CN210656559U - High-efficient biodegradable filter reactor - Google Patents

High-efficient biodegradable filter reactor Download PDF

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CN210656559U
CN210656559U CN201822197796.0U CN201822197796U CN210656559U CN 210656559 U CN210656559 U CN 210656559U CN 201822197796 U CN201822197796 U CN 201822197796U CN 210656559 U CN210656559 U CN 210656559U
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water
reactor
layer
carbon source
pipe
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王利群
邢汉君
李晶
柯水洲
马德保
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Hunan Hengkai Environment Technology Investment Co ltd
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Hunan Hengkai Environment Technology Investment Co ltd
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Abstract

The utility model discloses a high-efficient biodegradable filtration reactor belongs to sewage treatment technical field. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor comprises: a reactor column; a biological reaction zone and a deep filtering zone are arranged in the reactor cylinder from top to bottom; a separation layer consisting of sheet-shaped materials is arranged at the junction between the biological reaction zone and the deep filtration zone; a light suspended filler with the particle size of 2-4mm is arranged in the biological reaction zone; the deep filtering area is internally provided with a filler with a larger specific gravity and a particle size of 1.0-2.0 mm; the specific gravity of the filling material in the deep filtration zone is 2.5-3 times of that of the biological reaction zone. The utility model discloses a reactor collect biodegradable organic matter, denitrogenation, dephosphorization and get rid of fine suspended solid in an organic whole to be applied to the treatment of black and odorous water with this reactor, make the surface water of V class, inferior V class gradually improve the water more than the IV class, fundamentally solves the pollution problem of black and odorous water.

Description

High-efficient biodegradable filter reactor
Technical Field
The utility model belongs to the technical field of sewage treatment, concretely relates to high-efficient biodegradable filtration reactor.
Background
With the acceleration of urbanization pace and the improvement of industrialization degree, the total amount of wastewater discharged in China is on the trend of increasing year by year in recent years, river water bodies are polluted in various forms due to direct discharge, stealing discharge, leakage discharge and the like of the wastewater, seasonal or perennial black and odorous water bodies appear in many water bodies, the black and odorous water bodies not only bring unpleasant feeling to people in color and taste, but also influence the life health of people particularly because pollutants of the final circulation of a food chain. The black odor of the urban river is mainly the result of imbalance of oxygen supply and oxygen consumption of a water body caused by excessive sewage receiving, and pollutants are converted under the anoxic and anaerobic conditions of the water body to generate odor and odorous substances such as ammonia nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, volatile organic acid and the like and black substances such as iron sulfide and manganese sulfide and the like. Under the promotion action of the urgent situation and policy of serious water pollution at present, the treatment of black and odorous water becomes the key field of active attention and research of the majority of environmental protection experts in nearly two years.
At present, the urban black and odorous water body remediation still follows the basic technical route of 'source control and sewage interception, water quality purification and ecological restoration' in the aspect of technical selection. The black and odorous water quality purification technology and method comprises a physical method, a chemical method and a biological ecological method. The physical method mainly comprises the technologies of dredging, river aeration, water transfer engineering and the like, and can reduce pollutants accumulated in the river, enhance the river scouring capability and effectively reduce black and odorous substances by utilizing the physical method, but the method has obvious short-term effect, large engineering quantity, high investment cost and poor long-term stability; common chemical treatment at the present stage mainly comprises reinforced flocculation, activated carbon, medicament for killing algae and the like, the chemical treatment takes effect quickly in a short period, but the method has high cost and can form a plurality of sediments, and part of medicaments have toxicity and often form secondary pollution; due to the continuous release of nutrients of the sediment of the water body and the increase of various dry and wet settlings on the ground, the physical method and the chemical method can not fundamentally solve the problem of black and odorous water body. The application of the biological ecological method in black and odorous water treatment is very wide, the method mainly comprises artificial wetland, stabilization pond, ecological floating island, aquatic plant purification, microbial remediation and the like, the artificial wetland is continuously developed along with the improvement of environmental protection requirements and environmental biotechnology, and the microbial remediation is used as a water body biological remediation technology which is environment-friendly, ecological, energy-saving, low in investment, high in benefit and convenient and flexible to operate, and becomes a research hotspot of the black and odorous water treatment technology.
Microbial remediation is a process by which contaminants are eliminated to the maximum extent by selecting, concentrating, acclimating the microorganisms and creating appropriate degradation conditions. At present, the microbial remediation method which is mostly used in the field of black and odorous water treatment mainly comprises the step of adding a microbial agent, but because the added microbial agent flows along with the water and does not have a growth and adhesion carrier, the survival rate of microorganisms is low, and the treatment effect is poor. Therefore, some immobilized microorganism technologies have been developed, and the currently used immobilized microorganism technologies have problems of poor stability of the bacterial cells, single bacterial species, poor symbiosis of multiple microorganisms, and the like. The water quality conditions of black and odorous water bodies all over the country are comprehensively analyzed, and pollution of organic matters, nitrogen, phosphorus and the like in different degrees is presented, wherein the excessive nitrogen and phosphorus are main reasons for eutrophication of the water bodies. The existing microbial remediation technology has a poor denitrification effect, is difficult to realize the synchronous treatment of organic matter degradation, denitrification and dephosphorization of the black and odorous water body, and the formation of black fine substances such as iron sulfides, manganese sulfides and the like causes the transparency of the black and odorous water body to be low, so that fine suspended matters in the black and odorous water body cannot be effectively treated by single microbial remediation. At present, in the treatment technology of black and odorous water, the processes of organic matter degradation, denitrification, dephosphorization, removal of fine suspended matters and the like are generally arranged in different treatment units, the operation and management are complex, and the energy consumption and investment are large.
