CN114702974A - Solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating - Google Patents

Solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating Download PDF

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Publication number
CN114702974A
CN114702974A CN202210366074.1A CN202210366074A CN114702974A CN 114702974 A CN114702974 A CN 114702974A CN 202210366074 A CN202210366074 A CN 202210366074A CN 114702974 A CN114702974 A CN 114702974A
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solid
heat carrier
inlet
pyrolysis
flue gas
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CN114702974B (en
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王学斌
马文静
戴高峰
周澳
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Xian Jiaotong University
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B49/00Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Oil, Petroleum & Natural Gas (AREA)
  • Materials Engineering (AREA)
  • Organic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Combustion & Propulsion (AREA)
  • Gasification And Melting Of Waste (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating, which comprises: the pyrolysis reactor is used for carrying out pyrolysis treatment on the solid waste to be treated; a combustion furnace; the heating furnace is used for heating the solid heat carrier; a dryer; an exhaust gas treatment device. The invention aims to realize the maximum resource utilization and harmless treatment of solid wastes and solve the technical problems of low material heating rate, non-uniform temperature, long pyrolysis time, large heat exchange loss and the like in indirect heating, and particularly provides a solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating.

Description

Solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of energy utilization and solid waste treatment, and particularly relates to a solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating.
Background
Along with the continuous acceleration of the urbanization process, the yield of solid wastes is rapidly increased, and the improper disposal of a large amount of solid wastes not only causes resource waste, but also brings about increasingly serious environmental pollution problems; the problems of three-way (resource, harmless and quantitative) treatment and comprehensive utilization of the solid waste are highly concerned, and the improvement of the treatment mode of the solid waste has profound significance for building a green and sustainable development society.
At present, the treatment modes of solid waste are various, and mainly comprise landfill, incineration, pyrolysis and the like; the landfill method is the most widely applied treatment method, is simple, has large treatment capacity, occupies a large amount of land resources, and is easy to generate secondary pollution; the incineration method is a high-temperature thermochemical treatment technology, can convert chemical energy in solid waste into heat energy, can realize reduction and recycling treatment of the waste, but cannot realize high added value utilization of solid waste, and high-temperature gas generated in the incineration process contains gases such as fly ash, acid gas and dioxin, and the like, so that certain harm is caused to the environment; the solid waste pyrolysis technology is a process of thermally degrading solid waste at high temperature in an oxygen-free or oxygen-deficient environment to promote thermal cracking and thermochemical conversion reactions of organic matters in the solid waste, so that the original molecular structure form is changed and the organic matters are converted into hydrocarbons in different phases. In conclusion, compared with the traditional incineration technology, the solid waste pyrolysis technology has diversified product forms, more abundant resource utilization ways and stronger applicability, and can effectively reduce the emission of dioxin, so the solid waste pyrolysis technology has great development prospect under the large environment advocating resource saving and ecological environment protection.
During pyrolysis, the heat and mass transfer mode has a significant effect on the quality of the pyrolysis products. At present, the solid waste pyrolysis technology is mainly with the indirect heating mode, and the indirect heating technology is that the heat source does not contact with material direct contact, through heating reactor outer wall such as outside electrical heating, high temperature flue gas or high temperature heat carrier, thereby makes the material temperature rise in the reactor take place the pyrolytic reaction, and this technique has the rate of rise of temperature of material slower, the temperature is inhomogeneous, the pyrolysis time is longer, heat transfer loss technical defect such as big.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating, so as to solve one or more of the technical problems. According to the invention, the solid heat carrier is used as a heat transfer medium for pyrolysis reaction and directly contacted with the material for heat exchange, so that the heat exchange efficiency can be improved, and the maximum utilization of energy can be realized.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
the invention provides a solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating, which comprises:
the pyrolysis reactor is used for carrying out pyrolysis treatment on the solid waste to be treated; the pyrolysis reactor is provided with a material inlet, a solid product outlet and a pyrolysis gas outlet; the material inlet is provided with a premixing device and a material stirring distributor, and the premixing device is provided with a first inlet, a second inlet, a third inlet and a material outlet; a material outlet of the premixing device is communicated with a feeding hole of the material stirring distributor, and the material stirring distributor is used for stirring and dispersing materials output after the premixing treatment of the premixing device and sending the materials into the pyrolysis reactor;
the combustion furnace is provided with a first inlet, a second inlet, a third inlet and a flue gas outlet; the first inlet of the combustion furnace is communicated with the pyrolysis gas outlet, and the second inlet of the combustion furnace is used for introducing combustion-supporting gas;
the heating furnace is used for heating the solid heat carrier; the heating furnace is provided with a flue gas inlet, a flue gas outlet, a solid heat carrier inlet and a solid heat carrier outlet; the flue gas inlet of the heating furnace is communicated with the flue gas outlet of the combustion furnace through a heat source channel of the heat exchanger; a solid heat carrier outlet of the heating furnace is communicated with a first inlet of the premixing device;
the drying machine is provided with a material inlet, a material outlet, a smoke inlet and a smoke outlet; the material inlet of the dryer is used for inputting the solid waste to be treated, the material outlet of the dryer is communicated with the second inlet of the premixing device, and the flue gas inlet of the dryer is communicated with the flue gas outlet of the heating furnace;
the tail gas treatment device is provided with an inlet and an outlet; the inlet of the tail gas treatment device is communicated with the flue gas outlet of the dryer, and the outlet of the tail gas treatment device is communicated with the third inlet of the premixing device and used for introducing sealing air; and the outlet of the tail gas treatment device is communicated with the third inlet of the combustion furnace.
