CN115623963A - 一种诱导大田种植凤梨快速繁育芽苗的方法 - Google Patents

一种诱导大田种植凤梨快速繁育芽苗的方法 Download PDF

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CN115623963A
CN115623963A CN202211646078.1A CN202211646078A CN115623963A CN 115623963 A CN115623963 A CN 115623963A CN 202211646078 A CN202211646078 A CN 202211646078A CN 115623963 A CN115623963 A CN 115623963A
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CN115623963B (zh
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吴军备
刘蕴
吴嘉文
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Hainan Burt Ecological Leisure Agricultural Technology Co ltd
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Abstract

本发明属于植物栽培繁育技术领域,公开了一种诱导大田种植凤梨快速繁育芽苗的方法,采用大田凤梨实际生产的新技术管理方法,包括修剪整形凤梨母株、凤梨母株杀菌防虫、促萌芽、施肥育壮培养,尤其是植物激动素的应用管理,使大田凤梨育苗周期比自然繁育周期缩短60天以上,通过2—3轮的繁育采收,实现提高单母株繁殖系数可达12;本方法繁育率高,可以快速生产大量凤梨原生吸芽苗,该技术用于农田实际化生产,大大提高了凤梨生产效率、降低育苗成本。

Description

一种诱导大田种植凤梨快速繁育芽苗的方法
技术领域
本发明属于植物繁育技术领域,尤其是一种诱导大田种植凤梨快速繁育芽苗的方法。
背景技术
凤梨又称菠萝是我国热带亚热带重要经济作物,在我国海南、云南、广东、广西、福建等省份有大面积种植,是我国重要的热带水果品种。通常凤梨繁育生产是采用自然生长吸芽苗或工厂组培无性繁殖生产。自然植株吸芽的繁殖系数较低,同期每株产生2至3个吸芽,需4个月左右产生一批芽苗,生长周期较长严重影响凤梨的生产效率,而组培繁育虽然可同批繁育大量种苗,但繁殖设备、工厂投资巨大,流程繁琐、专业技术要求高、培育周期在14个月以上,周期太长的缺陷,严重阻碍了凤梨种植的效率和巨大的生产成本浪费。
本发明提供了一种大田种植凤梨种苗快速繁育芽苗的实际生产方法,克服了上述问题的不足,同一生产周期与自然状态繁育系数大幅提高,单株产量可达10至12个芽苗,同一母体生产单批芽苗时间周期提前30天左右;该方法实用性强、操作简便快捷,单株繁育系数高,解决了自然繁育系数低、周期长和组培生产周期长、专业技术要求高和工厂化设备成本过高的问题。
发明内容
本发明的目的在于提供一种诱导大田种植凤梨快速繁育芽苗的方法,可以实现大田凤梨芽苗的快速繁育生产,缩短芽苗生产周期,提高生产效率,降低生产成本。
为实现上述发明效果,本发明采用以下技术方案:
一种大田种植凤梨快速繁育方法,其特征在于,包括以下步骤:
第一步骤、繁殖母体凤梨株修剪叶片:大田生产凤梨果实采摘后即可进行叶片修剪,垂直叶片方向修剪下叶梢部分,保留叶片基部长度25cm至30cm,以确保叶片基部渚留雨露水分和便于后期药肥淋灌管理,并可保障充分通风和接受阳光,方便后期田间管理和芽苗采收;