SUMMERY OF THE UTILITY MODEL
The utility model provides a reactor which integrates the functions of biodegradation of organic matters, denitrification, dephosphorization and removal of fine suspended matters. The reactor skillfully combines the biological reaction zone and the deep filtration zone in a three-dimensional space to realize the structural integration, and has the advantages of simple and direct process, compact structure, small occupied area, simple and convenient management, low investment and the like. Additionally, the utility model also provides a method of using above-mentioned high-efficient biodegradable filtering reactor to handle black smelly water, can utilize above-mentioned reactor to carry out other station to black smelly water and handle or circulation processing to solve the pollution problem of black smelly water.
The technical scheme of the utility model as follows:
a high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor comprising: a reactor column; a biological reaction zone and a deep filtering zone are arranged in the reactor cylinder from top to bottom; a separation layer consisting of sheet-shaped materials is arranged at the junction between the biological reaction zone and the deep filtration zone; a light filler with the particle size of 2-4mm is arranged in the biological reaction zone; the deep filtering area is internally provided with a filler with a larger specific gravity and a particle size of 1.0-2.0 mm; the specific gravity of the filling material in the deep filtration zone is 2.5-3 times of that of the biological reaction zone.
The height of the deep filtration zone is 30-40% of the height of the biological reaction zone;
preferably, the filler in the depth filtration zone has a specific gravity of 2.5-2.7g/cm3The quartz sand filter material between the two layers forms a sand filter layer, and the filler in the biological reaction zone has a specific gravity of 0.9-1.0g/cm3The light suspended filler between the two layers forms a suspended filler layer;
more preferably, the separation layer is a melon seed lamella layer; the length of the melon seed flaky stone is preferably 10-15 mm; more preferably, the height of the melon seed travertine layer is 5% -10% of the height of the biological reaction zone.
An aeration device is arranged at the bottom of the suspended filler layer;
preferably, the aeration device is a perforated aeration pipe which is arranged in the suspended filler layer and is 0.2m away from the bottom edge of the suspended filler layer;
more preferably, the perforated aeration pipes are arranged in a cross shape, the central line of the air holes and the axis of the aeration pipes are at 45 ℃, and the air holes are uniformly distributed along the pipeline;
preferably, the light suspended filler can be selected from inorganic fillers such as light ceramsite and organic fillers such as polystyrene and polyethylene.
The bottommost part of the reactor cylinder is provided with a water distribution area;
preferably, the upper part of the water distribution area is a bearing layer;
more preferably, the upper part of the supporting layer is connected with a sand filtering layer of the depth filtering area;
preferably, a filter plate is arranged between the bearing layer and the water distribution area;
more preferably, the supporting layer is cobblestones laid on the filter plate, the cobblestones are divided into two layers from top to bottom, the particle size of the cobblestones on the upper layer is 2-4mm, and the particle size of the cobblestones on the lower layer is 4-8 mm.
The high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor also comprises: a back washing system, a carbon source supply system and a water inlet and outlet system;
preferably, the backwash system comprises: the backwashing water outlet pipe is arranged at the upper part of the reactor column body, the water distribution pipe and the backwashing water outlet pipe are arranged at the middle part of the reactor column body, the aeration pipe of the aeration device, the water distribution pipe and the air inlet pipe are arranged at the bottom of the reactor column body, so as to form air-water combined backwashing; more preferably, the aeration pipe and the air inlet pipe are respectively connected with an air compressor through external pipelines, and the external pipelines are provided with an air inlet valve and an air flow meter which can control air inlet; the water distribution pipe is connected with the water outlet pool through an external pipeline, and a back flush valve capable of controlling back flush water distribution is arranged on the external pipeline;
preferably, the carbon source supply system comprises a carbon source tank and a perforated water distribution pipe which is communicated with the inside of the carbon source tank through an external pipeline and is arranged in the middle of the column body of the reactor; more preferably, the carbon source is selected from methanol, acetic acid or sodium acetate; more preferably, a carbon source valve capable of controlling the flow of the carbon source is arranged on the external pipeline of the carbon source pool;
preferably, the water inlet and outlet system comprises a water inlet pipe arranged at the upper part of the reactor column and a water outlet pipe arranged at the bottommost part of the reactor column; the water inlet pipe is connected with the raw water pool, the water outlet pipe is preferably connected with the water outlet pool, the water inlet pipe is provided with a water inlet valve for controlling water inlet, and the water outlet pipe is provided with a water outlet valve for controlling water outlet; more preferably, the upper part of the column body is provided with a liquid level meter, when the liquid level of the reactor reaches the height of the liquid level meter, the water inlet pump stops water inlet, the back washing pump is started, and back washing is automatically carried out;
more preferably, the back washing system, the carbon source supply system and the water inlet and outlet system are all provided with PLC controllers which are respectively connected with the air inlet valve, the back washing valve, the water inlet valve, the water outlet valve and the carbon source valve.
The method for treating the black and odorous water body is characterized in that the black and odorous water body is treated by adopting the high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor.
The method comprises the following steps: introducing black and odorous water into a reactor cylinder from the upper part of the high-efficiency biodegradation filtration reactor through a water inlet pipe of a water inlet and outlet system, and enabling the black and odorous water to sequentially flow through a suspended filler layer, a separation layer, a sand filter layer, a bearing layer and a water distribution area for natural film formation;
preferably, the black and odorous water body flows through the water distribution area and then enters the water outlet pool through the water outlet pipe of the water inlet and outlet system;
more preferably, before the black and odorous water body is introduced into the reactor, a certain amount of sludge is inoculated on a suspended filler layer in a biological reaction area in the column body of the reactor for one week of aeration and inoculation and biofilm formation.