The system of the invention is further improved in that the pyrolysis reactor is a vertical reactor; and flute-shaped pipes are uniformly distributed at the bottom of the pyrolysis reactor, the inlets of the flute-shaped pipes are communicated with the outlet of the tail gas treatment device, and the outlets of the flute-shaped pipes are communicated with the pyrolysis reactor.
The system is further improved in that a central rotating shaft is installed inside a cylinder body of the pyrolysis reactor, and a spiral blade is fixedly arranged on the central rotating shaft and used for stirring a mixture of solid waste to be treated and a solid heat carrier in the pyrolysis reaction process.
The system is further improved in that the amount of the flue gas introduced into the pyrolysis reactor through the flute-shaped pipe is 10-15% of the total amount of the flue gas.
A further development of the system according to the invention is that the heat exchanger is a radiant convection heat exchanger.
The system is further improved in that the solid heat carrier is metal balls, and the volume ratio of the solid heat carrier to the solid waste is (1.5-3): 1.
the system of the invention is further improved in that the system further comprises:
the gas locker is arranged at a solid product outlet of the pyrolysis reactor, and tail gas output by the tail gas treatment device is used as sealing air;
the material separator is used for separating solid products and solid heat carriers in a solid mixture output by the pyrolysis reactor after pyrolysis treatment;
and the elevator is used for feeding the separated solid heat carrier into the heating furnace through the solid heat carrier inlet.
The system of the invention is further improved in that the total amount of sealing air introduced into the premixing device and the air locker is less than 3% of the total amount of flue gas.
The system of the invention is further improved in that the temperature of the flue gas output from the flue gas outlet of the combustion furnace is 950-1000 ℃, and the oxygen content of the output flue gas is lower than 3%.
The system of the invention is further improved in that the temperature of the solid waste output after the drying of the dryer is 100-110 ℃; the temperature range of the solid heat carrier output after the heating of the heating furnace is 600-900 ℃; the solid waste temperature range after heat transfer by the solid heat carrier in the pyrolysis reactor is 500-800 ℃.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
in order to realize the maximum resource utilization and harmless treatment of solid wastes and solve the technical problems of low material heating rate, non-uniform temperature, long pyrolysis time, large heat exchange loss and the like in indirect heating, the invention particularly provides a solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art are briefly introduced below; it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are some embodiments of the invention, and that for a person skilled in the art, other drawings can be derived from them without inventive effort.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating according to an embodiment of the present invention;
wherein, 1, a tail gas treatment device; 2. a dryer; 3. heating furnace; 4. a first fan; 5. a pyrolysis reactor; 6. a second fan; 7. a radiant convection heat exchanger; 8. a combustion furnace; 9. a third fan; 10. a flute-shaped tube; 11. an air lock; 12. a hoist; 13. a material separator; 14. garbage charcoal storage box.
Detailed Description
In order to make the technical solutions of the present invention better understood, the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be obtained by a person skilled in the art without making any creative effort based on the embodiments in the present invention, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
It should be noted that the terms "first," "second," and the like in the description and claims of the present invention and in the drawings described above are used for distinguishing between similar elements and not necessarily for describing a particular sequential or chronological order. It is to be understood that the data so used is interchangeable under appropriate circumstances such that the embodiments of the invention described herein are capable of operation in sequences other than those illustrated or described herein. Furthermore, the terms "comprises," "comprising," and "having," and any variations thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, system, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of steps or elements is not necessarily limited to those steps or elements expressly listed, but may include other steps or elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus.
