CN100409824C - Automatic stereotaxic method and device of B-ultrasonic location extemal lithotriptor - Google Patents

Automatic stereotaxic method and device of B-ultrasonic location extemal lithotriptor Download PDF

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CN100409824C
CN100409824C CN 02157958 CN02157958A CN100409824C CN 100409824 C CN100409824 C CN 100409824C CN 02157958 CN02157958 CN 02157958 CN 02157958 A CN02157958 A CN 02157958A CN 100409824 C CN100409824 C CN 100409824C
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point
probe
computer
coordinate
electric
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CN 02157958
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CN1413560A (en )
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张祥康
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张祥康
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/22Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for
    • A61B17/225Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy [ESWL], e.g. by using ultrasonic waves
    • A61B17/2256Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy [ESWL], e.g. by using ultrasonic waves with means for locating or checking the concrement, e.g. X-ray apparatus, imaging means
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/22Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for
    • A61B17/225Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy [ESWL], e.g. by using ultrasonic waves
    • A61B17/2255Means for positioning patient, shock wave apparatus or locating means, e.g. mechanical aspects, patient beds, support arms, aiming means

Abstract

本发明公开了一种B超定位体外碎石机的自动立体定位方法及装置。 The present invention discloses an automatic method and apparatus for stereotactic B-positioning Lithotripsy machine. 本发明应用计算机图像处理技术直接对B超诊断图像进行分析处理,采用压力传感器可使B超探头自动进退以预设压力跟踪病人皮肤表面,通过位移传感器检测位置偏差,计算机运算后自动控制电动位移装置运行,准确控制治疗装置的焦点与病人体内结石重合。 Application of computer image processing technology according to the present invention is directed to the B ultrasound diagnosis image analysis and processing, pressure sensor B-probe can advance and retreat to a predetermined pressure to automatically track the patient's skin surface, detected by the displacement sensor positional deviation, the computer automatically controls the electric displacement calculation operation means, to accurately control the focus of the treatment device coincides with the patient stones. 定位过程只需操控鼠标点击几下;免去人为在B超上读取数据、在计算机上输入数据的人机交互过程;缩短定位时间提高就诊效率,减轻医务人员的劳动强度。 Positioning control process only a few mouse clicks; removed from the human B-read data, interactive input process data on the computer; positioning time to improve treatment efficiency, reduce labor intensity of the medical staff. 本发明应用于通过B超可以观察到的人体内结石、肿瘤等多种疾病的诊断定位。 The present invention is applied to the diagnosis of various diseases of the human body positioned stones, tumors can be observed through B -.

Description

B超定位体外碎石机的自动立体定位方法及装置技术领域本发明涉及体外碎石机的定位方法及装置。 B-positioning extracorporeal lithotripter autostereoscopic positioning method and apparatus TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to a positioning method and apparatus for extracorporeal lithotripsy. 背景技术目前临床应用中,采用B超定位体外碎石机对结石定位大部分靠医务人员观察B超扫描病人体内结石的图像、人为按动按钮操作电动位移装置以逐步逼近的方式完成对病人体内结石的定位操作后进行碎石治疗。 Background Art In clinical applications, the use of B-positioning extracorporeal lithotripsy positioned most B-scan image observation of the patient by the medical staff calculus stones, artificial push button operating the electric displacement means is accomplished in a stepwise approximation to the patient positioning operation carried out after lithotripsy stone. B超定位体外碎石机由B超(B型超声诊断仪)、治疗装置、病床床面、能够在立体空间移动的电动或手动的位移装置等组成。 B-positioning extracorporeal lithotripter by the B - (B type ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus), the treatment device, the bed surface of the bed, the displacement means can be composed of other electrically or manually moving the three-dimensional space. B超由B超主机及B超探头构成-B超探头发射超声波并接收人体内组织反射回波经B超主机内部转换后成像于B超主机的显示器上供医务人员观察诊断。 -B B-ultrasound probe configured by the host and B-B ultrasound probe transmits ultrasonic waves and receives the reflected echo human tissue inside the body after the B-host translation imaging diagnostic medical personnel to observe the display of the host B-altar. 治疗装置的特点是能够重复将大功率脉冲能量聚焦于一个焦点上,该焦点对准体内结石即可进行碎石治疗。 Characteristics of the treatment device is capable of repeating high-power pulse energy is focused on a focal point, the focus can be carried out in vivo stone lithotripsy. 病床床面设置于治疗装置上方供结石病人躺卧接受治疗。 Beds disposed above the bed surface treatment apparatus for treatment stones lie. B超探头锁紧于手动控制进退的机械装置上;该装置在确保B超探头所发射超声波束的中心轴线始终对准治疗装置的焦点的前提下与治疗装置刚性连接。 Rigidly connected to the treatment device this means ensuring B-probe ultrasonic beam emitted from the center axis of the treatment device is always in focus the premise; B-probe locking means to mechanically control the advance and retreat of the manual. 手动控制进退的机械装置上标有刻度,可直接读出B超探头的探测表面在当前位置至治疗装置焦点间的距离。 Mechanical means manually controlled forward and backward on a graduated, the detection surface can be directly read out the B-probe distance between the current position to the focal point of the treatment device. 而治疗装置则被固定在三维自由度的位移装置上由人为控制做X、 Y、 Z坐标移动,以便在B超探头的探测下人为将治疗装置的焦点对准人体内结石即可进行体外碎石治疗。 