Before the natural biofilm formation is finished, the inflow rate of the black and odorous water body is gradually increased to 80L/h from 20L/h;
after the natural biofilm formation is finished, controlling the water inlet flow of the black and odorous water body to be 60L/h; adjusting the gas-water ratio of the device to about 0.5:1, and adjusting the aeration rate to 0.5L/min through an air inlet valve and a gas flowmeter;
the natural biofilm formation completion means that COD and ammonia nitrogen removal rate are measured during the period of introducing the black and odorous water, and the biofilm formation is completed when the COD removal rate reaches 60% and the ammonia nitrogen removal rate reaches 70%.
The method further comprises the following steps: adjusting the gas-water ratio and controlling the supply of carbon source by monitoring the content of dissolved oxygen and nitrate in a water distribution pipe of a back flushing system in the middle of a column body of the high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor during the operation period;
the adjustment of the gas-water ratio is as follows: when the dissolved oxygen content is more than 2.5mg/L, adjusting the gas-water ratio to maintain the dissolved oxygen content in the column body of the reactor at 1.0-2.5 mg/L;
the control of carbon source supply refers to: according to the detection result of the nitrate content, when the carbon-nitrogen ratio is less than 4, starting a carbon source supply system, and only supplying carbon source supply to the sand filter layer;
preferably, the back-flushing system and the carbon source supply system run alternately.
The method further comprises the following steps: during the operation period of the high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor, back washing is carried out every two days;
preferably, the backwash finger: performing air-water combined backwashing by adopting water in the water outlet pool;
more preferably, the gas-water combined backwashing means: air impact is carried out for 3min, and the strength is 10L/(m)2S); then flushing for 3min with gas-water combination, wherein the gas-water strength is 10L/(m)2S)); finally water washing for 10min, the intensity is 10L/(m)2·s);
More preferably, the backwashed water flows back to the raw water pool through a water outlet pipe of the backwashing system, and enters the device again for treatment after sedimentation.
The utility model discloses a high-efficient biodegradable filtering reactor, including reactor cylinder 1, 1 bottom of cylinder is equipped with the water distribution district 2, and the water distribution district 2 upper portions are supporting layer 3, and 3 upper portions on supporting layer cover have sand filtration layer 4, and 4 upper portions on sand filtration layer cover have melon seed lamella layer 5, and 5 upper portions on melon seed lamella layer cover have light suspension packing layer 6, and 6 lower parts of suspension packing layer are equipped with perforation aeration pipe 7 and water distributor 8, and the reactor still includes business turn over water system 9 in addition, back flush system 10 and carbon source supply system 11.
The supporting layer 3 adopts a mode of paving cobblestones on the filter plate, the cobblestones are divided into two layers from top to bottom, the grain diameter of the first layer is 2-4mm, the grain diameter of the second layer is 4-8mm, and the total height of the supporting layer is about 200 mm.
The sand filtering layer 4 is made of quartz sand filtering materials, the specific gravity is large, the particle size is 1.0-2.0 mm, and the height of the sand filtering layer is about 0.8 m.
Melon seed schistosome layer 5 adopts the lamellar, and length 10 ~ 15mm, melon seed schistosome layer is laid highly about 0.1 m.
The suspended filler layer 6 is made of suspended filler with light specific gravity, the particle size is 2-4mm, and the height of the suspended filler layer is about 2 m.
The perforated aeration pipe 7 for aeration of the packing layer is arranged 0.2m above the bottommost end of the suspended packing layer 6, the perforated aeration pipe is in a cross shape, air holes are obliquely and downwards distributed uniformly along a pipeline at 45 ℃, and the risk of blocking the air holes in the backwashing process of the sand filter layer can be effectively reduced; the aeration pipe is connected with the air compressor through an air inlet pipe, and an air inlet valve is arranged on the air inlet pipe to control the aeration amount of the device.
The water inlet and outlet system 9 comprises a water inlet pipe at the upper part of the column body 1 and a water outlet pipe at the bottommost part, and valves are arranged on the water inlet and outlet pipes; in addition, a liquid level meter is arranged at the upper part of the column body, when the liquid level of the reactor reaches the height of the liquid level meter, the water inlet pump stops water inlet, the back washing pump is started, and back washing is automatically carried out.
The backwashing system 10 comprises two backwashing point positions at the bottom and the middle part of the column body, and backwashing is carried out by adopting air-water combined backwashing. Back washing the bottom: the bottom of the column body is provided with a back-flushing water inlet pipe and an air inlet pipe, the back-flushing air inlet at the bottom and the filler aeration share one air compressor, and the upper part of the column body 1 is provided with a back-flushing water outlet pipe; middle part back washing: the lower part of the suspended filler layer is provided with a perforated water distribution pipe 8, and the middle part gas back washing and the filler aeration share the same perforated aeration pipe and an air compressor. The air inlet pipe is arranged at the bottom of the column body and is used for back flushing air blast, and air is only fed when the back flushing air blast is carried out.
The carbon source supply system 11 is used for conveying a carbon source through a perforated water distribution pipe in the middle, the adopted carbon source is methanol, acetic acid or sodium acetate, and the adding amount of the carbon source is controlled according to the amount of nitric acid nitrogen entering the sand filter layer.
The water inlet and outlet system, the back flushing system and the carbon source supply system of the reactor are all provided with PLC controllers which are respectively connected with an air inlet valve, a back flushing valve, a water outlet valve, a carbon source valve and the like.
The utility model relates to a black and odorous water body treatment method, which applies the high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor and arranges the reactor in the black and odorous water bodyAnd a water inlet primary sedimentation tank and a water outlet collecting tank are arranged. The device is subjected to biofilm formation by a method combining two modes of inoculation and biofilm formation, namely, a certain amount of sludge is inoculated for one week for inoculation and biofilm formation, then black and odorous water is inoculated, and the filtration speed is gradually increased for natural biofilm formation. After the film is formed, the gas-water ratio of the device is adjusted to about 0.5:1, and the water inlet pump and the air compressor are started. The device carries out back flush every two days after stable operation, adopts the water in the water collecting basin of going out to carry out air water combined back flush, and the concrete process is: air impact is carried out for 3min, and the strength is 10L/(m)2S); then flushing for 3min by air-water combination; finally water washing for 10min, the intensity is 10L/(m)2S). And (4) refluxing the backwash effluent to a water inlet primary sedimentation tank, and entering the device again for treatment after sedimentation.
