CN1162129C - X ray computerized 3D positioning equipment for target and its method - Google Patents

X ray computerized 3D positioning equipment for target and its method Download PDF


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CN1162129C CNB021165653A CN02116565A CN1162129C CN 1162129 C CN1162129 C CN 1162129C CN B021165653 A CNB021165653 A CN B021165653A CN 02116565 A CN02116565 A CN 02116565A CN 1162129 C CN1162129 C CN 1162129C
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本发明公开了一种X射线对靶目标的计算机立体定位装置及其方法。 The present invention discloses an X-ray stereotactic apparatus and method for computer-target object. 本发明应用计算机对X射线照射人体内靶目标如结石产生的X、Y轴平面图像及其位置传感器的三维位置数据进行数学分析,用设置参考点及二次位移测量的方法满足计算条件,通过计算后控制电动传动装置进行立体位置移动,达到自动控制人体内靶目标与治疗装置的焦点重合的目的。 The present invention is applied to computer X X-ray irradiation targets in the human body, such as stones generated, three-dimensional position data of the image plane and the Y-axis position sensor mathematical analysis, by setting a reference point and the second displacement measurement calculation method satisfies the condition, by after calculating the electric control actuator position perspective, the purpose of automatic focus control targets in the human body and the treatment device coincide. 采用计算机控制操作简单省时,定位过程只需几帧图像,所以X射线装置高压电源只是瞬间接通,有效降低X射线对人员的辐射。 When using the computer control operation very simple and easy, the positioning process takes only a few frame image, the X-ray high voltage power supply means is turned on only a moment, reduce personnel radiation X-rays. 本发明应用于通过X射线可以观察到的结石、肿瘤等多种疾病的诊断定位及物体探伤等定位作业中。 The present invention is positioned and applied to the diagnosis of various diseases object detection stones, tumors, etc. positioning operation can be observed by X-rays.


X射线对靶目标的计算机立体定位装置及其方法 X-ray computed stereotactic apparatus and method of the targets

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及X射线对靶目标的定位装置及其方法。 The present invention relates to an X-ray device and method for positioning a target object.

背景技术 Background technique

目前临床应用中,X射线对靶目标的定位大部分靠医务人员观察图像、人为按动按钮操作传动装置完成定位操作。 Current clinical applications, X-ray positioning target for most medical personnel against the observation image, human push button means carry out the positioning operation of the transmission. 这里提到的靶目标为通过X射线照射人体可以观察到的结石、肿瘤等。 Targets mentioned here by X-ray irradiation of the body can be observed calculus, tumors and the like. 例如X射线定位体外碎石机主要由摆臂式单束X射线装置及XTV电视系统、冲击波发生治疗装置、专用病床、具有三维自由度的电动传动装置等组成。 For example, X-ray positioning arm Lithotripsy mainly by single beam X-ray apparatus and XTV television system, the occurrence of the shock wave treatment apparatus, special beds, electric transmission having a three-dimensional degree of freedom of composition and the like. XTV电视系统的影像增强器与摄像头安装于摆臂式单束X射线装置的可围绕水平轴线摆动的C形臂一端,X射线发生器的X射线球管安装于C形臂的另一端。 XTV image intensifier television system with a camera attached to a single-beam arm type X-ray apparatus may be pivotable about a horizontal axis end of the C-arm, X-ray tube X-ray generator mounted at the other end of the C-arm. X射线球管发射X射线,X射线穿透人体组织将体内靶目标(结石)成像于影像增强器的图像输入面上,摄像头将该图像摄取并传送至影像监视器供医务人员观察。 X-ray tube emits X-rays, X-rays penetrate human tissue in vivo targets (stones) in the image forming the image pickup surface of the image intensifier input, and transmitted to the camera for medical personnel to observe the video monitor. 冲击波发生治疗装置,其特点是通过聚焦将脉冲能量高度聚集于一个焦点上;采用机械刚性连接使该焦点始终对准C形臂围绕摆动的水平轴线与X射线束中心轴线的交点上,将靶目标(结石)置于该交点(焦点)即可进行体外碎石。 Treating shock wave generating apparatus, which is characterized by a high concentration of pulse energy focused on a focal point; mechanically rigidly connected so that the focus is always aligned with the C-arm about the pivot point of intersection of the horizontal axis and the central axis of the X-ray beam, the target target (stones) disposed in the intersection point (focus) can be lithotripsy. 专用病床供结石病人接受治疗。 Special beds for stones treatment. 三维自由度电动传动装置可安装于C形臂等装置组成的主机也可安装于专用病床;其目的在于将人体内靶目标(结石)通过位移或相对位移与冲击波发生治疗装置的焦点重合。 Three-dimensional degree of freedom of electric transmission apparatus may be installed on the host and other components of the C-arm may be mounted on dedicated beds; an object of the targets in the human body (stones) by displacement or relative displacement coincides with the focus of the shock wave therapy device occurs. 医务人员操作该设备时,首先观察影像监视器显示图像中靶目标(结石)的投影位置,人为按动相应按钮调整X、Y坐标位置将靶目标(结石)投影显示于影像监视器图像中心。 When medical personnel operating the apparatus, the first observation of the video monitor displays an image of the target object (calculus) projection position, pressing the appropriate button to adjust the human X, Y coordinate position of a target object (calculus) displayed on the video monitor projected image center. 而后将C形臂沿水平轴线摆动一个角度,此时如果病人体内靶目标(结石)未置于C形臂的水平摆动中心线上,靶目标(结石)在监视器图像上的投影位置将发生偏移,人为按动相应按钮调整Z坐标位置将靶目标(结石)投影显示于影像监视器图像中心完成定位操作。 After the C-arm along a horizontal pivot axis at an angle, if the patient at this time targets (stones) is not over swing the C-arm horizontal center line, the projection position of the target object (calculus) image on the monitor will occur offset press the appropriate button to adjust the artificial Z coordinate position of the target object (calculus) in a projection display video monitor image center complete the positioning operation. 例如,2000年11月1日公开的公开号为2403369的中国实用新型专利所公开的一种利用X射线定位进行结石破碎的“体外冲击波碎石机”;其作用原理与以上叙述基本相仿。 For example, Publication No. 2000, November 1 as disclosed in Chinese Utility Model Patent No. 2403369 disclosed for performing the calculus crushing "extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy," X-ray positioning; its mechanism is basically similar to the above description. 此类设备在对靶目标(结石)的定位过程中医务人员需观察连续变化的图像,人为按动按钮逐步调整病人体内靶目标(结石)至交点(焦点)。 Such devices during the positioning of targets (stones) in need of medical personnel to observe a continuously changing image, the gradual adjustment of the push button human patient targets (calculus) to the intersection (focus). 故病人需连续照射X射线;病人与医务人员接受的X射线辐射剂量较大,影响他们的健康;同时医务人员劳动强度较大。 So patients need to continuously irradiated X-rays; medical staff and patients receiving X-ray radiation dose, affecting their health; medical personnel while large labor intensity.