Treating device were fixed on the displacement means is controlled by a three-dimensional human freedom to do X, Y, Z coordinate movement, to focus the artificial stone body treatment apparatus can be broken in the B-vitro detection of probe stone therapy. 医务人员操作该设备时,首先操作控制进退的机械装置调整B超探头的探测表面与人体皮肤接触,然后通过位移装置人为调整X、 Y、 Z坐标位置,直至结石的清晰图像显示于B超主机的显示器画面的垂直中心线上,此时X坐标完成位置调整。 When medical personnel operating the apparatus, the first operation of the mechanical means for controlling forward and backward adjustment of the detection surface skin contacting B-probe and then artificially adjusting X, Y, Z coordinate position by the displacement means, until the stone clear image is displayed on the B-host the vertical center line of the display screen, when X coordinate of the position adjustment is completed. 而后操纵B超主机显示器画面中的光标与待粉碎结石的最佳粉碎点重叠并点击,读取B超主机输出的深度数据若与手动控制进退的机械装置上所显示刻度不一致则反复调整Y、 Z坐标位置及B超探头进退位置,直至两读数一致,即焦点与结石粉碎点重合;此后即可进行碎石治疗。 B-host display and then manipulate the screen cursor point with the optimum crushing crushed stones to be overlapped and clicking, on a machine reading the depth data output from the B-host if the manual control of the forward and backward repeatedly adjust the display scale are inconsistent Y, B-Z coordinate position and the retreat position of the probe, until two readings consistent, i.e. the focal point coincides with the crushed stone; lithotripsy can be carried out thereafter. 例如,1994年3月2日公告的公告号为CN2157746Y的实用新型专利所公开的一种利用B超定位进行结石破碎的"体外激波碎石机的B超定位机构";其作用原理与以上叙述基本相仿。 For example, 2 March 1994 announcement Announcement No. CN2157746Y disclosed in Utility Model patent for a "B-positioning mechanism of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy" crushed stone using B-positioning; Its principle above The basic narrative is similar. 此类设备在对目标的定位过程中医务人员需观察B超图像,人为操作机械装置以逐步逼近的方式调整至B超深度读数与手动控制探头进退的机械装置上所显示刻度一致时,即焦点与结石粉碎点重合完成定位操作。 Such devices during the positioning of the target observed in medical personnel required B-mode image, manual operation mechanism in a stepwise approximation method is adjusted to be displayed on the B-depth reading with the probe back and forth manually controlled mechanical means coincides scale, i.e., the focus and crushed stone coincides with a point to complete the positioning operation. 定位操作过程烦琐费时且医务人员劳动强度较大。 Positioning operation is time consuming and cumbersome labor intensive medical personnel. 发明内容本发明的目的在于提供一种B超定位体外碎石机的自动立体定位方法及装置。 Object of the present invention is to provide an automatic method and apparatus for positioning a perspective B-positioning Lithotripsy machine. 本发明通过计算机对B超诊断病人体内结石产生的平面图像等数据进行数学分析,确定结石的立体坐标位置,并自动控制电动位移装置将治疗装置的焦点移动到与病人体内结石重合的位置后进行治疗。 Focus movement of the present invention is performed by a computer of planar images B-diagnosis the patient calculus data generated by mathematical analysis to determine the three-dimensional coordinate position of the stones, and automatically controls the electric displacement means treatment device after the patient stones overlapping position treatment. 本发明的B超定位体外碎石机的自动立体定位方法及装置包括: 能重复将治疗用大功率脉冲能量聚焦于一个焦点的治疗装置,治疗装置安装于X、 Y、 Z三坐标可移动的电动位移装置上;用于诊断的B超,B超由B超主机与B超探头组成;治疗装置刚性连接圆弧形导轨,圆弧形导轨的圆弧圆心与治疗装置的焦点重合。 B of the present invention over the positioning device and positioning method autostereoscopic lithotripsy machine comprising: focus on can be repeated therapeutic treatment apparatus with a focus power pulse energy treatment device is attached to the X, Y, Z coordinate of the movable electric displacement means; super B for diagnosing, from the B-B-B-probe consisting of the host; therapy means is rigidly connected to the rail circular arc, the focus of the arc center and the arc-shaped track treatment device coincide. 电动弧线位移装置可沿圆弧形导轨做弧线摆动。 Electric arc arc displacement means may be swung along the arc-shaped track. B超探头电动进退装置有固定端与进退端两个安装位置,固定端安装于电动弧线位移装置上,安装需确保与进退端相连接的B超探头所发射超声波束的中心轴线始终对准治疗装置的焦点。 B-probe electric advancing and retracting means has a fixed end and the forward and backward ends of the two mounting positions, a fixed end attached to an electric arc displacement device mounted to the forward and backward B need to ensure end connected ultrasound probe is always aligned with the central axis of the ultrasonic beam emitted focus treatment apparatus. 供病人接受治疗的病床床面设置于治疗装置上方,静止不动。 Bed bed for patients receiving therapy treatment device is disposed above in immobility. 一台含有专用软件的计算机,由多个位置传感器组成的位置测量系统, 一个将多个传感器的输出信号转换为数字信号后输入计算机的转换单元,一个可编程控制器, 一个将B超主机输出的诊断图像传送至计算机的图像采集卡和一个专用键盘。 A special purpose computer software, position measuring system composed of a plurality of position sensors, the output signals of a plurality of sensors into a digital signal input to the computer after converting unit, a programmable controller, an output of the B-host diagnostic images to a computer image acquisition card and a special keyboard. 所述的计算机运行专用软件执行以下定位方法:采用在计算机显示器屏幕上直接显示分析B超图像的方法,将该图像中结石的粉碎点的显示位置的图像像素数据转换为几何长度数据,对该图像中结石的粉碎点的显示位置与该图像垂直中心线的水平距离进行计算即可求得治疗装置的焦点与结石的粉碎点在X坐标的距离,继而控制X坐标电动位移装置按计算值进行X坐标位置移动。 The computer running the dedicated software performs the following targeting methods: direct on a computer display screen displayed B-mode image analysis method, the image display position of the pixel image data is converted pulverized stone geometric point data length, the image display position pulverized stone points were calculated with the horizontal distance between vertical center line of the image can be obtained and the focal point of pulverized stone treatment device at a distance X coordinate, X coordinate in turn controls the displacement means press the electric Calcd. X coordinate position. 