The utility model discloses a principle and advantage are:
the reactor adopts a double-layer filler structure, aeration is carried out in the middle, and sewage flows downwards. The upper light suspended filler structure is easy to form a double-sludge system containing a biological membrane and suspended activated sludge, the carbon oxidation and nitrification and denitrification effects of microorganisms are greatly improved, the dissolved oxygen content of the suspended filler layer is controlled to be 1.0-2.5mg/L by adjusting the gas-water ratio to 0.5:1, and under the critical condition, an aerobic environment, an anoxic environment and an anaerobic environment are sequentially formed in the biological membrane and filler gap from outside to inside, so that a symbiotic environment of aerobic microorganisms, nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria and phosphorus accumulating bacteria is created, and complex microbial action processes such as synchronous nitrification and denitrification, synchronous denitrification and phosphorus removal are formed; the quartz sand filler structure at the lower part can deeply intercept fine suspended matters in the black and odorous water body, meanwhile, the sand filter layer is in an anoxic environment, in the operation process, part of microorganisms can be brought into the effluent of the suspended filler layer at the upper part, and the microorganisms can further strengthen the denitrification and denitrification effects under the anoxic condition.
The reactor integrates the functions of biodegradation of organic matters, denitrification, dephosphorization and removal of fine suspended matters, and has wider application range to water pollutants and greatly saves occupied area compared with the conventional technical means of black and odorous water treatment.
The reactor is used for creating an aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic coexisting environment, the dissolved oxygen of the packing layer is controlled at a relatively low level, and compared with the conventional biomembrane technology, the aeration energy consumption is relatively low, so that the operation cost is reduced.
The reactor has short membrane hanging domestication time and strong impact load resistance, and when the device stops running, the biological membrane forms a dormant body, and after the device restarts running, the biological membrane can recover activity in a short time.
The bottom of the suspended packing layer is provided with a water distribution pipe, and a carbon source water inlet pipeline and a back flush water inlet pipeline are converged into the water distribution pipe through a tee joint. When the device normally operates, the carbon source conveying pipe is used for selectively supplying carbon sources according to different carbon-nitrogen ratios of the black and odorous water quality; when the device is used for back washing, the water inlet pipe is used as a back washing water inlet pipe, and the back washing system at the bottom of the device is combined to realize multi-point back washing of the device, so that the double-layer filler can be fully back washed.
The double-layer packing of the reactor is configured according to the principle of upper-part light weight and lower-part heavy weight, the double-layer packing can be automatically layered after back washing, and the quartz sand at the lower layer can not be lost, so that compared with the traditional sand filter, the sand supplementing cost and the corresponding maintenance and management work are reduced; in addition, the structure with a light upper part and a heavy lower part does not influence the expansion of the double-layer filler, so that the back washing is more sufficient, and the problem of filler blockage is avoided;
in order to avoid the mutual mixing of the double-layer fillers at the interface, the reactor selects proper particle size ratio of quartz sand and suspended fillers on one hand, and on the other hand, the interface of the double-layer fillers is filled with flaky melon seeds with the height of 10cm, so that the high water permeability of the device is kept, and the blocking phenomenon of the fillers of the device is greatly reduced.
The utility model discloses a reactor can form an integrality, integrate the higher automation equipment of degree and combine on-line monitoring instrument, computer program control etc. with the technique and can guarantee that whole technology is long-term, stable, reliably continuous operation. The reactor is a high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor which integrates biodegradation of organic matters, denitrification, dephosphorization and removal of fine suspended matters, and is applied to treatment of black and odorous water, so that surface water of class V and class V is gradually improved into water of class IV or above, and the pollution problem of the black and odorous water is fundamentally solved.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of the present invention.
The labels in the figure are listed below: 1-reactor cylinder, 2-water distribution area, 3-supporting layer, 4-sand filter layer, 5-melon seed sheet layer, 6-suspended filler layer, 7-perforated aeration pipe, 8-water distribution pipe, 9-water inlet and outlet system, 91-water inlet pipe, 911-water inlet valve, 912-water inlet pump, 92-water outlet pipe, 921-water outlet valve, 93-raw water pool, 94-water outlet pool, 95-liquid level meter, 10-backwashing system, 101-upper backwashing water outlet pipe, 102-middle backwashing water outlet pipe, 103-air inlet pipe, 104-air compressor, 105-air inlet valve, 106-gas flowmeter, 107-backwashing valve and 108-backwashing pump; 11-carbon source supply system, 111-carbon source pool, 112-carbon source valve, 113-carbon source pump.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to specific examples, which are only illustrative and do not limit the scope of the present invention. The operation steps used in the following examples are all conventional operations unless otherwise specified; the parts and consumables used are commercially available without specific reference.
Group 1 embodiment, the high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor of the utility model
The present group of embodiments provides a high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor. All embodiments of this group share the following common features: as shown in fig. 1, the high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor comprises: a reactor column 1; a biological reaction zone and a deep filtering zone are arranged in the reactor cylinder 1 from top to bottom; a separation layer consisting of sheet-shaped materials is arranged at the junction between the biological reaction zone and the deep filtration zone; a light filler with the particle size of 2-4mm is arranged in the biological reaction zone; the deep filtering area is internally provided with a filler with a larger specific gravity and a particle size of 1.0-2.0 mm; the specific gravity of the filling material in the deep filtration zone is 2.5-3 times of that of the biological reaction zone.