本发明的目的在于提供一种X射线对靶目标的计算机立体定位装置及其方法。 Object of the present invention to provide an X-ray stereotactic apparatus and method for computer-target object.

本发明通过计算机对X射线照射病人体内靶目标产生的平面图像等数据进行数学分析,确定靶目标的立体坐标位置并自动控制电动传动装置将病人体内靶目标位移或相对位移到与治疗装置的焦点重合的位置后进行治疗。 The present invention is a mathematical analysis of the planar images the X-ray irradiation of the patient target for data generated by a computer to determine the three-dimensional coordinate position of the target object and automatically controls the electric actuator to the patient target for displacement or relative displacement of the focal point of the treatment device overlapping position for treatment. 本发明提到的靶目标为通过X射线照射人体可以观察到的结石、肿瘤等病变,也可以为通过X射线照射可以观察到的各种内在目标。 Targets mentioned in the present invention is observed by X-ray irradiation of body stones, tumors and other diseases, may be a variety of X-ray irradiation of the target can be observed inherent.

本发明的X射线对靶目标的计算机立体定位装置及其方法包括:一个检测病人体内靶目标位置并可进行调整使治疗用经聚焦的能量的焦点与靶目标重合的装置,该装置包括摆臂式单束X射线装置与XTV电视系统,能将治疗用强脉冲能量聚焦于一个焦点的治疗装置,多个位置传感器和电动传动装置。 The present invention on an X-ray stereotactic apparatus and method targets a computer comprises: a detecting patient position targets and therapeutic means to adjust so that the focused energy targets coincident with the focal point, the apparatus comprising a swing arm single-beam X-ray device and XTV television system, can focus on the treatment means a treatment with a strong focus pulse energy, a plurality of position sensors and electric transmission.

一个计算机控制装置,它包括一个含特定软件的计算机,一个显示人体内靶目标平面图像的图像显示装置和一个专用键盘。 A computer control means includes a computer containing a specific software, a display image of a target body planar image display device and a target-specific keyboard. 所述的计算机运行特定软件执行以下定位方法:将显示靶目标的X、Y坐标图像中靶目标的图像位置数据转换为长度位置数据、并将此位置数据与位置传感器检测的当前位置数据及预先载入的相关位置数据进行计算后,用设置参考点及二次位移测量的方法满足计算条件,通过计算后控制相应电动传动装置产生立体位置移动,达到自动控制人体内靶目标与治疗装置的焦点重合即定位的目的;摆臂式单束X射线装置连同XTV电视系统改变一个观察测量角度,计算机采集改变观测方位后的靶目标位置图像及位置传感器检测到的位置数据后计算出当前靶目标位置与冲击波发生装置的焦点间的位置偏差,控制Z坐标电动传动装置按该偏差数据进行位移操作,完成定位校验。 The computer runs software to perform the following specific targeting methods: displays a target object X, Y coordinate data of the position of the image of the target object image is converted into position data length, and this current position data and the position data detected by the position sensor and pre loading data related to the position calculation, calculation conditions satisfied by setting the reference point and the secondary displacement measurement method, after generating three-dimensional position calculated by the controlling respective electric actuator, to automatically focus control targets in the human body and the treatment device i.e. overlapped object location; single-beam arm X-ray apparatus, together with a change television system XTV observation angle measurement, computer acquisition target position data after the target position of the image sensor and the position after the change observed azimuth detection target to calculate the current position of the target positional deviation between the focus of the shock wave generating means, the control means drives the electric Z coordinate shift operation according to the deviation data, the positioning complete verification.

本发明的有益效果是,发明中充分应用了计算机控制技术,从而使它与已有技术相比使用方便,定位准确;只需操控计算机鼠标点击几下,系统即可自动完成立体定位动作;诊断过程快捷方便,缩短定位时间提高就诊效率,减轻医务人员的劳动强度;由于本定位装置中计算机只需对图像采集卡所采集的几帧图像进行处理,故X射线装置高压电源只是瞬间接通;医务人员操作熟练后,病人接受X射线照射的时间将以毫秒计算;整个诊断过程对人员的X射线辐射微乎其微。 Advantageous effect of the invention is that the invention fully computer control technology is applied, so that it is easy to use compared to the prior art, accurate positioning; just a few mouse clicks control computer, the system can automatically stereotaxic operation; Diagnosis fast and convenient process, to improve the positioning time treatment efficiency, reduce labor intensity of the medical staff; computer since only several frames of image acquisition card of the present process the collected positioning apparatus, so that the X-ray high voltage power supply means is turned on only a moment; after the operation of skilled medical personnel, patients receiving X-ray irradiation time will milliseconds; the entire X-ray diagnosis of minimal personnel radiation. 同时X射线装置的寿命也大为提高,并有效降低设备电力消耗。 At the same time the life of the X-ray apparatus is also greatly improved, and to reduce device power consumption. 本发明适用于通过X射线照射人体可以观察到的如结石、肿瘤等多种疾病的诊断定位。 The present invention is suitable for fault localization can be observed by X-ray irradiation of human diseases such as a variety of stones, tumors and the like.