而分析该图像也可求得B超探头表面至结石的粉碎点的深度数据,将此数据与测量B超探头进退位置的传感器输出的长度数据和测量B超探头摆动角度的传感器输出的角度数据及其它已知数据进行数学运算即可求得治疗装置的焦点与结石的粉碎点间Y、 Z坐标的距离;而后控制相应电动位移装置按计算值进行Y、 Z坐标位置移动,达到自动控制治疗装置的焦点与人体内结石的粉碎点重合即定位的目的。 And analyzing the image may also be obtained over the surface B to the probe depth data points pulverized stone, angle data outputted from the sensor data and the length data measured this B-probe retreat position of the sensor output and a B-probe measuring the pivot angle and other known data for the mathematical operation can be obtained between the focal point and the stone crushing treatment apparatus Y, Z coordinate distance; then by controlling the displacement means calculates respective electric value Y, Z coordinate position, to automatically control the treatment the focal point and the human body crushed stones means coincides i.e. positioning purposes. 由于在B超探头电动进退装置与B超探头间安装有力敏传感器,系统可根据该传感器的反馈信息控制B超探头进退装置带动B超探头自动进退,以预先设定的压力紧贴于病人皮肤表面。 As the installation of the probe between B-B-probe powerful electric advancing and retracting device sensitive sensor, the system may be based on feedback control of the sensor means driven forward and backward B-Probe B-Probe automatic advance and retreat, a preset pressure against the skin of the patient surface. 由此可防碰伤病人并利于B超持续输出诊断图像。 Thus the patient can prevent bumps and conducive to B-continuous output diagnostic images. 上述定位操作可重复进行,做为定位准确否的一种校验手段。 The positioning operation may be repeated, as a check whether accurate positioning means. 本发明的有益效果是:发明中充分应用了计算机控制等先进技术,从而使它与已有技术相比使用方便,定位准确。 Advantageous effects of the present invention are: application of the invention is fully advanced computer control technology, so that it is easy to use compared to the prior art, accurate positioning. 直接对计算机显示的诊断图像进行分析处理,免去人为在B超上读取数据及在计算机上输入数据的人机交互过程。 Directly to the computer displays the diagnostic image analysis and processing, without having to process interactive data on a human B-read and the input data on the computer. 只需操控计算机鼠标点击几下,系统即可自动完成立体定位动作。 Just a few clicks of a computer mouse control, the system can automatically complete three-dimensional positioning operation. 诊断过程快捷方便,縮短定位时间提高就诊效率,减轻医务人员的劳动强度, 縮短病人就诊时间。 Diagnostic process quick and easy, shorten the positioning time and improve treatment efficiency, reduce labor intensity of medical personnel, reduce patient treatment time. 本发明适用于通过B超可以观察到的人体内的结石、肿瘤等多种疾病的诊断定位。 The present invention is applicable to the diagnosis of various diseases targeting can be observed by the human body's B-calculus, tumors and the like. 附图说明下面结合附图对本发明作详细具体的描述。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The present invention will be described in detail. 图1是本发明所采用的基本结构主视图;图2是本发明所釆用的基本结构侧视图;图3是显示于计算机显示器的B超诊断图像示意图;图4是将图2简化后的YOZ平面定位原理的示意图;图5是计算机控制系统示意图;图6是计算机软件流程图。 FIG. 1 is a front view showing a basic structure used in the present invention; FIG. 2 is a side view of the basic structure of the present invention preclude; FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the B-diagnostic image displayed on a computer monitor; FIG 2 FIG 4 is a simplified rear positioning a schematic plane YOZ principle; FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a computer control system; FIG. 6 is a flow chart of computer software. 图中l.病床床面,2.Z坐标位移传感器,3.Z坐标电动位移装置,4.X坐标电动位移装置,5.X坐标位移传感器,6.结石,7.B超探头,8.力敏传感器, 9.专用键盘,IO.B超探头电动进退装置,ll.B超探头进退位置传感器,12.Y 坐标电动位移装置,13.Y坐标位移传感器,M.治疗装置,15.圆弧形导轨, 16.电动弧线位移装置,n,弧线位移传感器,18.计算机,19.显示器,20. B超主机,21.图像采集卡,22.转换单元,23.可编程控制器。 FIG l. Beds bed, 2.Z coordinate displacement sensor, displacement 3.Z coordinate electric apparatus, the electric coordinate displacement means 4.X, 5.X coordinate displacement sensor 6. Stones, 7.B ultrasound probe, 8. force sensor, special keyboard 9, IO.B-probe electric advancing and retracting device, LL.B retreat position sensor-probe, 12.Y coordinate electric displacement means, 13.Y coordinate displacement sensors, M. treatment apparatus 15. round arcuate rail 16. The electric arc displacement means, n, the arc displacement sensor, 18 computer, 19 display, 20. B super host 21 image acquisition card 22. The conversion unit 23 programmable controller . 具体实施方式以下参照图1、图2和图5说明本发明的B超定位体外碎石机的自动立体定位方法及装置。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring to FIGS. 1, 2 and 5 illustrate the present invention B-positioning autostereoscopic extracorporeal lithotripsy positioning method and apparatus. 能重复将治疗用大功率脉冲能量聚焦于焦点0的治疗装置14。 The treatment can be repeated focusing means 14 focus on the treatment of high-power pulse energy 0. 一台用于诊断的B超,B超由B超主机20和B超探头7组成。 B for diagnosing a super, B-20 and the host B-7 B-probe composition. 治疗装置14在YOZ 平面刚性连接圆弧形导轨15,连接需确保圆弧形导轨15的圆弧圆心与治疗装置M的焦点o重合。 Treatment device 14 in the plane YOZ arcuate guide rail 15 is rigidly connected, make sure the connection with the center of the arc of the treatment device M arcuate guide 15 coincides with the focal point o. 电动弧线位移装置16可沿圆弧形导轨15做弧线摆动。 Electric arc displacement means 16 can be swung along the arc 15 to make an arc-shaped track. B超探头电动进退装置10具有进退端与固定端两个连接位置,进退端锁紧B超探头7,固定端安装在电动弧线位移装置16上,安装需确保B超探头7所发射超声波束的中心轴线始终对准焦点0。 