第二步骤、凤梨母株杀菌、防虫、促芽:材料准备,70%含量的甲基托布津可湿性粉剂或25%多菌灵可湿性粉剂、90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂、磷酸二氢钾,40%含量的乙烯利备用;具体做法是:①下午气温小于26℃条件下进行,每100公斤水准备70%含量甲基托布津可湿性粉剂145g或25%含量的多菌灵可湿性粉剂250g,磷酸二氢钾200g,90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂300g;首先备好2L水温45℃温水先期充分溶解敌百虫后加入100公斤水中搅匀,然后加入200g磷酸二氢钾,充分溶解搅匀,然后再加入备好的甲基托布津可湿性粉剂或多菌灵可湿性粉剂250g,搅匀,现配现用,对修剪后的凤梨植株体喷雾,充分喷透全株体以叶腋下见有少量积水为准,进行杀菌防虫害处理;②7天后傍晚无日照、气温小于26℃条件下进行,以40%含量的乙烯利稀释800倍溶液,对凤梨母株通体喷雾,以正反叶面湿透为准。
第三步骤、施肥育壮培养:按水肥一体化处理补充水肥,①采用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥,按100倍配比制成水肥溶液,每株800ml进行灌根施肥,3小时后测量根周湿度40%左右;②30天后依本步骤①的方法进行第二次灌根施肥。
第四步骤、促芽分化生长:完成第二步骤后第10天开始本步骤第一遍喷淋,①浓度为0.1摩尔/升的盐酸100ml溶解15g的细胞分裂素充分溶解后加入100kg配水中搅匀,尿素以0.2%比例复配,磷酸二氢钾以0.2%比例复配,搅匀充分溶解后对全株体喷淋至见叶腋下有少量积水;②15天后以同样的配比和方法进行第二遍喷淋。
第五步骤、凤梨吸芽壮苗促长培养:第四步中的②喷淋完成后20天后可见多个叶腋下有多个吸芽露出,这时进行壮苗促生长培养,①用含量为4%赤霉素酸乳油配制1000倍液对母株体全株喷雾一次,3 天后用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥以100倍配比和矿源性黄腐酸钾1000倍配比复配水溶液,在下午气温小于26℃时,自母株体顶端淋灌600ml溶液,确保叶腋下见积水;②15天后按上述方法再淋灌一遍;培养45天后母株可见产出3-5个达种植要求20-30cm长度的吸芽苗,可进行采收芽苗。
第六步骤、第一遍芽苗采收后,①第一轮重复进行第二步骤至第五步骤,可进行二次生产繁育芽苗,至第二次芽苗采收,单母株产苗量实现第一次倍增;②以此方法第二轮重复第二步骤至第五步骤操作,至第三次芽苗采收;通过三轮培育操作,可使单个母株总产苗系数达10-12,快速繁育芽苗、扩繁种群。
具体实施方式
下面结合具体实施案例对本发明作进一步说明,但本发明的范围并不仅局限于实例,其要求保护的范围记载于权利要求的权项中。
实施案例1:
本实施案例所述一种大田种植凤梨快速繁育方法,包括以下步骤:
第一步骤、繁殖母体凤梨株修剪叶片:大田生产凤梨果实采摘后即可进行叶片修剪,垂直叶片方向修剪下叶梢部分,保留叶片基部长度25cm至30cm,以确保叶片基部渚留雨露水分和便于后期药肥淋灌管理,并可保障充分通风和接受阳光,方便后期田间管理和芽苗采收;
第二步骤、凤梨母株杀菌、防虫、促芽:材料准备,70%含量的甲基托布津可湿性粉剂、90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂、磷酸二氢钾,40%含量的乙烯利备用;具体做法是:①下午气温25℃条件下进行,每100公斤水准备70%甲基托布津可湿性粉剂145g,磷酸二氢钾200g,90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂300g;首先备好2L水温45℃温水先期充分溶解敌百虫后加入100公斤水中搅匀,然后加入200g磷酸二氢钾,充分溶解搅匀,然后再加入备好的甲基托布津可湿性粉剂搅匀,现配现用,对修剪后的凤梨植株体喷雾,充分喷透全株体以叶腋下见有少量积水为准,进行杀菌防虫害处理;②7天后傍晚无日照、气温25℃条件下实施,以40%含量的乙烯利稀释800倍溶液,对凤梨母株通体喷雾,以正反叶面湿透为准。