The biological reaction zone and the deep filtration zone have the advantages of light upper part and heavy lower part: (1) the upper-light-lower-heavy filler structure can fully exert the suspension characteristic of the upper-layer light filler, the filler can be in a suspension state in the operation process of the device, and the filler layer can form a double-sludge structure containing a biological membrane and suspended activated sludge after domestication and biofilm formation, so that the pollutant degradation efficiency of a biological reaction area is improved; (2) the upper-light-weight and lower-weight packing structure can enable double-layer packing to be automatically layered after back washing, and quartz sand on the lower layer cannot be lost, so that compared with a traditional sand filter, the sand supplementing cost and corresponding maintenance and management work are reduced; (3) the structure with light top and heavy bottom does not influence the expansion of the double-layer filler, the back washing is more sufficient, and the problem of filler blockage is reduced;
in a specific embodiment, the depth filtration zone height is 30% to 40% of the bioreactor height; the reason for setting such a height ratio is: because the aeration of the device is positioned in the middle of the double-layer filler, the lower deep filtering area plays the dual roles of intercepting fine suspended matters and denitrifying denitrification, the upper biological reaction area carries out partial denitrification, and partial nitrate still enters the lower layer, and the high proportion can ensure that the device achieves the best denitrification effect.
Preferably, the filler in the depth filtration zone has a specific gravity of 2.5-2.7g/cm3The quartz sand filter material between the two layers forms a sand filter layer 4, and the filler in the biological reaction zone has the specific gravity of 0.9-1.0g/cm3The light suspended filler between the two layers forms a suspended filler layer 6; the light suspended filler is selected from ceramsite, polystyrene and polyethylene.
More preferably, the separation layer is a melon seed lamella layer 5; the length of the melon seed flaky stone is preferably 10-15 mm; more preferably, the height of the melon seed travertine layer is 5% -10% of the height of the biological reaction zone. The function of setting the height ratio is as follows: the high proportion can ensure higher water permeability between the packing layers, does not influence the backwashing expansion of the sand rate layer, and ensures the full backwashing of the sand rate layer. The high proportion can also better separate double-layer fillers, and prevent the suspending performance of the suspended fillers from being influenced by the mutual mixing of the fillers during backwashing.
In some embodiments, the bottom of the suspended filler layer 6 is provided with an aeration device;
preferably, the aeration device is a perforated aeration pipe 7 which is arranged in the suspended filler layer at a distance of 0.2m from the bottom edge of the suspended filler layer; the advantages of the perforated aeration pipe arranged at the position are that: the light suspended filler layer on the upper layer is ensured to have sufficient dissolved oxygen for carbon oxidation and nitrification, and the dissolved oxygen is consumed through the biological reaction of the suspended filler layer of 20cm, so that the dissolved oxygen content entering the sand rate layer on the lower layer can be greatly reduced, the sand rate layer is in an anoxic environment, and the denitrification effect is greatly improved.
More preferably, the perforated aeration pipe 7 is formed by arranging a plurality of aeration pipes in a cross shape, the plurality of aeration pipes are integrally in a grid structure, the central line of the air holes and the axis of each aeration pipe are at 45 ℃, and the air holes are uniformly distributed along the pipeline. The crisscross arrangement can make the aeration action range wider and the distribution of the dissolved oxygen more uniform.
In other embodiments, the lowermost portion of the reactor column 1 is provided with a water distribution zone 2. The conventional water distribution area structure can be adopted, the effect is to ensure that the water inflow of the backwashing is stable and uniform, the local backwashing of the double-layer filler caused by the formation of short flow or channeling is avoided, and the problem of filler blockage caused by nonuniform backwashing is reduced.
Preferably, the upper part of the water distribution area 2 is provided with a bearing layer 3;
more preferably, the upper part of the supporting layer 3 is connected with the sand filtering layer 4 of the depth filtering area;
preferably, a filter plate is arranged between the bearing layer 3 and the water distribution area 2;
more preferably, the supporting layer 3 is cobblestones laid on the filter plate, the cobblestones are divided into two layers from top to bottom, the particle size of the upper layer of cobblestones is 2-4mm, and the particle size of the lower layer of cobblestones is 4-8 mm.
In a further embodiment, the high efficiency biodegradation filtration reactor further comprises: a back washing system 10, a carbon source supply system 11 and a water inlet and outlet system 9;
preferably, the backwash system 10 includes: a backwashing water outlet pipe 101 (a water outlet is provided with a filter screen to prevent suspended filler from flowing out along with water) arranged at the upper part of the reactor column 1, a water distribution pipe and a backwashing water outlet pipe 102 arranged at the middle part of the reactor column, an aeration pipe 7 of the aeration device, a water distribution pipe 8 and an air inlet pipe 103 arranged at the bottom of the reactor column 1 to form air-water combined backwashing; the advantages of the above-mentioned arrangement are: during the back flushing of the double-layer packing structure, suspended matters trapped at the lower layer are easy to back flush to the upper layer, and partial suspended matters are trapped to the upper layer packing, so that the back flushing is not thorough, and the packing is easy to block. The device can realize back flushing at two point positions of the lower part and the middle part, the middle part back flushing water distribution and aeration system can ensure full back flushing of the upper layer filler, the middle part back flushing water outlet pipe can ensure that back flushing water of the lower sand rate layer is directly discharged at the middle part of the reactor, and the influence of suspended matters intercepted by the sand rate layer on the upper layer filler is reduced. The double-point backwashing system can ensure the sufficient backwashing of the double-layer filler and can selectively backwash the double-layer filler on the frequency and the strength.