下面结合附图对本发明作详细具体的描述。 DRAWINGS The invention will be described in detail below in conjunction.

图1是本发明所采用的基本结构主视图;图2是本发明所采用的基本结构侧视图;图3是计算机屏幕显示靶目标X、Y坐标位置图像的示意图;图4是图1中X射线照射路径简化后的XDZ平面示意图;图5是图4以D点为中心在XDZ平面上摆动角度e后的示意图;图6是计算机控制部分示意图;图7是计算机软件流程图。 FIG. 1 is a front view showing a basic structure used in the present invention; FIG. 2 is a side view of a basic structure used in the present invention; FIG. 3 is a schematic view of targets X, Y coordinates of the position of the image on the computer screen; FIG. 4 is a diagram of X 1 XDZ ray irradiation path plane after a simplified schematic diagram; FIG. 5 is a point D in FIG. 4 is a schematic of the center on the pivot angle e XDZ plane; FIG. 6 is a partial schematic view of a control computer; FIG. 7 is a flow chart of computer software.

图中1.摄像头,2.影像增强器,3.图像输入面,4.C形臂,5.靶目标,6.X坐标电动传动装置,7.Z坐标电动传动装置,8.X射线球管,9.Y坐标电动传动装置,10.电动传动装置,11.电动传动装置,12.治疗装置,13.X坐标位置传感器,14.Z坐标位置传感器,15.位置传感器,16.角度传感器,17.Y坐标位置传感器,18.专用病床,19.中继单元,20.计算机,21.显示器,22.图像采集卡,23.转换卡,24.专用键盘。 1. FIG camera 2. Image intensifier 3. The image input surface, 4.C-arm, 5 targets, coordinate 6.X electric transmission, 7.Z coordinate electric transmission, 8.X-ray tube, 9.Y coordinate electric transmission, 10 electric actuator means 11 electric actuator means 12. treatment device, 13.x coordinate position sensor, 14.Z coordinate position sensor 15 position sensor 16. The angle sensor , 17.Y coordinate position sensor, 18. dedicated beds, 19 relay unit, 20 computer, 21 a display, 22 image acquisition card 23. The converter cards 24 special keyboard.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

以下参照图1、图2和图6说明本发明的X射线对靶目标的计算机立体定位装置及其方法。 With reference to FIGS. 1, 2 and 6 illustrate the present invention an X-ray stereotactic apparatus and method of a computer for the target object.

一个检测病人体内靶目标位置并可进行调整使经聚焦的治疗用能量的焦点与靶目标重合的装置:包括一个安装于可围绕水平轴线Y摆动的C形臂4,其一端安装影像增强器2与摄像头1,另一端安装发射X射线的X射线球管8,影像增强器2的图像输入面3接受X射线照射,令X射线球管8发射的X射线束的中心轴线贯穿图像输入面3的两坐标轴交点且垂直于图像输入面3,同时X射线束的中心轴线又与C形臂围绕摆动的水平轴线Y垂直;C形臂4与影像增强器2间装有电动传动装置10及位置传感器15,用以调整图像输入面3与X射线球管8间距离;驱动C形臂4围绕水平轴线Y摆动的电动传动装置11及角度传感器16;驱动X坐标位移的X坐标电动传动装置6和X坐标位置传感器13,驱动Y坐标位移的Y坐标电动传动装置9和Y坐标位置传感器17,驱动Z坐标位移的Z坐标电动传动装置7和Z坐标位置传感器14 A target for detecting the position of the patient and that the means for adjusting the focus and energy therapeutic targets focussed coincides: comprises a C-arm may be mounted to pivot about a horizontal axis Y 4, one end of which is mounted an image intensifier 2 the central axis of the camera 1, the other end to the X-ray tube emits X-rays 8, the image input face of the image intensifier 2, 3 receives X-rays, so that X-ray tube 8 emitted X-ray beam through the image input face 3 and the intersection of the two axes perpendicular to the image input face 3, while the center axis of the X-ray beam and the C-arm about a horizontal axis Y perpendicular to the pivot; 2 equipped with an electric drive means 4 and the C-arm image intensifier 10 and the position sensor 15, to adjust the distance from the image plane 3 and the input 8 X-ray tube; means for driving the electric actuator 4 C-arm about a horizontal pivot axis Y of the angle sensor 11 and 16; X coordinate of the electric actuator drives the X-coordinate displacement 6 and the X coordinate position of the sensor 13, Y-coordinate drive means driving the Y coordinate of the electric displacement sensor 9 and the Y-coordinate position 17, Z-coordinate drive means for driving the electric displacement Z coordinates and Z coordinates of the position sensor 7 14 可将治疗用脉冲能源聚焦于一个焦点的治疗装置12,采用特殊机械结构使该焦点始终同C形臂4围绕摆动的水平轴线Y与X射线束的中心轴线的交点D重合;治疗装置12的能源可以是高压电火花、激光、超声波、电磁波等可产生高能脉冲的装置;图中电动传动装置6、9和7及位置传感器13、17和14安装于专用病床18下,也可安装于C形臂4围绕摆动的水平轴线Y下,只要通过相对位移达到将靶目标5与治疗装置12的焦点即交点D重合的目的即可。 May be the treatment device is focused on a focal point with a pulse energy of 12, using a special mechanical structure so that the focus is always 4 about a pivot horizontal axis Y coinciding with the intersection D center axis of the X-ray beam with the C-arm; treatment device 12 energy may be generated high energy pulses means of high-voltage spark, laser, ultrasonic, electromagnetic wave; FIG. 6, 9 and the electric drive means 7 and the position sensor 13, 17 and 14 are mounted at 18 dedicated beds, may be attached to the C-arm 4 oscillating about a horizontal axis Y, as long as the focus is achieved by relative displacement of the targets 5 and the treatment device 12, i.e. intersection D object can overlap.