B-probe advancing and retracting the electric advancing and retracting device 10 has two ends connected to the fixed end positions, advance and retract the locking end B-probe 7, a fixed end mounted on an electric arc displacement means 16, B-probe installation, make sure the transmitted ultrasonic beam 7 the center axis 0 is always in focus. 治疗装置14安装于立体位移装置上:驱动X坐标位移的X坐标电动位移装置4,驱动Y坐标位移的Y 坐标电动位移装置12,驱动Z坐标位移的Z坐标电动位移装置3。 Treatment device 14 is mounted on displacement means perspective: X coordinate displacement motor means drives the X-coordinate displacement 4, Y coordinate displacement motor means driving the Y coordinate displacement 12, drives the Z coordinate of the electric displacement Z-coordinate displacement means 3. 病床床面1设置于治疗装置14上方,静止不动利于病人躺卧接受诊断治疗。 1 beds disposed above the bed surface treatment apparatus 14, the patient lying stationary receiving facilitate diagnosis and treatment. 一个含专用软件的计算机18,用于显示图像和数据的显示器19;由用于X、 Y、 Z坐标测量治疗装置(14)的焦点0位置的X、 Y、 Z坐标位移传感器5、 13、 2,用于测量B超探头7摆动角度的弧线位移传感器17,用于测量B超探头7进退位置的B超探头进退位置传感器11组成的位置测量系统;用以检测B超探头7与人体皮肤间的压力的力敏传感器8;将传感器输出的电量信号转换为标准的数字信号输入计算机的转换单元22;对传输信息进行逻辑控制的可编程控制器23;将B超主机20输出的诊断图像传送至计算机18 的图像采集卡21;用于人为发送指令及手动控制位移的专用键盘9。 A dedicated software containing computer 18, and a display for displaying the image data 19; focus for the X, Y, Z coordinate measuring treatment device (14) position 0 X, Y, Z-coordinate displacement sensors 5, 13, 2, the arc displacement sensor 7 for measuring the pivot angle B ultrasound probe 17, a position sensor measuring system B-7 B-probe retreat position sensor 11 back and forth position thereof; B-probe to detect the human 7 pressure force sensor between the skin 8; charge the sensor output signal is converted to a standard digital signal conversion unit 22 is input into the computer; control logic of the programmable controller 23 of the transmission information; 20 outputted from the B-diagnostic host image transfer image acquisition card 21 to the computer 18; dedicated keypad for transmitting commands and manual control human displacement 9. 计算机18按预先输入的程序计算出治疗装置14的焦点0与结石6的粉碎点间的位置差,控制可编程控制器23驱动相应的电动位移装置,位移后使治疗装置14的焦点O与结石6的粉碎点重合。 The computer 18 calculated the position of the program input in advance between the focal point 0 and 6 crushed stone treatment apparatus 14 is poor, the drive controller 23 controls the respective programmable electric displacement means, the displacement of the focal point O and the therapeutic apparatus 14 of stone 6 pulverized point coincide. 上述位移开始前B超探头电动进退装置10进入自动跟踪状态,可带动B超探头7自动进退,以预先设定的压力始终紧贴于病人皮肤表面,以利B超主机持续显示诊断图像。 Before the start of displacement of the above-described B-probe electric advancing and retracting device 10 into the automatic tracking state B ultrasound probe 7 can be driven automatically back and forth, at a preset pressure is always close to the patient skin surface, to facilitate host B-diagnostic image is continuously displayed. 以下就本发明进行详细阐述。 Below in detail on the present invention. 医务人员操作专用键盘9调控X、 Y、 Z 坐标电动位移装置4、 12、 3将治疗装置14的焦点O移至躺卧于病床床面1 上的病人患结石区域,结合操作专用键盘9将B超探头电动进退装置10置于手动状态调控B超探头电动进退装置10、电动弧线位移装置16直至在B 超主机20及显示器19上观察到清晰的待粉碎结石6的图像:该图像为超声波碰到结石6的较强反射波。 Medical personnel operating the special keyboard 9 regulation X, Y, Z coordinate of the electric displacement means 4, 12, the treatment device 3 O 14 is moved to focus on a patient lying on a bed of stones suffering bed region, operating in conjunction with special keyboard 9 B-probe electric advancing and retracting device 10 in manual mode regulation B-probe electric advancing and retracting device 10, 16 until the electric arc displacement means viewed in the B-20 and the host to clear the display 19 to be crushed stones 6 image: the image is the ultrasonic reflected waves encounter strong stones 6. 图3是显示器19显示的B超诊断图像示意图, 医务人员直接分析该图像并确定待粉碎结石6的最佳粉碎点。 FIG 3 is a schematic view of a B picture display 19 displays the ultrasound diagnosis, medical personnel directly analyze the image and determine the optimum grinding stone pulverizing point 6. 图中所示BD 线段为该图像垂直中心线,含B点的圆弧为B超探头7的超声波发射接收端的外表面在该图像中的成像。 BD line for the image shown in FIG vertical center line, containing an arc emission point B forming the outer surface of the receiving end in the image as a B-ultrasound probe 7. A点为医务人员分析该图像后,确定的对结石6的最佳粉碎点,操作计算机18的鼠标点击A点。 A point of medical personnel after analyzing the image to determine the optimum grinding stones 6 points, the operator clicks the mouse 18 the computer A point. 假设由粉碎点A做水平线相交于该图像垂直中心线BD的D点形成线段AD。 A point made by grinding assuming the horizontal line intersects point D BD vertical centerline of the image forming segment AD. 由于安装时令B超探头7的超声波扇形扫描阵例呈水平放置,故线段AD就是焦点O与粉碎点A 间在该图像中X坐标的距离,线段BD则为B超探头7接触病人皮肤表面至粉碎点A间在该图像中的深度距离。 Since the mounting seasonal B-probe ultrasonic sector scan array of Example 7 was placed horizontally, so that the distance between the line segment AD is the focal point O and A pulverized in the image coordinates X, the line segment BD B-probe was in contact with the patient's skin surface to 7 a distance between the point of grinding depth of the image. 在这里要说明的是计算机显示器显示的图像均以横向的列坐标及纵向的行坐标构成的像素点组成,列与行像素点间均以固定间距排列。 Be described herein is a computer display image pixels are displayed in the column coordinate of the lateral longitudinal row coordinate and is constituted with, between rows and columns are fixed pixel pitch. 