More preferably, the aeration pipe 7 and the air inlet pipe 103 are respectively connected with an air compressor 104 through external pipelines, and the external pipelines are provided with an air inlet valve 105 and a gas flowmeter 106 capable of controlling air inlet; the water distribution pipe 8 is connected with the water outlet tank 94 through an external pipeline, and a back flush valve 107 capable of controlling back flush water distribution is arranged on the external pipeline;
preferably, the carbon source supply system 11 comprises a carbon source tank 111 and a perforated water distributor 8 which is communicated with the inside of the carbon source tank 111 through an external pipeline and is arranged in the middle of the reactor column 1; the perforated water distribution pipe and the backwashing water distribution pipe are the same pipe, and the same water distribution pipe is adopted to avoid the influence of too many water distribution pipes on the operation management of the packing layer because the carbon source supply and the backwashing are operated alternately.
More preferably, the carbon source is selected from methanol, acetic acid or sodium acetate; more preferably, a carbon source valve 112 capable of controlling the flow of the carbon source is arranged on the external pipeline of the carbon source pool.
Preferably, the water inlet and outlet system 9 comprises a water inlet pipe 91 arranged at the upper part of the reactor column 1 and a water outlet pipe 92 arranged at the bottommost part of the reactor column; the water inlet pipe 91 is connected with a raw water pool 93, and the water outlet pipe 92 is connected with a water outlet pool 94; preferably, the water inlet pipe 91 is provided with a water inlet valve 911 for controlling water inlet, and the water outlet pipe 92 is provided with a water outlet valve 921 for controlling water outlet; more preferably, the upper part of the column body 1 is provided with a liquid level meter 95, when the liquid level of the reactor reaches the height of the liquid level meter 95, the water inlet pump 912 stops water inlet, the back washing pump 108 is started, and back washing is automatically carried out; the raw water tank 93 is used for containing the black and odorous water body to be treated, and the water outlet tank 94 is used for containing the clean water body after the black and odorous water body is treated.
More preferably, the back flushing system 10, the carbon source supply system 11, and the water inlet and outlet system 9 are all provided with PLC controllers, and are respectively connected to the air inlet valve 105, the back flushing valve 107, the water inlet valve 911, the water outlet valve 921, and the carbon source valve 112, and are used for automatically controlling the start and stop of the system. The PLC controller commonly used in the field can be selected and can be obtained commercially.
Group 2 embodiment of the present invention
The group of embodiments provides a method for treating black and odorous water, which is characterized in that the high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to any one of the group 1 embodiments is adopted to treat the black and odorous water.
In a particular embodiment, the method comprises: introducing black and odorous water into a reactor cylinder from the upper part of the high-efficiency biodegradation filtration reactor through a water inlet pipe of a water inlet and outlet system, and enabling the black and odorous water to sequentially flow through a suspended filler layer, a separation layer, a sand filter layer, a bearing layer and a water distribution area for natural film formation;
preferably, the black and odorous water body flows through the water distribution area and then enters the water outlet pool through the water outlet pipe of the water inlet and outlet system;
more preferably, before the black and odorous water body is introduced into the reactor, a certain amount of sludge is inoculated on a suspended filler layer in a biological reaction area in the column body of the reactor for one week of aeration and inoculation and biofilm formation.
In a specific embodiment, before the natural biofilm formation is completed, the inflow rate of the black and odorous water body is gradually increased to 80L/h from 20L/h; the benefits of controlling in this range are: the corresponding sewage retention time at 20L/h is suitable for the attached growth of microorganisms, the required organic matter amount is increased along with the increase of the attached amount of the microorganisms, the flow rate needs to be increased to meet the growth requirement of the microorganisms, but the high flow rate can have a strong scouring effect on the attached microorganisms, and the microorganisms can be washed away. The flow is controlled to be gradually increased in the range, so that the attachment and the stable growth of microorganisms are facilitated.
After the natural biofilm formation is finished, controlling the water inlet flow of the black and odorous water body to be 60L/h; adjusting the gas-water ratio of the device to about 0.5:1, and adjusting the aeration rate to 0.5L/min through an air inlet valve and a gas flowmeter; this air water ratio condition does the utility model discloses the innovation setting of method compares in general biomembrane processing technology, the utility model discloses an air water ratio is lower, and the aeration energy consumption is lower relatively, can reduce the operation cost. The step has the following effects on the treatment effect of the black and odorous water body: the purpose of adjusting the gas-water ratio is to control the dissolved oxygen content of the suspended filler layer to be 1.0-2.5mg/L so as to create a symbiotic environment of aerobic microorganisms, nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria and phosphorus accumulating bacteria, form a complex microbial action process of synchronous nitrification, denitrification, synchronous denitrification, phosphorus removal and the like, and form a reactor integrating biodegradation of organic matters, nitrogen removal and phosphorus removal; meanwhile, the dissolved oxygen content of the upper suspended filler layer is controlled, so that the dissolved oxygen content entering the lower sand rate layer is lower, an anoxic environment is easily formed, and the denitrification effect is further enhanced when the fine suspended matters in the black and odorous water body are deeply intercepted by the sand rate layer.
The natural biofilm formation completion means that COD and ammonia nitrogen removal rate are measured during the period of introducing the black and odorous water, and the biofilm formation is completed when the COD removal rate reaches 60% and the ammonia nitrogen removal rate reaches 70%.
In a further embodiment, the method further comprises: adjusting the gas-water ratio and controlling the supply of carbon source by monitoring the content of dissolved oxygen and nitrate in a water distribution pipe of a back flushing system in the middle of a column body of the high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor during the operation period;
the adjustment of the gas-water ratio is as follows: when the dissolved oxygen content is more than 2.5mg/L, adjusting the gas-water ratio to maintain the dissolved oxygen content in the column body of the reactor at 1.0-2.5 mg/L; the step of adjusting the air-water ratio is one of the innovations of the utility model, which has the following effects on the final treatment effect of the black and odorous water body: controlling the dissolved oxygen content of the suspended filler layer to be 1.0-2.5mg/L to create a symbiotic environment of aerobic microorganisms, nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria and phosphorus accumulating bacteria, forming a complex microbial action process of synchronous nitrification, denitrification, synchronous denitrification, phosphorus removal and the like, and forming a reactor integrating biodegradation of organic matters, nitrogen removal and phosphorus removal; meanwhile, the dissolved oxygen content of the upper suspended filler layer is controlled, so that the dissolved oxygen content entering the lower sand rate layer is lower, an anoxic environment is easily formed, and the denitrification effect is further enhanced when the fine suspended matters in the black and odorous water body are deeply intercepted by the sand rate layer.