一个计算机控制装置:包括一个含特定软件的计算机20,接收摄像头1所摄图像的图像采集卡22,用于显示图像等数据的显示器21,用于人为发送指令与手动控制位移的专用键盘24,将传感器13、14、15、16和17检测的位置及角度数据经模/数或数/数转换为标准的数字量输入计算机20的转换卡23,将计算机20输出的位移信号经放大后驱动电动传动装置6、7、9、10和11的中继单元19。 A computer control means: a computer 21 includes a display 20 having a specific software, the camera receives an image of the subject image acquisition card 22, for displaying the image data and the like, and sends an instruction manual for artificially controlling the displacement of the special keyboard 24, converting the position detecting sensors 13, 14 and 17 and angle data by the analog / digital or digital / number of standard computer into a digital input card 2320 will drive the displacement signal output from the computer 20 via the amplifying 6,7,9,10 electric transmission unit 11 and the relay 19. 计算机20按下面将要说明的预定程序计算出靶目标5与冲击波发生装置12的焦点即交点D间的相对位置,将位移数据通过中继单元19驱动相应的电动传动装置,使靶目标5与交点D重合。 Relative position, i.e. intersection D predetermined program of the computer 20 in the following will be described the calculated focal point 12 of the targets 5 and the shock wave generating means through driving the relay unit 19 corresponding to the electric actuator displacement data, so that targets 5 and the intersection D coincide.

以下就本发明进行理论阐述。 The following theory of this invention is explained. 首先操作专用键盘24调控X、Y坐标电动传动装置6、9将靶目标5的投影置于显示器21的可观察范围。 First, the keyboard 24 to operate the dedicated regulation X, Y coordinates of the target electric transmission 6,9 to 5 was placed projection target range of the display 21 can be observed. 如图3,定位过程中视觉观察并通过计算机位移调整将靶目标5的X射线投影(以下简称投影)移到图像中心两坐标轴的交点B'。 3, the positioning process and visually observed through the computer targets the displacement adjusting X-ray projection 5 (hereinafter referred to as projected) to the center of the image of the intersection of two axes B '. 图3中靶目标5的投影初始位置假设为坐标点A';A'点的X'坐标值为A'x、Y'坐标值为A'y。 The initial target for the projected position of FIG. 5 is a coordinate point is assumed 3 A '; A' the point X 'coordinate value A'x, Y' coordinate value A'y. 该图像是由影像增强器2的图像输入面3接收后经影像增强器2转换为可见光图像被摄像头1摄取后传输至图像采集卡22输入计算机20显示于显示器21;故我们等效认为图3所示图像即为X射线照射影像增强器2的图像输入面3上的实际影像。 The image is later received by the image input face image intensifier 2, 3 via the image intensifier 2 is converted to be transmitted to the frame grabber after the visible image is a pickup camera 22 into the computer 20 displays on the display 21; so we equivalents that FIG 3 the image shown in FIG. 3 is the actual image on the image-input face of the X-ray irradiator 2 image intensifier. 至此我们有条件将三维空间定位问题分解为XDZ与YDZ两个平面定位问题来处理。 At this point we will conditionally divided into three-dimensional spatial orientation problems with YDZ XDZ two planes positioned to deal with the problem. 先分析XDZ平面,将图1中X射线照射路径简化为图4:图中A'x、B'点均为图3中的相应点,存在于图像输入面3的X'坐标轴;图中O点为X射线球管8的X射线发射中心,为便于测量设置垂直测量轴线Z,OB'线段为X射线束的中心轴线并且当其呈垂直状态时与垂直测量轴线Z重合;图像输入面3与X射线束的中心轴线OB'垂直。 Analysis XDZ first plane, the X-ray irradiation in FIG. 1 FIG. 4 is a simplified path: FIG A'x, B 'points are corresponding points in FIG. 3, is present in the image-input face 3 of the X' axis; FIG. O point of the X-ray emission center of the X-ray tube 8, for ease of measurement is provided perpendicular to the measurement axis Z, OB 'line as the center axis of the X-ray beam, and when it is in a vertical state coincides with the vertical measuring axis of the Z; image-input face 3 and the center axis OB X-ray beams' vertical. 前面提到D点为C形臂4围绕摆动的水平轴线Y与X射线束的中心轴线OB'的交点且与治疗装置12的焦点重合,在图4中定位过程需要将靶目标5移至与交点D重合的位置。 The aforementioned point of the center axis OB D about a horizontal axis Y and X-ray beam of the C-arm pivot 4 'and the focus of the intersection point coincides with the treatment device 12, it is necessary to move the targets 5 in the positioning process of FIG. 4 intersection D coinciding position. 为进行定位计算,在OB'线段任意点上设参考点b;为防止控制位移过量,设Ob<OB。 For positioning calculation, in the OB 'segment reference point provided at any point B; in order to prevent excessive displacement of the control, provided Ob <OB. A点为靶目标5在XDZ平面的坐标点。 A point is a coordinate point targets 5 XDZ plane. 在这里要说明的是计算机屏幕、影像增强器等数字图像处理设备显示及接收的任一图像均以横向的列坐标及纵向的行坐标构成的像素点组成,列与行像素间均以一固定间距排列,同一坐标中任意两像素点间的像素数加一乘相邻两像素点的平均间距就是长度位置数据;所以计算机20可直接测量图像输入面3所接收图像上任一点的X'、Y'坐标位置也可计算任意两点间距离。 Be described herein is a digital image display and processing apparatus receiving any computer screen, image intensifier and the like are the image pixels a transverse vertical column coordinates and row coordinates constituting the composition, between rows and columns of pixels are in a fixed arranged at intervals of two pixels in the same coordinates in an arbitrary number of pixels between points plus a multiplication average pitch of two adjacent pixels is the length of the position data; so the computer 20 can directly measure the three input image receiving surface at any point X ', Y 'coordinate position may also be calculated at any distance between two points. 过A点设X'坐标轴的平行线AB,过b点设X'坐标轴的平行线ab;A'x是图像输入面3中靶目标5投影的X'坐标值,线段A'xB'可由计算机20计算求得;根据直角三角形原理可知A'xB'与ab间存在比例关系,因Ob长度为已知,即可求得ab。 A set point over X 'axis parallel to the line AB, the point b is provided through the X' axis parallel to the line ab; A'x input face image is X 3 targets projection 5 'coordinate value of the line segment A'xB' 20 is obtained by a computer calculation; known proportional relationship between A'xB 'ab accordance with the principles of the right triangle, because of known length Ob, ab can be obtained. 将计算机鼠标光标对准显示器21的屏幕中靶目标5投影所在的坐标点A'点击一下,计算机20进行以下计算:OB'=m+n式中,m为影像增强器2的电动传动装置10置于行程最下限时,O点至图像输入面3间的距离,n为位置传感器15在当前位置检测影像增强器2电动传动装置10的行程位置,设电动传动装置10在行程最下限时该值为零。 The computer mouse cursor in the display screen 21 projected targets 5 where a coordinate point A 'click, the computer 20 performs the following calculation: OB' = m + n in the formula, m is a power transmission device 10 of the image intensifier 2 placed in the lowermost limit of the stroke, the distance to the point O 3 input face image, the position sensor 15 is n-stroke position of the current position detector 2 image intensifier 10 of the electric actuator, the electric actuator 10 is provided lowermost limit of the stroke A value of zero.