第三步骤、施肥育壮培养:按水肥一体化处理补充水肥,①采用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥,按100倍配比制成水肥溶液,每株800ml进行灌根施肥,3小时后测量根周湿度40%左右;②30天后依本步骤①的方法和配比进行第二次灌根施肥。
第四步骤、促芽分化生长:完成第二步骤后第10天开始本步骤第一遍喷淋,①浓度为0.1摩尔/升的盐酸100ml溶解15g的细胞分裂素充分溶解后加入100kg配水中搅匀,尿素以0.2%比例复配,磷酸二氢钾以0.2%比例复配,搅匀充分溶解后对全株体喷淋至见叶腋下有少量积水;②15天后以同样的配比和方法进行第二遍喷淋。
第五步骤、凤梨吸芽壮苗促长培养:第四步中的②喷淋完成后20天后可见多个叶腋下有多个吸芽露出,这时进行壮苗促生长培养,①用含量为4%赤霉素酸乳油配制1000倍液对母株体全株喷雾一次,3天后用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥以100倍配比和矿源性黄腐酸钾1000倍配比复配水溶液,在下午气温25℃时实施,自母株体顶端淋灌600ml溶液,确保叶腋下见积水;②15天后按上述方法再淋灌一遍;培养45天后母株可见产出3-4个达种植要求20-30cm长度的吸芽苗,可进行采收芽苗。
第六步骤、第一遍芽苗采收后,①第一轮重复进行第二步骤至第五步骤,可进行二次生产繁育芽苗,至第二次芽苗采收,单母株产苗量实现第一次倍增;②以此方法第二轮重复第二步骤至第五步骤操作,至第三次芽苗采收;
通过三轮培育操作,单个母株总产苗系数达11,实现快速繁育芽苗、扩繁种群的目的。
实施案例2:
本实施案例所述一种大田种植凤梨快速繁育方法,包括以下步骤:
第一步骤、繁殖母体凤梨株修剪叶片:大田生产凤梨果实采摘后即可进行叶片修剪,垂直叶片方向修剪下叶梢部分,保留叶片基部长度25cm至30cm,以确保叶片基部渚留雨露水分和便于后期药肥淋灌管理,并可保障充分通风和接受阳光,方便后期田间管理和芽苗采收;
第二步骤、凤梨母株杀菌、防虫、促芽:材料准备,25%含量多菌灵可湿性粉剂、90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂、磷酸二氢钾,40%含量的乙烯利备用;具体做法是:①下午气温25℃条件下进行,每100公斤水25%多菌灵可湿性粉剂250g,磷酸二氢钾200g,90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂300g;首先备好2L水温45℃温水先期充分溶解敌百虫后加入100公斤水中搅匀,然后加入200g磷酸二氢钾,充分溶解搅匀,然后再加入备好的多菌灵可湿性粉剂搅匀,现配现用,对修剪后的凤梨植株体喷雾,充分喷透全株体以叶腋下见有少量积水为准,进行杀菌防虫害处理;②7天后傍晚无日照、气温小于25℃条件下进行,以40%含量的乙烯利稀释800倍溶液,对凤梨母株通体喷雾,以正反叶面湿透为准。
第三步骤、施肥育壮培养:按水肥一体化处理补充水肥,①采用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥,按100倍配比制成水肥溶液,每株800ml进行灌根施肥,3小时后测量根周湿度40%左右;②30天后依本步骤①的方法和配比进行第二次灌根施肥。