The control of carbon source supply refers to: and starting the carbon source supply system when the carbon-nitrogen ratio is less than 4 according to the nitrate content detection result. Although the carbon source supplement is a common operation in the field of water treatment, the utility model discloses only provide the carbon source supply for the sand filtration layer of lower floor, this has not been reported before the utility model, and the benefit of so setting lies in: the anaerobic environment of the lower sand filter layer is utilized, and the sand filter layer has the denitrification function by supplementing a carbon source, so that the denitrification effect of the device is enhanced. And when the carbon-nitrogen ratio is more than 4, the carbon source supply system is not started. The operation can ensure that the device has better denitrification effect aiming at different black and odorous water body water qualities, and the application is more flexible.
Specifically, the backwashing system and the carbon source supply system run alternately, so that the carbon source supply system is started when the device is used for treating sewage, the device does not feed sewage during backwashing, the carbon source supply system does not run simultaneously, the two systems do not run simultaneously, but the two systems respectively run by utilizing a water distribution pipe in the middle of the reactor to feed water.
In a further embodiment, the method further comprises: during the operation period of the high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor, back washing is carried out every two days;
preferably, the backwash finger: performing air-water combined backwashing by adopting water in the water outlet pool;
more preferably, the gas-water combined backwashing means: air impact is carried out for 3min, and the strength is 10L/(m)2S); then flushing for 3min with gas-water combination, wherein the gas-water strength is 10L/(m)2S)); finally water washing for 10min, the intensity is 10L/(m)2S); firstly, air used for air flushing is air generated by an air compressor; the water for final water flushing is dischargedWater in the pool.
More preferably, the backwashed water flows back to the raw water pool through a water outlet pipe of the backwashing system, and enters the device again for treatment after sedimentation. The suspended matters intercepted in the packing layer are washed out by backwashing, and the backwashing effluent contains more suspended matters and can not be directly discharged, so that the backwashing effluent needs to flow back to the original water pool for further treatment.
Experimental example the utility model discloses a concrete operation and effect are verified
Manufacturing and building a high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor:
the self-made phi 0.2m multiplied by 4.5 m high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor mainly comprises a reactor cylinder 1, a water distribution area 2, a supporting layer 3, a sand filter layer 4, a melon seed lamella stone layer 5, a suspended filler layer 6, a perforated aeration pipe 7 and a water distribution pipe 8, and in addition, the reactor also comprises a water inlet and outlet system 9, a back washing system 10 and a carbon source supply system 11.
The shell of the column 1 is made of organic glass with the thickness of about 5mm, and a PVC back flush water inlet pipe of DN20 and an air inlet hose of DN5 are connected to the bottom plate of the reactor. A filter plate with the diameter of 200mm is arranged at a position 20cm away from the bottom of the column, two layers of cobblestones with the diameters of 4-8mm and 2-4mm are filled above the filter plate from bottom to top to form a supporting layer 3 with the height of 200mm, quartz sand with the diameter of 1-2mm is filled at the upper part of the supporting layer 3, and the height is about 0.8m, so that a sand filter layer 4 with the functions of intercepting fine suspended matters and denitrifying is formed; the upper part of the sand filter layer 4 is filled with melon seed stones 5 with the length of 5-10mm and the height is about 0.1 m.
The perforated aeration pipe 7 and the perforated water distribution pipe 8 are sequentially arranged at a position 0.2m away from the melon seed sheet stone layer, the perforated aeration pipe 7 adopts a cross type, air holes are uniformly distributed along a pipeline in a 45 ℃ inclined downward mode, and the perforated aeration pipe is connected with an air compressor through a hose of DN 5. The water distribution pipe 8 is connected with a back flush pump through a water pipe of DN20, and a tee joint is arranged on the water pipe and is simultaneously connected with a carbon source supply system. And filling a polyethylene spherical suspension filler with the particle size of 2-4mm above the melon seed sheet stone layer 5, wherein the filling height is about 2m, and forming a suspension filler layer 6. The side wall of the top of the reactor is connected with a water inlet pipe and a back flush water outlet pipe of DN20, thereby completing the integral manufacture and construction of the high-efficiency biodegradation filter reactor.
The application method comprises the following steps:
firstly, the device is filmed by a method combining two modes of inoculation and film formation and natural film formation, namely, a certain amount of sludge is inoculated for one week to be inoculated and filmed, and then the black and odorous water body is pumped by a submersible pump to enter 2m3The black and odorous water storage tank is conveyed to the reactor by a pump, the inflow is adjusted to 20L/h through a valve and a flowmeter, the flow is subsequently gradually increased to 80L/h, and natural membrane hanging is carried out. During the period, whether the biofilm formation is finished is judged by measuring COD and ammonia nitrogen, and the biofilm formation is finished when the removal rate of the COD reaches 60% and the removal rate of the ammonia nitrogen reaches 70%. After the film formation is finished, the water inflow is adjusted to be 60L/h through a valve and a flowmeter, the gas-water ratio of the device is adjusted to be about 0.5:1, and the aeration rate is adjusted to be 0.5L/min through the valve and the flowmeter on the gas pipe. During operation, the content of dissolved oxygen and nitrate is measured by sampling through a back flush water outlet in the middle of the column body, and when the content of the dissolved oxygen is more than 2.5mg/L, the gas-water ratio is adjusted in time to maintain the content of the dissolved oxygen in the column between 1.0 and 2.5 mg/L; according to the nitrate content measurement result, when the carbon nitrogen ratio is less than 4, the carbon source supply system is started. In addition, during the operation of the device, the back washing is carried out every two days, the water in the water outlet collecting tank is adopted for air-water combined back washing, and the specific process is as follows: air impact is carried out for 3min, and the strength is 10L/(m)2S); then flushing for 3min by air-water combination; finally water washing for 10min, the intensity is 10L/(m)2S). And the backwash effluent flows back to the black and odorous water storage tank and enters the device again for treatment after sedimentation.