ab=(A'xB'/OB')Ob计算机20令X坐标电动传动装置6依ab线段长度做相应的位移后,靶目标5在XDZ平面的位置到达AB线段的C点,即AC=ab。 After ab = (A'xB '/ OB') Ob computer 20 so that the X-coordinate drive motor 6 accordingly by the displacement length of the line ab, targets 5 reaches the point C at the position of line segment AB XDZ plane, i.e. AC = ab . 靶目标5通过第一次位移后其投影在图像输入面3的X'坐标值为C'x。 After 5 targets by a displacement of the image projected on the input surface 3 X 'coordinate value C'x. 由O点做射线经过C点到达C'x,线段OC'x与线段ab相交,设该交点为c。 O made by point after point C reaches ray C'x, OC'x line intersects with the line segment ab, the intersection of the set c. 将计算机鼠标光标对准显示器21的屏幕中靶目标5投影的新坐标点C'点击一下,计算机20进行以下运算:cb=(C'xB'/OB')Ob∵AB/ab=(AB-AC)/cbAB×cb=(AB-AC)×abAB×ab-AB×cb=AC×ab∴AB=AC×ab/(ab-cb)CB=AB-AC计算机20令X坐标电动传动装置6按CB线段长度做相应的位移后,靶目标5在XZ平面的位置到达B点;至此系统完成对靶目标5在X坐标的定位过程。 The computer mouse cursor in the display screen 21 projected targets 5 new coordinate point C 'click, the computer 20 performs the following calculation: cb = (C'xB' / OB ') Ob∵AB / ab = (AB- AC) / cbAB × cb = (AB-AC) × abAB × abAB × cb = AC × ab∴AB = AC × ab / (ab-cb) CB = AB-AC computer 20 so that the X coordinate of the electric transmission 6 after doing the corresponding displacement by the length of the line segment CB, point B reaches the targets 5 in the XZ plane position; targeting to this system completes the process of the X-coordinate of the targets 5.

进行YDZ平面分析时,只需将图4中的X坐标轴更换为Y坐标轴,将图像输入面3的X'坐标轴更换为Y'坐标轴;采用相同的方法和公式,令Y坐标电动传动装置9做相应的二次位移后,即可完成对靶目标5在Y坐标的定位操作。 When YDZ plane analysis, just the X axis in FIG. 4 replaced with the Y coordinate axis, the surface 3 of the input image X 'axis replacing Y' coordinate axis; using the same methods and formulas, Y coordinates so that the electric after doing drive 9 corresponding secondary displacement, to complete the operation targets 5 positioned at the Y-coordinate.

以下进行Z坐标的定位计算;线段OD为已知,求DB:OB=Ob/(ab/AB)DB=OB-OD计算机20令Z坐标电动传动装置7按DB线段长度做位移,靶目标5与D点重合。 Positioning the Z-coordinate calculated; OD line is known, find DB: OB = Ob / (ab / AB) DB = OB-OD Z coordinate computer 20 so that the electric length of the transmission line 7 by the displacement do DB, targets 5 coincides with the point D.