第四步骤、促芽分化生长:完成第二步骤后第10天开始本步骤第一遍喷淋,①浓度为0.1摩尔/升的盐酸100ml溶解15g的细胞分裂素充分溶解后加入100kg配水中搅匀,尿素以0.2%比例复配,磷酸二氢钾以0.2%比例复配,搅匀充分溶解后对全株体喷淋至见叶腋下有少量积水;②15天后以同样的配比和方法进行第二遍喷淋。
第五步骤、凤梨吸芽壮苗促长培养:第四步中的②喷淋完成后20天后可见多个叶腋下有多个吸芽露出,这时进行壮苗促生长培养,①用含量为4%赤霉素酸乳油配制1000倍液对母株体全株喷雾一次,3天后用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥以100倍配比和矿源性黄腐酸钾1000倍配比复配水溶液,在下午气温25℃时,自母株体顶端淋灌600ml溶液,确保叶腋下见积水;②15天后按上述方法再淋灌一遍;培养45天后母株可见产出4-5个达种植要求20-30cm长度的吸芽苗,可进行采收芽苗。
第六步骤、第一遍芽苗采收后,①第一轮重复进行第二步骤至第五步骤,可进行二次生产繁育芽苗,至第二次芽苗采收,单母株产苗量实现第一次倍增;②以此方法第二轮重复第二步骤至第五步骤操作,至第三次芽苗采收;
通过三轮培育操作,单个母株总产苗系数达12,实现了快速繁育芽苗、扩繁种群的目的。
实施案例3:
本实施案例所述一种大田种植凤梨快速繁育方法,包括以下步骤:
第一步骤、繁殖母体凤梨株修剪叶片:大田生产凤梨果实采摘后即可进行叶片修剪,垂直叶片方向修剪下叶梢部分,保留叶片基部长度25cm至30cm,以确保叶片基部渚留雨露水分和便于后期药肥淋灌管理,并可保障充分通风和接受阳光,方便后期田间管理和芽苗采收;
第二步骤、凤梨母株杀菌、防虫、促芽:材料准备,70%含量的甲基托布津可湿性粉剂、90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂、磷酸二氢钾,40%含量的乙烯利备用;具体做法是:①下午气温23℃条件下进行,每100公斤水准备70%含量的甲基托布津可湿性粉剂145g,磷酸二氢钾200g,90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂300g;首先备好2L水温45℃温水先期充分溶解敌百虫后加入100公斤水中搅匀,然后加入200g磷酸二氢钾,充分溶解搅匀,然后再加入备好的甲基托布津可湿性粉剂搅匀,现配现用,对修剪后的凤梨植株体喷雾,充分喷透全株体以叶腋下见有少量积水为准,进行杀菌防虫害处理;②7天后傍晚无日照、气温23℃条件下进行,以40%含量的乙烯利稀释800倍溶液,对凤梨母株通体喷雾,以正反叶面湿透为准。
第三步骤、施肥育壮培养:按水肥一体化处理补充水肥,①采用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥,按100倍配比制成水肥溶液,每株800ml进行灌根施肥,3小时后测量根周湿度40%左右;②30天后依本步骤①的方法和配比进行第二次灌根施肥。
第四步骤、促芽分化生长:完成第二步骤后第10天开始本步骤第一遍喷淋,①浓度为0.1摩尔/升的盐酸100ml溶解15g的细胞分裂素充分溶解后加入100kg配水中搅匀,尿素以0.2%比例复配,磷酸二氢钾以0.2%比例复配,搅匀充分溶解后对全株体喷淋至见叶腋下有少量积水;②15天后以同样的配比和方法进行第二遍喷淋。
第五步骤、凤梨吸芽壮苗促长培养:第四步中的②喷淋完成后20天后可见多个叶腋下有多个吸芽露出,这时进行壮苗促生长培养,①用含量为4%赤霉素酸乳油配制1000倍液对母株体全株喷雾一次,3 天后用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥以100倍配比和矿源性黄腐酸钾1000倍配比复配水溶液,在下午气温23℃时,自母株体顶端淋灌600ml溶液,确保叶腋下见积水;②15天后按上述方法再淋灌一遍;培养45天后母株可见产出3-4个达种植要求20-30cm长度的吸芽苗,可进行采收芽苗。