图像中同一坐标中任意两像素点间的像素点数加一乘相邻两像素点的平均间距就是这两个像素点间的尺寸。 The image coordinates of the same arbitrary number of pixels between two pixels multiplied by the average pitch of two plus one pixel is the dimension between the adjacent two pixels. 所以计算机18可测量所显示图像上任一像素点的坐标位置也可计算任意两像素点间距离;再乘以实际尺寸与图像尺寸间的比例因数即是实际尺寸;计算机18进行以下运算:AD- m,X(a+l)XmBD=m2X(b+l)Xn2 式中,m,为列像素点的平均间距,a为A点与D点间的列像素点数,iM为横向实际尺寸与相应图像列尺寸间的比例因数,m2为行像素点的平均间距,b为B点与D点间的行像素点数, n2为纵向实际尺寸与相应图像行尺寸间的比例因数。 Therefore, the computer 18 can measure the coordinate position of the displayed image took a pixel is also calculated distance between any two pixels; multiplied by the scale factor between the actual size of the image that is the size of the actual size; the computer 18 performs the following calculation: AD- m, X (a + l) XmBD = m2X (b + l) Xn2 formula, m, the average pitch of a column of pixels, a is the column number of pixels between point a and point D, iM transverse actual dimension with a corresponding scale factor between the image size column, m2 is the average pitch of the pixel rows, b is the row number of pixels between point B and point D, n2 is the proportionality factor between the longitudinal dimension corresponding to the actual size of the image row. 计算机18通过可编程控制器23令X坐标电动位移装置4带动治疗装置14依AD线段的实际尺寸做位移后,结石6的最佳粉碎点在图3中,由点A 移到点D,完成了对结石6在X坐标的定位。 The programmable controller 23 through the computer 18 so that the X-coordinate displacement means 4 driven by the electric therapeutic device 14 to make displacement by the actual size of the segment AD, crushed stones optimal point 6 in FIG. 3, point A is moved by the points D, complete the positioning of the stones 6 X coordinate. 完成对X坐标定位后,立体定位问题就转化为对YOZ平面的定位了。 After completion of the positioning coordinates X, stereotactic positioning of the problem is transformed into the plane YOZ. 见图4:结石6的最佳粉碎点在点D,需要将治疗装置14的焦点O移至点D。 Figure 4: crushed stone optimal point 6 in points D, we need to move the therapeutic focal point O device 14 D. 线段CO机械设计时已确定,为已知;线段BD为B超探头(7)所接触病人皮肤表面到病人体内结石(6)的粉碎点D间的深度,己计算求得;线段CB由B 超探头7、力敏传感器8的固定长度加B超探头电动进退装置10的当前长度确定,可通过对B超探头进退位置传感器11输出信号换算求得;Z(i由弧线位移传感器17输出信号换算求得;计算条件己满足,计算机18进行以下运算:DO-CO-CB-BDDDy-DOXcosZaDDz-DOXsinZa讣算机18通过可编程控制器23令Y坐标电动位移装置12按线段DDy 长度进行位移,令Z坐标电动位移装置3按线段DDz长度进行位移后,治疗装置14的焦点O移至D点,即焦点O与结石6的粉碎点重合完成定位操作。 以上全部计算结果可同时显示于显示器19的屏幕上供医务人员阅读。X、 Y、 Z坐标自动位移前B超探头电动进退装置IO进入自动跟踪状态, 可带动B超探头7自动进退,以预先设定的压 CO line has been determined during machine design, are known; B is a line segment BD ultrasound probe (7) in contact with the patient's skin surface to a depth, between a patient already calculated stones (6) obtained by pulverizing the point D; by a line segment CB B Ultrasound probe 7, 8 force sensor fixed length plus B-probe electric advancing and retracting means 10 determines a current length of the probe may be forward and backward by the B-position sensor 11 outputs a signal obtained by conversion; output Z (i arc by the displacement sensor 17 signal obtained by conversion; hexyl calculation condition is satisfied, the computer 18 performs the following calculation: DO-CO-CB-BDDDy-DOXcosZaDDz-DOXsinZa obituaries computer 1823 so that the Y coordinate of the electric displacement means 12 are displaced by the length of the line segment by a programmable controller DDy , Z coordinates so that the electric displacement device 3 is displaced by the length of the line segment DDz, the treatment device is moved to the focus point D O 14, i.e., the focal point O and the 6 coincides with crushed stone to complete the positioning operation. all of the above results can be displayed simultaneously on the display 19 is a screen for reference by medical personnel reading .X, Y, Z coordinate B before the automatic displacement of the ultrasound probe IO electric advancing and retracting device enters the automatic tracking state can be automatically driven forward and backward B-probe 7, a preset pressure 紧贴于病人皮肤表面。由于B超探头电动进退装置10与B超探头7间安装有力敏传感器8,用以检测B 超探头7与人体皮肤间的压力。通过软硬件手段预设该压力范围。计算机18 通过转换单元22将力敏传感器8的反馈信息与预设压力范围进行比较:反馈信息若超出预设压力范围则通过可编程控制器23控制B超探头电动进退装置10动作,达到预设压力范围内B超探头电动进退装置10停止动作,反馈信息若大于预设压力范围的上限,计算机18将令可编程控制器23同时强迫X、 Y、 Z坐标电动位移装置4、 12、 3处于暂停状态。由此B超探头7与病人皮肤表面的压力保持在预设范围内,有利于B超主机20及显示器19持续显示诊断图像。 Close contact with the patient's skin surface. Since the B-probe electric advancing and retracting device 10 is mounted between the B-probe 7 with a strong sensitive sensor 8 for detecting a pressure B between the ultrasound probe 7 and the human skin. The preset pressure range by means of hardware the computer 18 will force sensor feedback information with a preset pressure range by comparing the conversion unit 228: If the feedback exceeds a preset pressure range by a programmable controller 23 controls the B-probe electric advancing and retracting device 10 is operated, to pre B-probe electric advancing and retracting device 10 stops the operation of the set pressure range, when the feedback information is greater than the upper limit of the preset pressure range, the computer 18 will cause a programmable controller 23 at the same time forced X, Y, Z coordinate of the electric displacement means 4, 12, 3 is suspended state. 7 B-probe thereby maintaining the pressure within a predetermined range of the skin surface of the patient, is conducive to the host B-20 and a display 19 continuously displays the diagnostic image.