The invention is described in further detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings:
referring to fig. 1, a solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating according to an embodiment of the present invention includes: a pyrolysis reactor 5, a dryer 2, a heating furnace 3, a combustion furnace 8, a material separator 13 and a tail gas treatment device 1; optionally, in the embodiment of the present invention, the heat exchanger is a radiation convection heat exchanger 7.
Wherein, the pyrolysis reactor 5 can be a vertical reactor, the top of the cylinder of the pyrolysis reactor 5 is provided with a rapid premixing device and a material stirring distributor (exemplarily, optionally, a two-stage material stirring distributor), the rapid premixing device is provided with three inlets which are respectively communicated with the dryer 2, the heating furnace 3 and the first fan 4, a pyrolysis gas outlet of the pyrolysis reactor 5 is communicated with the combustion furnace 8, and a solid product outlet at the lower part of the pyrolysis reactor 5 is connected with the material separator 13 through a gas locker 11; the solid product after pyrolysis is separated from the solid heat carrier by the material separator 13, the solid product enters the garbage charcoal storage tank 14 for recycling, and the solid heat carrier is sent to the heating furnace 3 for heating by the elevator 12.
The combustion furnace 8 is respectively communicated with a pyrolysis gas outlet, a third fan 9 and a radiation convection heat exchanger 7, after pyrolysis gas enters the combustion furnace 8, the third fan 9 provides oxygen required by oil gas combustion, high-temperature flue gas after combustion enters the heating furnace 3 after primary heat exchange of the radiation convection heat exchanger, and the heating furnace 3 is used for heating a solid heat carrier; optionally, the heating furnace 3 is connected with the elevator 12 through a heat carrier conveying pipeline, the elevator 12 sends the solid heat carrier separated after pyrolysis to the heating furnace 3 again, and the flue gas at the outlet of the radiation convection heat exchanger 7 enters the heating furnace 3 to heat the heat carrier.
A large amount of high temperature flue gas that fires 8 production lets in desiccator 2 after through radiation convection heat exchanger, heating furnace 3 twice heat transfer and heats the drying to the material, flue gas after the drying gets into tail gas processing apparatus 1, the partial low temperature flue gas after the extraction of first fan 4 is handled lets in the quick premixing device at pyrolytic reactor 5 top and the airlock 11 of export as sealed wind, partly entering pyrolytic reactor 5's inside through the flute type pipe 10 of pyrolytic reactor 5 of remaining flue gas, partly get into through second fan 6 and fire burning furnace 8 and participate in the oil gas burning.
In the technical solution disclosed in the embodiment of the present invention, the pyrolysis reactor 5 is a vertical reactor, and is used for pyrolysis reaction of solid waste materials to be treated, and the solid heat carrier contacts with the materials to exchange heat, so that the solid heat carrier reaches a temperature required by pyrolysis (exemplarily, optionally, the pyrolysis temperature range is 500-800 ℃); the quick premixing device and the two-stage material shifting distributor which are arranged at the top of the pyrolysis reactor 5 can quickly mix materials and heat carriers and then uniformly shift the materials to all directions of the pyrolysis reactor 5. Further preferred, 5 barrel internally mounted of pyrolysis reactor center rotation axis, fixed helical blade on the rotation axis, helical blade stirs in the reaction process, increases the area of contact of solid heat carrier and material, prevents that the solid heat carrier from directly dropping because of density is too big to improve the heat transfer efficiency of the two, and the time that the rotational speed control solid mixture that can pass through the control center axle stops in the reactor. Further preferably, flute type pipes 10 are evenly arranged at the bottom of the pyrolysis reactor 5, low-temperature flue gas enters the pyrolysis reactor 5 through the flute type pipes 10, oil gas in the pyrolysis furnace is guaranteed to be carried smoothly, and the temperature of the flue gas generated by oil gas combustion can be properly reduced. Optionally, a thermal insulation material is installed outside the pyrolysis reactor 5 to reduce heat loss during pyrolysis.
In the embodiment of the invention, the sealing air introduced into the rapid premixing device and the air lock 11 does not exceed 3% of the total amount of the flue gas, and the flue gas entering the pyrolysis reactor 5 through the flute-shaped pipe 10 is about 10% -15% of the total amount of the flue gas; the low-temperature flue gas introduced into the combustion furnace 8 ensures that the temperature of the flue gas at the outlet of the hearth is about 950-1000 ℃ and the oxygen content is not more than 3 percent; the heat insulation cotton is arranged on the outer walls of all the flue gas pipelines, so that the heat loss is reduced.
In the embodiment of the invention, the radiation convection heat exchanger is provided with the cold water inlet and the hot water outlet, so that hot water can be supplied to the outside, and the temperature of flue gas can be further controlled.