第六步骤、第一遍芽苗采收后,①第一轮重复进行第二步骤至第五步骤,可进行二次生产繁育芽苗,至第二次芽苗采收,单母株产苗量实现第一次倍增;②以此方法第二轮重复第二步骤至第五步骤操作,至第三次芽苗采收;
通过三轮培育操作,单个母株总产苗系数达10,实现了快速繁育芽苗、扩繁种群的目的。
实施案例4:
本实施案例所述一种大田种植凤梨快速繁育方法,包括以下步骤:
第一步骤、繁殖母体凤梨株修剪叶片:大田生产凤梨果实采摘后即可进行叶片修剪,垂直叶片方向修剪下叶梢部分,保留叶片基部长度25cm至30cm,以确保叶片基部渚留雨露水分和便于后期药肥淋灌管理,并可保障充分通风和接受阳光,方便后期田间管理和芽苗采收;
第二步骤、凤梨母株杀菌、防虫、促芽:材料准备,25%含量的多菌灵可湿性粉剂、90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂、磷酸二氢钾,40%含量的乙烯利备用;具体做法是:①下午气温23℃条件下进行,每100公斤水准备25%含量的多菌灵可湿性粉剂250g,磷酸二氢钾200g,90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂300g;首先备好2L水温45℃温水先期充分溶解敌百虫后加入100公斤水中搅匀,然后加入200g磷酸二氢钾,充分溶解搅匀,然后再加入备好的甲基托布津可湿性粉剂搅匀,现配现用,对修剪后的凤梨植株体喷雾,充分喷透全株体以叶腋下见有少量积水为准,进行杀菌防虫害处理;②7天后傍晚无日照、气温23℃条件下进行,以40%含量的乙烯利稀释800倍溶液,对凤梨母株通体喷雾,以正反叶面湿透为准。
第三步骤、施肥育壮培养:按水肥一体化处理补充水肥,①采用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥,按100倍配比制成水肥溶液,每株800ml进行灌根施肥,3小时后测量根周湿度40%左右;②30天后依本步骤①的方法和配比进行第二次灌根施肥。
第四步骤、促芽分化生长:完成第二步骤后第10天开始本步骤第一遍喷淋,①浓度为0.1摩尔/升的盐酸100ml溶解15g的细胞分裂素充分溶解后加入100kg配水中搅匀,尿素以0.2%比例复配,磷酸二氢钾以0.2%比例复配,搅匀充分溶解后对全株体喷淋至见叶腋下有少量积水;②15天后以同样的配比和方法进行第二遍喷淋。
第五步骤、凤梨吸芽壮苗促长培养:第四步中的②喷淋完成后20天后可见多个叶腋下有多个吸芽露出,这时进行壮苗促生长培养,①用含量为4%赤霉素酸乳油配制1000倍液对母株体全株喷雾一次,3 天后用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥以100倍配比和矿源性黄腐酸钾1000倍配比复配水溶液,在下午气温23℃时,自母株体顶端淋灌600ml溶液,确保叶腋下见积水;②15天后按上述方法再淋灌一遍;培养45天后母株可见产出3-4个达种植要求20-30cm长度的吸芽苗,可进行采收芽苗。
第六步骤、第一遍芽苗采收后,①第一轮重复进行第二步骤至第五步骤,可进行二次生产繁育芽苗,至第二次芽苗采收,单母株产苗量实现第一次倍增;②以此方法第二轮重复第二步骤至第五步骤操作,至第三次芽苗采收;
通过三轮培育操作,单个母株总产苗系数达11,实现了快速繁育芽苗、扩繁种群的目的。

Claims (4)

1.一种诱导大田种植凤梨快速繁育芽苗的方法,其特征在于,包括以下步骤:
第一步骤、繁殖母体凤梨株修剪叶片:大田生产凤梨果实采摘后即可进行叶片修剪,垂直叶片方向修剪下叶梢部分,保留叶片基部长度25cm至30cm,以确保叶片基部渚留雨露水分和便于后期药肥淋灌管理,并可保障充分通风和接受阳光,方便后期田间管理和芽苗采收;