至此理论上完成了通过X射线对靶目标5的立体定位。 Thus theoretically accomplished by positioning the X-ray perspective targets 5. 但由于靶目标5是立体的,而计算过程中依据的是X、Y轴平面图像;以下对Z坐标可能存在的误差进行校验操作。 However, since the targets 5 is a perspective view, and the calculation process based on the X, Y-axis plane image; verify operations the following error Z coordinate may be present. 计算机20通过电动传动装置11将C形臂4围绕水平轴线Y(在图4中为D点)顺时针摆动任一角度e,以下分析参见图5。 The computer 20 by the electric actuator 4 C-arm 11 about a horizontal axis Y (point D in FIG. 4) at any angle pivot clockwise e, see Fig following analysis. 由于经过前述定位过程,靶目标5位于D点不远的垂直测量轴线Z上。 Because after the positioning process, targets 5 positioned near the point D measured perpendicular to the Z axis. 我们假设靶目标5位于E点,投影于图像输入面的E';将计算机鼠标光标对准显示器21的屏幕中靶目标5投影中心点击一下,线段OB'与OD为已知,线段E'B'可经计算机20计算求得,∠e为角度传感器16的测量结果,由O点做水平线相交于垂直测量轴线Z的F点,则:∠E'OB'=tg-1(E'B'/OB')若E'点位于B'点右侧,则该角度值为负值。 We assume that the point E located 5 targets, an image projected on the input plane E '; the mouse pointer on the computer display screen 5 targets the click projection center 21, segments the OB' and OD is known, line E'B 'can be calculated by the computer 20 is obtained, ∠e measurement result of the angle sensor 16, made by the point O intersects a horizontal line perpendicular to the measurement axis Z the point F, then: ∠E'OB' = tg-1 (E'B ' / OB ') when the point E' located at the point B 'on the right side, the angle is a negative value.

OF=OD×sin∠eDF=OD×cos∠e∠DOF=90°-∠e∠EOF=∠E'OB'+∠DOFEF=OF×tg/EOFED=EF-DF计算机20令Z坐标电动传动装置7按ED线段长度做位移;完成对靶目标5定位过程的校验操作。 OF = OD × sin∠eDF = OD × cos∠e∠DOF = 90 ° -∠e∠EOF = ∠E'OB '+ ∠DOFEF = OF × tg / EOFED = EF-DF computer 20 so that the Z coordinate of the electric drive 7 by line segment length ED do displacement; complete verification operation target 5 is positioned to the target process.

当然若C形臂4摆动一角度后,显示器21显示靶目标5投影的坐标位置仍在B'点,则证明靶目标5定位准确无需继续进行校验操作。 Of course, if the C-arm 4 a pivot angle, the display 21 displays a coordinate position projected targets 5 still point B ', the target for 5 prove accurate positioning continues without verify operation.

按照上述控制原理确定了计算机20的特定软件,其流程如图7所示。 Determining a specific software the control computer 20 in accordance with the principle of process shown in Figure 7.

参见图7,在步骤S01通过转换卡23接收位置传感器13、17、14和15采集的各电动传动装置的当前位置数据;通过角度传感器16检测C形臂4是否处于垂直状态,否则进行调整。 Referring to Figure 7, at step S01 23 receives the current position data of the position sensor 13,17,14 and 15 of each electric transmission collected by conversion card; by the angle sensor 16 detects the C-arm 4 is in a vertical state, or adjusted. 步骤S02采集靶目标5的投影在显示器21图像中X'、Y'坐标位置并计算出首次位移数据,该位移数据被步骤S03输出经中继单元19放大后驱动X、Y坐标电动传动装置6、9,显示器21显示靶目标5投影向图像坐标中心靠近。 Projection step S02 acquisition targets 5 in the image display 21 in the X ', Y' and calculate the coordinate position of the first displacement data, the X driver 19 to the displacement data is amplified by the relay unit output in step S03, Y coordinates of the electric transmission 6 9, the display 21 displays the projected targets 5 closer to the center coordinates of the image. 步骤S04判断靶目标5投影是否在显示器21图像坐标交点,是则转到步骤S08,否则执行步骤S05,第二次采集靶目标5投影在显示器21图像中X'、Y'坐标位置并进入步骤S06计算出靶目标5与交点(焦点)D间的X、Y、Z坐标相对距离数据,而后进入步骤S07令X、Y、Z坐标电动传动装置6、9、7执行后,靶目标5与D点重合。 Step S04 judges whether the targets 5 in the projection coordinates of the intersection of the display image 21 is then proceeds to step S08, otherwise step S05, the second acquisition targets 5 in the projected image display 21 in the X ', Y' coordinate position and proceeds to step S06 X between the calculated and target for 5-point (focus) D, Y, Z coordinates relative distance data, and then proceeds to step S07 so that X, the Y, Z coordinates electric transmission performed 6,9,7, and 5 targets D point coincide. 步骤S08进入校验阶段,令电动传动装置11驱动C形臂4摆动一角度,变换观察角度以检验Z坐标定位准确度。 Step S08 into the check stage, so that the electric drive means drive the C-arm 114 a pivot angle, observation angle transforms to verify the accuracy of the Z coordinate positioning. 步骤S09人为观察靶目标5投影是否仍在显示器21图像坐标交点,是则转到步骤S13,否则执行步骤S10,采集显示器21图像中靶目标5投影的坐标位置并进入步骤S11计算出靶目标5与交点(焦点)D间在Z坐标上的位置偏差,而后进入步骤S12令Z坐标电动传动装置7执行该偏差数据。 Step S09 whether the target human observation target 5 projection 21 still image display coordinates intersection is to the step S13, the otherwise, execute step S10, the display position of the coordinate acquisition targets 5 and the projected image 21 proceeds to step S11 to calculate the targets 5 inter intersections (focus) D positional deviation in the Z-coordinate, and then proceeds to step S12 so that the Z-coordinate drive motor 7 executes the deviation data. 完成对靶目标5的定位进入步骤S13,令系统恢复初始状态后程序退出。 After completion of the positioning of the targets 5 to enter step S13, the system restore the initial state so that the program exits. 若靶目标5较小且操作人员有经验后执行步骤S07后即可转到步骤S13而不必进入校验程序段。 If the targets 5 and the operation is small experienced personnel performing steps S13 to go to step S07 without going to the verification block.