After experiment steady operation one month, carry out contrastive analysis with indexes such as COD, ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus of device effluent and black smelly water raw water, all detect reactor effluent index every day in the experimentation, after experiment steady operation two weeks, experiment detection data is stable basically, deviation fluctuation range is less, the overall experiment result shows, compare with black smelly water raw water, after the reactor is handled, COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, the clearance of total phosphorus reach 75% -80% respectively, 85% -90%, 60% -70%, 50% -60%, the experimental effect is obvious.

Claims (22)

1. A high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor comprising: a reactor column; the device is characterized in that a biological reaction zone and a deep filtration zone are arranged in the reactor cylinder from top to bottom; a separation layer consisting of sheet-shaped materials is arranged at the junction between the biological reaction zone and the deep filtration zone; a light filler with the particle size of 2-4mm is arranged in the biological reaction zone; the deep filtering area is internally provided with a filler with a larger specific gravity and a particle size of 1.0-2.0 mm; the specific gravity of the filling material in the deep filtration zone is 2.5-3 times of that of the biological reaction zone.
2. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 1 wherein said depth filtration zone height is from 30% to 40% of said bioreaction zone height.
3. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 1 wherein said packing material in said depth filtration zone has a specific gravity of from 2.5 to 2.7g/cm3The quartz sand filter material between the two layers forms a sand filter layer, and the filler in the biological reaction zone has a specific gravity of 0.9-1.0g/cm3The light suspended filler between the two layers forms a suspended filler layer.
4. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor of claim 1 wherein said spacer layer is a melon seed layer; the length of the melon seed flaky stone is preferably 10-15 mm; more preferably, the height of the melon seed travertine layer is 5% -10% of the height of the biological reaction zone.
5. A high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 3 wherein said suspended filler layer is provided with aeration means at the bottom thereof.
6. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 5 wherein said aeration means is a perforated aeration tube located within the layer of suspended packing at a distance of 0.2m from the bottom edge of the layer of suspended packing.
7. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 6 wherein the plurality of perforated aeration tubes are arranged in a crisscross pattern with the centerline of the air holes at 45 ℃ to the axis of the aeration tubes and the air holes are evenly distributed along the pipeline.
8. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 3 wherein said light weight suspended fillers are selected from the group consisting of: ceramsite, polystyrene, or polyethylene.
9. A high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to any one of claims 1 to 8 wherein the lowermost portion of said reactor column is provided with a water distribution zone.
10. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 9 wherein said water distribution zone is topped with a support layer;
the upper part of the supporting layer is connected with the sand filtering layer of the depth filtering area.
11. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 10 wherein a filter plate is disposed between said support layer and said water distribution zone.
12. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 11 wherein said supporting layer is cobblestones laid on said filter plate and said cobblestones are divided into two layers from top to bottom, the upper layer cobblestones having a particle size of 2-4mm and the lower layer cobblestones having a particle size of 4-8 mm.
13. A high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to any one of claims 1 to 4, 8 and 10 to 12 further comprising: a back washing system, a carbon source supply system and a water inlet and outlet system.
14. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to any one of claims 5 to 7 further comprising: a back washing system, a carbon source supply system and a water inlet and outlet system.
15. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 14 wherein said backwash system comprises: a backwashing water outlet pipe arranged at the upper part of the reactor column body, a water distribution pipe and a backwashing water outlet pipe arranged at the middle part of the reactor column body, an aeration pipe of the aeration device, a water distribution pipe and an air inlet pipe arranged at the bottom of the reactor column body so as to form air-water combined backwashing.
16. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 15 wherein said aerator and air inlet are connected to an air compressor via external conduits, and wherein said external conduits are provided with air inlet valves and gas flow meters for controlling air inlet; the water distribution pipe is connected with the water outlet pool through an external pipeline, and a back flush valve capable of controlling back flush water distribution is arranged on the external pipeline.
17. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor of claim 13 wherein said carbon source supply system comprises a carbon source tank and a perforated water distributor in the middle of the reactor column communicating with the interior of the carbon source tank via an external conduit.
18. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor of claim 17 wherein said carbon source is selected from the group consisting of methanol, acetic acid and sodium acetate.
19. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 17 or 18 wherein a carbon source valve for controlling the flow of carbon source is provided on an external pipe of said carbon source tank.
20. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 13 wherein said water inlet and outlet system comprises a water inlet pipe disposed at the upper portion of the reactor column and a water outlet pipe disposed at the lowermost portion of the reactor column; the water inlet pipe is connected with the raw water pool, the water outlet pipe is preferably connected with the water outlet pool, a water inlet valve for controlling water inlet is arranged on the water inlet pipe, and a water outlet valve for controlling water outlet is arranged on the water outlet pipe.
21. The high efficiency biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 20 wherein a liquid level gauge is attached to the top of the column and when the reactor level reaches the level of the liquid level gauge, the water feed pump stops feeding water and the backwash pump is turned on to automatically effect backwash.
22. The efficient biodegradation filter reactor according to claim 13 wherein the back flush system, the carbon source supply system, the water inlet and outlet system are each equipped with a PLC controller connected to an air inlet valve, a back flush valve, a water inlet valve, a water outlet valve, and a carbon source valve, respectively.
CN201822197796.0U 2018-12-25 2018-12-25 High-efficient biodegradable filter reactor Active CN210656559U (en)

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