完成定位操作后,仍可重复上述定位过程;若此时X、 Y、 Z坐标电动位移装置4、 12、 3均无动作,则证明定位准确通过校验。 After completion of the positioning operation, the positioning procedure is repeated still; if the case X, Y, Z coordinate of the electric displacement means 4, 12, 3 no operation, accurate positioning is demonstrated by checking. 当然可在B超探头电动进退装置10上安装一刻度标尺,用以指示B超探头7的超声波发射接收端外表面至焦点O即线段BO的长度尺寸,若该尺寸与显示器19显示线段—BD尺寸一致,也可证明定位准确通过校验。 Of course be mounted on the B-probe electric advancing and retracting device 10, a scale scale for indicating an ultrasonic B-7 probe transmitting and receiving end of the outer surface to the focal length of the line size O BO i.e., the display segment 19 if the size of the display -BD consistent size, accurate positioning can be proved by the checksum.

按照上述定位方法确定了计算机18的专用软件,其流程如图6所示。 Computer software determines the specific positioning method 18 as described above, the process as shown in FIG.

参见图6,运行该软件执行初始化步骤SOl,将传感器2、 5、 8、 11、 13 和17输出信号转换为长度数据显示于显示器19屏幕上,将B超探头电动进退装置10置十手动状态。 Referring to Figure 6, run the software performs an initialization step SOl, the sensors 2, 5, 8, 11, 13 and 17 output signals into the length of the data displayed on the display screen 19, 10 is set B-probe electric advancing and retracting device ten manual state . 步骤S02由医务人员通过B超找到结石6后操作计算机18的鼠标点击显示器19屏幕中结石6的图像中的最佳粉碎点A,计算机获取点A坐标位置。 After the step S02 to find the stones 6 mouse click operation of the computer 18 the optimum grinding point in the image display screen 19 of the stones 6 A B-by medical personnel through, the point A computer acquires a coordinate position. 步骤S03将B超探头电动进退装置10置于自动跟踪状态,将力敏传感器8的反馈信息与预设压力范围进行比较,同时检测B 超探头进退位置传感器11的位移信号。 In step S03 the B-probe electric advancing and retracting device 10 in the automatic tracking state, the force sensor feedback information with a preset pressure range 8 are compared, the simultaneous detection of forward and backward B-probe displacement signal of the position sensor 11. 步骤S04根据预设公式计算图3中点A至点D间的距离。 Step S04 distance between the point A to the point D 3 is calculated according to a preset formula FIG. 步骤05根据AD计算长度输出X坐标位移信号至可编程控制器23,驱动X坐标电动位移装置4带动治疗装置14移动,同时检测X坐标位移传感器5位移信号。 Step 05 The AD calculated length of the output signal of the X-coordinate displacement to the programmable controller 23, the drive motor moving the X-coordinate displacement means 4 drives the treatment means 14, while the displacement sensor 5 detects the X-coordinate displacement signal. 步骤S06根据预设公式计算图4中焦点O 至点D间Y、 Z坐标的位移行程。 Calculated in step S06 in FIG. 4 to the focal point O between points according to a preset formula D Y, Z coordinates of the displacement stroke. 步骤S07输出Y、 Z坐标位移信号至可编程控制器23,驱动Y、 Z坐标电动位移装置12、 3带动治疗装置14移动, 同时检测Y、 Z坐标位移传感器13、 2位移信号,最终将焦点O移至点D, 两点重合完成定位。 12, the mobile treatment apparatus 3 drives 14 while detecting Y, Z coordinates displacement sensor 13, step S07 outputs the displacement signal 2 Y, Z coordinates of the displacement signal to the programmable controller 23, drives Y, Z coordinates electrical displacement means, the final focus O move points D, coincide with the completion of positioning two o'clock. 步骤S08分析定位结果如需进行校验则返回步骤S02, 否则进入歩骤S09结束本次定位操作。 For analysis of the results of step S08 for checking the positioning returns to step S02, otherwise to step S09 ho end of this positioning operation.