实施本发明就硬件方面讲:如目前国内现有大部分X射线定位体外碎石机稍加改进,如增设位移、角度传感器及计算机控制系统后即可采用本发明。 Hardware embodiment of the present invention will say: The currently most conventional X-ray positioning extracorporeal lithotripter little improvement, such additional displacement, the present invention can be employed after the angle sensors and computer control system. 位移、角度传感器可选择电位器、直线电位器、光栅编码器、电涡流、超声波等多种类型;模/数、数/数转换卡需与上述传感器输出信号量匹配。 A displacement angle sensor potentiometer Alternatively, linear potentiometers, encoders grating, eddy current, ultrasonic and other types; analog / digital, digital / digital conversion card to match the output signal amount sensor. 图像采集卡分辨率采用800×600或更高。 Resolution image acquisition card using 800 × 600 or higher. 计算机选用市面流行的机型也可选用工控机以提高可靠性,为便于观察显示器分辨率要求达到1024×768以上。 Computer market popular choice models can also be used to improve the reliability of the IPC, for ease of viewing the display resolution required to achieve the 1024 × 768 or more. 对靶目标观察应具备较宽广的视野,建议选用9英寸或口径更大的影像增强器。 To observe the target goal should have broader horizons, it suggested the use of nine inches or larger diameter image intensifier.

就软件方面谈:整个自动定位过程中,定位方法与计算公式在本文中已经有明确具体的阐述;只需将上述定位方法、计算公式、位移传感器反馈信息按软件流程编入计算机运行程序中,编程语言不限。 Discussion on the software: the whole process automatic positioning, the positioning methods and formulas herein have a clear and specific forth; just above positioning method, the calculation formula, the displacement sensor feedback information according to the software process programmed into the computer running the program, Any programming language.

Claims (3)