第二步骤、凤梨母株杀菌、防虫、促芽:材料准备,70%甲基托布津可湿性粉剂或25%多菌灵可湿性粉剂、90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂、磷酸二氢钾,40%含量的乙烯利备用;具体做法是:①下午气温小于26℃条件下进行,每100公斤水准备70%甲基托布津可湿性粉剂145g或25%多菌灵可湿性粉剂250g,磷酸二氢钾200g,90%含量的敌百虫可溶粉剂300g;首先备好2L水温45℃温水先期充分溶解敌百虫后加入100公斤水中搅匀,然后加入200g磷酸二氢钾,充分溶解搅匀,然后再加入备好的甲基托布津可湿性粉剂或多菌灵可湿性粉剂250g,搅匀,现配现用,对修剪后的凤梨植株体喷雾,充分喷透全株体以叶腋下见有少量积水为准,进行杀菌防虫害处理;②7天后傍晚无日照、气温小于26℃条件下进行,以40%含量的乙烯利稀释800倍溶液,对凤梨母株通体喷雾,以正反叶面湿透为准;
第三步骤、施肥育壮培养:按水肥一体化处理补充水肥,①采用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥,按100倍配比制成水肥溶液,每株800ml进行灌根施肥,3小时后测量根周湿度40%;②30天后依本步骤①的方法进行第二次灌根施肥;
第四步骤 促芽分化生长:完成第二步骤后第10天开始本步骤第一遍喷淋,①浓度为0.1摩尔/升的盐酸100ml溶解15g的细胞分裂素充分溶解后加入100kg配水中搅匀,尿素以0.2%比例复配,磷酸二氢钾以0.2%比例复配,搅匀充分溶解后对全株体喷淋至见叶腋下有少量积水;②15天后以同样的配比和方法进行第二遍喷淋;
第五步骤、凤梨吸芽壮苗促长培养:第四步中的②喷淋完成后20天后可见多个叶腋下有多个吸芽露出,这时进行壮苗促生长培养,①用含量为4%赤霉素酸乳油配制1000倍液对母株体全株喷雾一次,3天后用N:P:K比例为20:10:15的水溶性复合肥以100倍配比和矿源性黄腐酸钾1000倍配比复配水溶液,在下午气温小于26℃时,自母株体顶端淋灌600ml溶液,确保叶腋下见积水;②15天后按上述方法再淋灌一遍;培养45天后母株可见产出3-5个达种植要求20-30cm长度的吸芽苗,可进行采收芽苗;
第六步骤、第一遍芽苗采收后,①第一轮重复进行第二步骤至第五步骤,可进行二次生产繁育芽苗,至第二次芽苗采收,单母株产苗量实现第一次倍增;②以此方法第二轮重复第二步骤至第五步骤操作,至第三次芽苗采收;通过三轮培育操作,可使单个母株总产苗系数达10-12,快速繁育芽苗、扩繁种群。
2.如权利要求1所述的一种诱导大田种植凤梨快速繁育芽苗的方法,其特征在于,步骤四中,①浓度为0.1摩尔/升的盐酸100ml溶解15g的细胞分裂素充分溶解加入100kg配水中搅匀,尿素以0.2%比例复配,磷酸二氢钾以0.2%比例复配,搅匀充分溶解后对全株体喷淋至见叶腋下有少量积水;②15天后以同样的配比和方法进行第二遍喷淋。
3.如权利要求1所述的一种诱导大田种植凤梨快速繁育芽苗的方法,其特征在于,步骤五中,①用含量为4%赤霉素酸乳油配制1000倍溶液对母株体全株喷雾一次,3 天后用N:P:K比例20:10:15水溶性复合肥以100倍配比和矿源性黄腐酸钾以1000倍配比复配水溶液,在下午气温小于26℃时,自母株体顶端淋灌600ml溶液,确保叶腋下见积水;②15天后按上述方法再淋灌一遍。
4.如权利要求1所述的一种诱导大田种植凤梨快速繁育芽苗的方法,其特征在于,步骤六中,①第一轮重复进行第二步骤至第五步骤,可进行二次生产繁育芽苗,至第二次芽苗采收,单母株产苗量实现第一次倍增;②第二轮重复第二步骤至第五步骤操作,至第三次芽苗采收。
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