实施本发明就硬件方面讲:目前国内现有大部分B超定位体外碎石机稍加改进,如增设位移、力敏传感器及计算机控制系统后即可采用本发明。 Hardware embodiments of the present invention will say: present the majority of conventional B-positioning extracorporeal lithotripter little improvement, such as additional displacement, force sensitive sensor and the computer can use the control system of the present invention. 位移传感器可选择电位器、直线电位器、光栅编码器、电涡流、超声波等多种类型;力敏传感器选用微压力型;转换单元需与上述传感器输出信号相匹配。 Alternatively displacement sensor potentiometers, linear potentiometers, encoders grating, eddy current, ultrasonic and other types; micro-pressure force sensor type selection; converting unit needs to match the output signal of the sensor. 图像釆集卡分辨率采用640x480或更高。 Bian-card using the image resolution 640x480 or higher. 计算机选用市面流行的机型也可选用工控机以提高可靠性。 Computer selection of popular market models can also be used to improve the reliability of the IPC. 根据本发明思路设计新机型将取得最佳效果。 According to the inventive concept design new models will achieve the best results.

就软件方面谈:整个自动定位过程中,定位方法与计算公式在本文中已经有明确具体的阐述:只需将上述定位方法、计算公式、位移传感器反馈信息按软件流程编入计算机运行程序中,编程语言不限。 Discussion on the software: the whole process automatic positioning, the positioning methods and formulas herein has set forth a clear and specific: only the above-described positioning method, the calculation formula, the displacement sensor feedback information according to the software process programmed into the computer running the program, Any programming language.

Claims (5)

  1. 1. 一种B超定位体外碎石机的自动立体定位方法,人为调控电动位移装置将治疗装置(14)的焦点O移至躺卧于病床床面(1)上的病人患结石区域,并确定结石粉碎点A,其特征在于:计算机(18)运行专用软件由粉碎点A做水平线相交于显示器(19)显示的B超诊断图像垂直中心线BD的D点形成线段AD,由于数字图像均以横向的列坐标及纵向的行坐标构成的像素点组成,所以AD间的图像列像素点数加一后乘相邻两列像素点的平均间距再乘以实际尺寸与图像尺寸间的比例因数就是焦点O与体内结石(6)的粉碎点A间在X坐标的实际距离;计算机(18)控制X坐标电动位移装置(4)带动治疗装置(14)依AD间的实际距离做位移后,结石(6)的最佳粉碎点由点A移到点D,完成了对结石(6)在X坐标的定位;含B点的圆弧为B超探头(7)的超声波发射接收端的外表面的成像,线段BD为B超探头(7)所接触病人皮肤 An autostereoscopic B-positioning location method lithotripsy machine, artificial regulation of the electric therapeutic device displacement means (14) to move the focal point O to a patient suffering from stones lying on the area (1) beds bed surface, and determining crushed stone points a, wherein: the computer (18) running dedicated software made by grinding point a intersects the horizontal line on the display (19) D point BD vertical centerline B-diagnostic image display forming segment AD, since the digital image are in pixel row and column coordinates of the lateral longitudinal coordinates constituting the composition, the number of pixels between the image sequence after adding a multiplication AD average spacing between adjacent two pixels multiplied by the scaling factor between the actual image size is the size of the between the focal point O in vivo stones (6) pulverizing the point a in the actual distance X coordinate; the computer (18) controls the X-coordinate of the electric displacement means (4) drives the treatment means (14) to make a displacement according to the actual distance between the AD, stones (6) grinding the best point to point a by the points D, of the positioning of the stones (6) in the X coordinate; containing arc point B is B-probe (7) of the ultrasonic wave emitting surface of the receiving end of the outer imaging, ultrasound probe line segment BD is B (7) in contact with the patient's skin 表面至病人体内结石(6)的粉碎点D间的深度,BD间的图像行像素点数加一后乘相邻两行像素点的平均间距再乘以实际尺寸与图像尺寸间的比例因数就是深度BD的实际距离;随后确定结石(6)的最佳粉碎点D在YOZ平面的位置:设由焦点O至B超探头(7)的超声波发射接收端的外表面的B点形成的线段OB的延长线与弧型导轨(15)的弧线相交于点C,点C至焦点O的距离即线段CO机械设计时已确定,为已知;由点C至B超探头(7)的超声波发射接收端的外表面的B点的距离即线段CB由B超探头(7)与力敏传感器(8)的固定长度加B超探头电动进退装置(10)的当前长度确定,因在体外可测量求得;由病人体内结石(6)的粉碎点D做水平线相交于ZO轴线的延长端点Dy,由点D做垂线相交于YO轴线的延长端点Dz,由点Dz至焦点O的线段DzO与线段CO形成的夹角∠α可测量求得,由点D至焦点O的线段DO=CO-CB-BD,由 Surface to a depth of between patient stones (6) of the grinding points D, number of pixels between the image line BD average spacing of two adjacent rows of pixels multiplied by a scaling factor between the actual size and the size of the image is added by a depth extension set emission point B in the receiving end of the outer surface from the focal point O to B-probe (7) an ultrasonic formed by a line segment OB of: subsequently determining stone (6) best pulverized point D at position YOZ plane; actual distance of BD distance line and the arc guide rail (15) arc intersect at points C, C to the focal point O has been determined that the line of mechanical design i.e. CO, are known; ultrasonic waves from the point C to B-probe (7) of the transmitting and receiving the distance from point B, i.e., the outer surface of the end of the line segment B-CB probe (7) and the force sensor (8) plus a fixed length of B-probe electric advancing and retracting device (10) determining the current length, obtained by in vitro measurable ; patient stones made by the horizontal line (6) intersect in point D pulverized endpoint Dy ZO extension axis, made by point D to the vertical line intersecting the axis of the extension end YO2 Dz, Dz from the point O to the focal point of the line segment and the line segment CO DzO ∠α determined measurable angle formed by the focal point O to the point D of the line segment DO = CO-CB-BD, the D至点Dy的线段DDy=DO×cos∠α,由点D至点Dz的线段DDz=DO×sin∠α;计算机(18)控制Y坐标电动位移装置(12)按线段DDy长度进行位移,控制Z坐标电动位移装置(3)接线段DDz长度进行位移后,治疗装置(14)的焦点O移至点D,即焦点O与结石(6)的粉碎点重合完成定位操作。 Dy to point D segment DDy = DO × cos∠α, from point D to point Dz segment DDz = DO × sin∠α; a computer (18) controls the electric Y coordinate displacement means (12) is displaced by the length of the line segment DDY, after controlling the electric Z coordinate displacement means (3) the length of the connecting section DDz displaced, treatment means (14) to move the focal point O D, the focal point O with stones (6) coincides with a point of completion of the positioning operation pulverized.