The embodiment of the invention is exemplarily and optionally provided with the dryer 2 which is a drum dryer and is used for drying materials, wherein the temperature of the dried and output materials is 100-110 ℃, and the energy required by the pyrolysis reaction can be reduced; the solid heat carrier used in the pyrolysis reaction system is a metal ball with the diameter of 20-30 mm, and the volume ratio of the heat carrier to the material is (1.5-3): 1. the material separator 13 used in the pyrolysis reaction system is a centrifugal separator or a cyclone separator and can separate a solid heat carrier from the material; the elevator 12 as described above for re-feeding the solid heat carrier into the solid heat carrier heating furnace; the tail gas treatment device 1 is used for purifying flue gas, and the residual flue gas after treatment is discharged through a chimney.
In the embodiment of the invention, a solid heat carrier is used as a heat transfer medium for pyrolysis reaction, and is in direct contact with materials to exchange heat under the action of gravity and helical blades, so that the problems of easy short circuit, uneven temperature, flammability and explosiveness and the like in the traditional high-temperature flue gas direct contact heating mode are solved, and the problems of low heat transfer efficiency and large volume of a reactor or a heat exchanger in the traditional indirect cylinder wall type heating are also solved; the high temperature flue gas is at the in-process of contact metal carrier, and the ingenious principle that utilizes partial reductive carrier further to consume trace oxygen in the flue gas has again realized the ultralow oxygen volume of flue gas, and the recirculated flue gas of ultralow oxygen volume realizes that the multiple spot backward flow utilizes in grades: when the smoke is taken as the upper and lower sealing gas and the oil gas product carrying gas in the pyrolysis furnace, the explosion hidden trouble in the pyrolysis furnace can be avoided, and when the smoke is taken as the recycling smoke of the combustion furnace, the temperature of the combustion furnace can be controlled and the combustion oxygen amount can be reduced to the maximum extent; a quick premixing device and a two-stage material shifting distributor are arranged in the pyrolysis reactor, so that materials and a solid heat carrier can be quickly mixed and uniformly spread, a central shaft and rotating blades are arranged in a barrel, the materials and the solid heat carrier are stirred in the reaction process, the heat exchange area of the materials and the solid heat carrier is increased, the pyrolysis reaction is more sufficient, and the retention time of the mixture in the pyrolysis reactor is controlled by controlling the rotation speed of the central shaft; a small amount of low-temperature flue gas (exemplarily < 10% of total flue gas amount) with low oxygen content (exemplarily < 3%) is used as inert sealing gas of a bottom separator, so that the upper and lower sealing performance of the reaction furnace is ensured under inert atmosphere, explosion caused by air leakage or large amount of oxygen leakage can be avoided although negative pressure exists in the furnace, the safety is ensured, and meanwhile, the carrying and releasing of pyrolysis oil gas are facilitated. The garbage carbon and other substances after pyrolysis can be recycled, the garbage can be utilized in a grading and quality-dividing manner, the solid waste is subjected to pyrolysis treatment by adopting the pyrolysis reactor, the chlorine content in combustion oil gas is low, and ash residues with catalytic effects do not enter the combustion furnace, so that the emission of harmful gases such as dioxin is effectively reduced. The solid heat carrier is heated by high-temperature flue gas, tar on the surface of the heat carrier can be volatilized, and a part of tar can be effectively removed by residual trace oxygen in the high-temperature flue gas.
