipe (805) is connected with a cooling water inlet (121), and the melting furnace water outlet main pipe (806) is connected with a cooling water outlet (122); the top of the furnace body (101) is provided with a heat source nozzle (123), and the plasma generator (202) is arranged on the furnace body (101) through the heat source nozzle (123).
7. The thermal plasma torch high-temperature melting system according to claim 5, wherein the flue gas cooling and salt collecting device (501) comprises a first shell (507), a flue gas inlet pipe (509) is arranged on the first shell (507), a gas outlet pipe (510) is arranged at the top of the first shell (507), a discharge pipe (513) is arranged at the bottom of the first shell (507), the first shell (507) comprises an inner cylinder (514), a jacket cylinder (515) is arranged on the periphery of the inner cylinder (514), a water injection cooling cavity (516) is formed between the jacket cylinder (515) and the inner cylinder (514), and a cooling water inlet pipe (517) and a cooling water outlet pipe (518) which are connected with the water injection cooling cavity (516) are arranged on the jacket cylinder (515); the bottom of the exhaust pipe (513) is connected with a liquid storage tank (520), the exhaust pipe (513) is provided with a switch valve (519), the flue gas inlet pipe (509) is provided with a first parameter measuring port (527), and the gas outlet pipe (510) is provided with a second parameter measuring port (528); the high-temperature bag-type dust collector (508) is connected with a flue gas inlet pipe (509).
8. A thermal plasma torch high temperature melting system according to claim 5, characterized in that the molten glass forming device (601) comprises a second housing (604), the top of the second housing (604) is provided with a slag inlet (605) and an air inlet (606), the second housing (604) is provided with a high pressure spray gun (607) which is matched with the slag inlet (605) and is obliquely arranged, one side of the second housing (604) is provided with a glass fiber outlet (608), the second housing (604) is provided with a first conveying device (609) below the slag inlet (605), the discharge end of the first conveying device (609) is provided with a glass fiber collecting device (610), the outer side of the glass fiber collecting device (610) is provided with a second conveying device (611), the discharge end of the second conveying device (611) is butted with the glass fiber outlet (608), the shaping device (612) is arranged at the upper part of the front end of the second conveying device (611) of the second shell (604), the compacting device (613) is arranged at the tail end of the second conveying device (611) of the second shell (604), the air suction pipe (614) is arranged in the inner cavity of the second shell (604) and is positioned below the first conveying device (609) and the second conveying device (611), and the air suction pipe (614) is connected with the air inlet end of the second induced draft fan (602).
CN202011279028.5A 2020-11-16 2020-11-16 High-temperature melting process and system of thermal plasma torch Pending CN112209616A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202011279028.5A CN112209616A (en) 2020-11-16 2020-11-16 High-temperature melting process and system of thermal plasma torch

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202011279028.5A CN112209616A (en) 2020-11-16 2020-11-16 High-temperature melting process and system of thermal plasma torch

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN112209616A true CN112209616A (en) 2021-01-12

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN202011279028.5A Pending CN112209616A (en) 2020-11-16 2020-11-16 High-temperature melting process and system of thermal plasma torch

Country Status (1)

Country Link
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