  2. 2.按照权利要求1所述的定位方法,其特征在于:上述计算机(18)运行专用软件将B超主机(20)输出的诊断图像通过图像采集卡(21)传送至计算机(18) 后显示于显示器(19)上,操作员直接对显示器(19)上的诊断图像进行分析处理。 2. A positioning method according to claim 1, wherein: said computer (18) running a dedicated software diagnostic image output B-host (20) to a computer (18) by the image acquisition card (21) after the display on the display (19), the operator directly on the diagnostic image on the display (19) for analysis.
  3. 3. 按照权利要求1所述的定位方法,其特征在于:上述计算机(18)通过转换单元(22)将力敏传感器(8)的反馈信息与预设压力范围进行比较,反馈信息若超出预设压力范围则通过可编程控制器(23)控制B超探头电动进退装置(10)动作,达到预设压力范围内B超探头电动进退装置(10)停止动作,反馈信息若大于预设压力范围上限,计算机(18)通过可编程控制器(23)同时强迫X、 Y、 Z坐标电动位移装置(4)、 (12)、 (3)处于暂停状态,使B超探头(7)与病人皮肤表面间压力保持在预设范围内。 3. A positioning method according to claim 1, wherein: said computer (18) by comparing the conversion unit (22) a force sensitive sensor (8) is pre-set pressure range of feedback information, the feedback information if exceeded pre set pressure range is controlled by a programmable controller (23 is) B-probe electric advancing and retracting means (10) operation, to within a predetermined pressure range B-probe electric advancing and retracting device (10) stops the operation, when the feedback information is greater than a predetermined pressure range upper limit, the computer (18) by simultaneously forcing X programmable controller (23), Y, Z coordinate of the electric displacement means (4), (12), (3) in a pause state, the B-probe (7) and the skin of the patient between the surface pressure is kept within a predetermined range.
  4. 4. 一种实施权利要求1所述的B超定位体外碎石机的自动立体定位方法的定位装置,它包括一个能重复将治疗用脉冲能量聚焦于一个焦点O的治疗装置(14),治疗装置(14)安装于X、 Y、 Z三坐标可移动的电动位移装置(4)、 (12)、 (3)上,用于诊断的B超由B超主机(20)与B超探头(7)组成,治疗装置(14)在YOZ平面刚性连接圆弧形导轨(15),连接需确保圆弧形导轨(15)的圆弧圆心与焦点O重合,电动弧线位移装置(16)可沿圆弧形导轨(15)做弧线摆动,B超探头电动进退装置(10)的进退端锁紧B超探头(7),其固定端安装在电动弧线位移装置(16)上,供病人接受治疗的病床床面(1)设置于治疗装置(14)上方,其特征在于: 一台含有专用软件的计算机(18),显示图像和数据的显示器(19),由多个位置传感器组成的位置测量系统,一个将多个传感器的输出信号输入计算机(18)的转换单元(22), 一个 An embodiment as claimed in claim 1, said B-positioning means for automatically positioning the stereotactic method Lithotripsy machine, comprising a reusable therapeutic treatment focused on a focal point O means (14) with a pulse energy treatment means (14) mounted on the X, Y, electric displacement means (4) Z coordinate movable (12), (3), for the diagnosis of B-(20) and B-B-probe by the host ( 7) the composition, the treatment device (14) is rigidly connected to the plane YOZ arcuate rail (15), connected to the need to ensure a circular arc guide (15) of the center of the arc coincides with the focal point O, the electric arc displacement means (16) do swung along the arc-shaped arc guide rail (15), B-probe electric advancing and retracting device (10) forward and backward ends of the locking B-probe (7), which is a fixed end mounted on an electric arc displacement means (16) for patients treated bed beds (1) disposed in the treatment device (14) above, characterized in that: a special purpose computer software (18), display monitor (19) and the image data, a plurality of position sensors position measurement system, the output signals from a computer (18) a plurality of sensors converting unit (22), a 编程控制器(23), 一个将B超主机(20)输出的诊断图像传送至计算與18)的图像采集卡(21)和一个专用键盘(9)。 Diagnostic image output control program (23), to a B-host (20) to the calculation and 18) an image acquisition card (21) and a special keyboard (9).
  5. 5. 按照权利要求4所述的定位装置,其特征在于:所述的由多个位置传感器组成的位置测量系统由X坐标上的位移传感器(5), Y坐标上的位移传感器(13), Z坐标上的位移传感器(2),测量B超探头(7)摆动角度的弧线位移传感器(17),测量B超探头(7)进退位置的B超探头进退位置传感器(ll)组成。 5. A positioning device as claimed in claim 4, wherein: a position measuring system consists of a plurality of position sensors by the displacement sensor (5) on the X coordinate, Y coordinate displacement sensor (13), a displacement sensor (2) on the Z-coordinate, B-measuring probe (7) swinging angle arc displacement sensor (17), (7) forward and backward position of the measuring probe B-B-probe retreat position sensor (LL) composition.
CN 02157958 2002-12-23 2002-12-23 Automatic stereotaxic method and device of B-ultrasonic location extemal lithotriptor CN100409824C (en)

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