1.一种X射线对靶目标的计算机立体定位装置,它包括一个将脉冲能源聚焦于一个焦点的治疗装置(12),一套摆臂式单束X射线装置与XTV电视系统其中含一个可围绕水平轴线Y摆动的C形臂(4),其一端安装影像增强器(2)与摄像头(1),另一端安装发射X射线的X射线球管(8),影像增强器(2)的图像输入面(3)接受X射线照射,其特征在于:包括驱动X坐标位移的X坐标电动传动装置(6)和X坐标位置传感器(13),驱动Y坐标位移的Y坐标电动传动装置(9)和Y坐标位置传感器(17),驱动Z坐标位移的Z坐标电动传动装置(7)和Z坐标位置传感器(14),C形臂(4)与影像增强器(2)间装有电动传动装置(10)及位置传感器(15),驱动C形臂(4)围绕水平轴线Y摆动的电动传动装置(11)和角度传感器(16),一个含特定软件的计算机(20),一个图像显示器(21),一个图像采集卡(22),一个将计算机(20)输出的位移信号放大 1. An X-ray computer stereotaxic targets, comprising a pulse energy focused on a focal point of the treatment device (12), a single-beam arm X-ray apparatus and XTV television system which contains one around a horizontal axis Y swing the C-arm (4), one end of which is mounted an image intensifier (2) and the camera (1), the other end to the X-ray tube (8) emitting X-rays, an image intensifier (2) the image input surface (3) to accept the X-ray radiation, characterized by: comprising an X coordinate of an electric actuator drives the X coordinate of the displacement (6) and the X-coordinate position sensor (13), driving the Y coordinate riz Y coordinate displacement (9 ) and Y coordinate position sensor (. 17), the Z coordinate of the electric drive driving the Z coordinate of displacement (7), and Z coordinates of the position sensor (14), between the C-arm (4) and an image intensifier (2) equipped with an electric drive means (10) and a position sensor (15), driving the C-arm (4) around an electric drive (11) and the angle sensor (16) horizontal axis Y swing, a containing computer (20) a specific software, an image display (21), a frame grabber (22), a computer (20) amplifies the output displacement signal 驱动电动传动装置的中继单元(19),一个模/数或数/数数据转换的转换卡(23)和一个专用键盘(24)。 The relay unit (19) to drive the electric actuator, an analog / digital conversion card or (23) the number of A / D converted data and a dedicated keyboard (24).
2.一种采用权利要求1所述的X射线对靶目标的计算机立体定位装置的定位方法,人为调控传动装置将靶目标的投影移至图像显示装置的可观察范围,其特征在于:计算机(20)运行特定软件采用将X射线照射靶目标的X、Y坐标图像中靶目标的图像位置数据转换为长度位置数据的方法,设靶目标投影于图像输入面(3)的A'点,图像输入面(3)的两个坐标轴为X'、Y',其交点为B',X射线球管(8)的X射线发射中心为O点,由于X射线球管(8)发射的X射线束的中心轴线贯穿B'且垂直于图像输入面(3),连接上述两点为线段OB',交点D位于OB'线段上且在O、B'两点间;将图像输入面(3)所接收的图像作为一种长度位置测量源,将三维空间定位分解为XDZ与YDZ两个平面定位,A'点的X'坐标值为A'x、Y'坐标值为A'y;在XDZ平面内,有线段A'xB';连接O、A'x两点为线段OA'x,A点为靶目标在XDZ平面的坐标 The X-ray according to claim 1 using the A computer-implemented method of positioning a perspective view of the positioning device of the targets, the projected image moves human regulatory targets displays observable transmission range of the device, wherein: the computer ( 20) run specific software uses the X-ray irradiation target object X, the image position data Y coordinates in the image of the target object is converted into the length of the position data of the method, set targets projected on the image-input face (3) of the point a ', the image input surface (3) of the two coordinate axes X ', Y', which is the intersection point B ', X-ray tube (8) of X-ray emission center point O, X since the X-ray tube (8) emitted through the central axis of the radiation beam B 'and perpendicular to the input face image (3), the line segment connecting the two points the OB', located in the intersection point D 'on the line segment and the O, B' OB between two points; the image-input face (3 ) as a received image position length measurement sources, the three-dimensional positioning and decomposed XDZ YDZ positioning two plane, a 'the point X' coordinate value A'x, Y 'coordinate value A'y; in XDZ the plane with the line segment A'xB '; connector O, A'x two points line OA'x, a coordinate point targets in a plane XDZ 存在于OA'x线段上且在O、A'x两点间,由A点设X'坐标轴的平行线AB交于线段OB'的B点;为进行定位计算,在OB'线段任意点上设参考点b,为防止控制位移过量,设Ob<OB,由b点设X'坐标轴的平行线段ab交于线段OA'x的a点;线段Ob、A'xB'、OB'为已知量,采用数学方法求得线段ab;计算机令X坐标电动传动装置(6)产生ab长度的位移,靶目标在XDZ平面的坐标值靠近B点到达C点,即AC=ab;由O点发出的X射线将C点投影于X'坐标轴的C'x点即为线段OC'x;线段OC'x与线段ab相交,其交点为c;仍采用数学方法求得线段CB;计算机令X坐标电动传动装置(6)产生线段CB长度的位移,靶目标在XDZ平面的坐标值到达B点完成了对其在X坐标的定位过程;在YDZ平面内,采用与X坐标定位相似的方法可完成对靶目标在Y坐标的定位过程;线段OD为已知,还是采用数学方法求得线段OB,线段OB减线段OD等于线 Is present on the line and, in OA'x O, A'x between two points, the point A provided by the X 'axis parallel to the line AB intersects the line segment OB' of the point B; for the positioning calculation, OB 'segment at any point b is provided on the reference point, in order to prevent excessive displacement of the control, provided Ob <OB, provided X is represented by the point b 'are parallel to line segment ab coordinate axis intersect at a point of the line segment OA'x; line Ob, A'xB', OB 'is a known amount, obtained by mathematically line ab; X coordinate computer to make the electric drive (6) ab displacement length, the coordinate values ​​of targets XDZ plane near point B reaches point C, i.e. AC = ab; of O X-rays emitted from the point C to a point projection X 'C'x point is the axis line OC'x; OC'x segment ab and the line segment intersects the intersection of C; still mathematically determined line segment CB; computer Let X coordinate of the electric drive (6) to generate the line segment CB displacement length, XDZ targets in the plane coordinate values ​​of the point B is reached during the positioning completed its X coordinates; YDZ in the plane, the X-coordinate positioning using similar the method can be accomplished in the positioning of the Y-coordinate targets; OD line are known, or determined mathematically segment OB, the line segment OB equal to the line segment OD Save DB;计算机令Z坐标电动传动装置(7)产生线段DB长度的位移,靶目标与交点D重合完成了定位过程;为校验该定位过程,将C形臂(4)围绕水平轴线Y摆动任一角度e,如Z坐标定位存在偏差则改变观察角度后靶目标在图像输入面(3)的投影将偏离图像两坐标轴交点B';过交点D做垂直于水平面的垂直测量轴线Z,靶目标位于离交点D点不远的垂直测量轴线Z上,假设靶目标位于E点,投影于图像输入面(3)的E'点;线段E'B'、OB'与OD为已知,角度e可由角度传感器(16)测量获得,由O点做水平线相交于垂直测量轴线Z的F点;采用数学方法求得线段ED;计算机令Z坐标电动传动装置(7)产生ED长度的位移,完成对靶目标定位的校验操作。 DB; Z coordinate computer to make an electric drive (7) the length of the displacement line DB, and the target for the positioning of the intersection point D coincides process; to check the positioning process, the C-arm (4) about a horizontal pivot axis Y to any after a deviation angle E, such as Z-coordinate positioning the observation angle is changed targets projected on the image input surface (3) will deviate from the image two axes intersection point B '; through the intersection D made perpendicular to the vertical measuring axis Z plane, the target the target is located far from the point of intersection D measured perpendicular to the axis Z, E is assumed that the target is the target point, the projection point E '; segment E'B' input to the image surface (3), OB 'and OD is known, the angle e by the angle sensor (16) obtained by the measurement, made from point O to point F intersects the horizontal line perpendicular to the measurement axis Z; ED segments mathematically determined; Z coordinate computer to make an electric drive (7) the length of the displacement ED, the completion verification operation target target location.
3.按照权利要求2所述的定位方法,其中所述将靶目标的X、Y坐标图像中靶目标位置的图像位置数据转换为长度位置数据的方法:将显示器(21)显示靶目标的图像与图像输入面(3)接收靶目标图像的图像像素数设为完全一致,否则需乘以一转换系数;将图像同一坐标中任意两像素点间的像素数加一乘相邻两像素点平均间距即为长度位置数据。 The image display (21) displays the targets: 3. The positioning method according to claim 2, wherein said targets of the X, Y coordinates of the image data conversion in the position of the target image as a target position the position data Length the number of input image pixels and the image surface (3) receives a target object image identical to, or multiplied by a conversion factor; the number of pixels between the two images of the same pixel coordinates plus any two adjacent pixels by an average is the pitch length of the position data.
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