The working process of the solid waste pyrolysis system for circularly heating the solid heat carrier provided by the embodiment of the invention comprises the following steps:
the material is conveyed into the pyrolysis reactor 5 through the material conveying pipe through the dryer 2, and the flue gas output from the dryer 2 is heated to 100-110 ℃;
after being heated to 600-900 ℃ in the heating furnace 3, the solid heat carrier is sent into a quick premixing device at the upper part of the pyrolysis reactor 5 through a conveying pipe, is mixed with materials and then is uniformly dispersed into the pyrolysis reactor 5 through a two-stage material shifting distributor;
the pyrolysis reactor 5 drives a helical blade through the rotation of a central shaft, a solid heat carrier is used as a heat transfer medium, the heat transfer medium and the materials are subjected to full heat exchange, and the materials are heated to 500-800 ℃ to undergo pyrolysis reaction;
after the pyrolysis reaction is finished, the mixture of the solid product and the heat carrier enters a separator, the gas product enters a combustion furnace 8 from the side upper part of the pyrolysis reactor 5, the pyrolysis solid product separated by a material separator 13 enters a garbage charcoal storage tank 14 for recycling, and the solid heat carrier enters a conveying pipe and enters an elevator 12 to be conveyed to a solid heat carrier heating furnace 3. The third fan 9 provides a proper amount of air for the combustion furnace 8, so that the air is fully combusted, high-temperature flue gas is generated and introduced into the radiation convection heat exchanger, and the flue gas after primary heat exchange enters the solid heat carrier heating furnace 3;
the solid heat carrier and the flue gas are subjected to countercurrent heat exchange in the heating furnace 3, the solid heat carrier is heated to 600-900 ℃, and the high-temperature solid heat carrier enters the rapid premixing device again through the outlet of the heating furnace 3 to form a closed-loop pyrolysis system; and introducing the low-temperature flue gas obtained after the high-temperature flue gas and the solid heat carrier perform countercurrent heat exchange into a dryer 2, and drying the material. Introducing the residual gas after the secondary heat exchange into a tail gas treatment device 1 for treatment; a small amount of flue gas after the extraction treatment of the first fan 4 is used as seal gas to be introduced into a fast premixing device at the upper part and a gas locking device 11 at the lower part of the pyrolysis furnace, the total amount of the seal gas is not more than 3 percent of the total amount of the flue gas, in addition, 10 percent of the flue gas is extracted to enter the pyrolysis reactor 5 through a flute-shaped pipe 10 uniformly arranged at the bottom of the pyrolysis reactor 5, and part of the flue gas is extracted by the first fan 4 to enter a combustion furnace 8 to control the combustion temperature of oil gas.
In summary, the embodiment of the present invention discloses a solid waste pyrolysis system for cyclic heating of a solid heat carrier, comprising: the device comprises a pyrolysis reactor 5 and a heating furnace 3 of a solid heat carrier which are connected through a pipeline, wherein a quick premixing device and a two-stage material shifting distributor are arranged at the top of the main body of the pyrolysis reactor 5, the lower part of the main body is connected with an air locker 11 and a material separator 13, a gas product outlet of the pyrolysis reactor 5 is connected with a combustion furnace 8, and high-temperature flue gas generated by combustion enters the heating furnace 3 to heat the solid heat carrier after primary heat exchange through a radiation convection heat exchanger. The pyrolysis system of solid heat carrier circulation heating passes through the high temperature flue gas and heats the solid heat carrier, and the solid heat carrier after being heated and material direct contact heat transfer to reach the required temperature of pyrolysis, the solid heat carrier separates with the pyrolysis solid product through material separator 13 after the reaction finishes, and lifting machine 12 sends the solid heat carrier after separating into heating furnace 3 once more, forms closed loop pyrolysis system. The invention improves the original indirect heating pyrolysis system, and the solid heat carrier is taken as a heat transfer medium to directly contact with the material to be pyrolyzed, thereby not only realizing the maximum utilization of energy, but also overcoming the technical problems of uneven temperature, low heat transfer efficiency and the like in indirect heating.
Finally, it should be noted that: although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the above embodiments, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that: modifications and equivalents may be made to the embodiments of the invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, which is to be covered by the claims.

Claims (10)

1. The utility model provides a solid useless pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating which characterized in that includes:
the pyrolysis reactor (5) is used for carrying out pyrolysis treatment on the solid waste to be treated; the pyrolysis reactor (5) is provided with a material inlet, a solid product outlet and a pyrolysis gas outlet; the material inlet is provided with a premixing device and a material stirring distributor, and the premixing device is provided with a first inlet, a second inlet, a third inlet and a material outlet; a material outlet of the premixing device is communicated with a feed inlet of the material stirring distributor, and the material stirring distributor is used for stirring and dispersing the materials output by the premixing device after the premixing treatment and sending the materials into a pyrolysis reactor (5);
the combustion furnace (8) is provided with a first inlet, a second inlet, a third inlet and a flue gas outlet; the first inlet of the combustion furnace (8) is communicated with the pyrolysis gas outlet, and the second inlet of the combustion furnace (8) is used for introducing combustion-supporting gas;
the heating furnace (3), the said heating furnace (3) is used for heating the solid heat carrier; the heating furnace (3) is provided with a flue gas inlet, a flue gas outlet, a solid heat carrier inlet and a solid heat carrier outlet; a flue gas inlet of the heating furnace (3) is communicated with a flue gas outlet of the combustion furnace (8) through a heat source channel of a heat exchanger; the solid heat carrier outlet of the heating furnace (3) is communicated with the first inlet of the premixing device;
the drying machine (2), the said drying machine (2) has material inlets, material outlet, flue gas inlet and flue gas outlet; the material inlet of the dryer (2) is used for inputting solid waste to be treated, the material outlet of the dryer (2) is communicated with the second inlet of the premixing device, and the flue gas inlet of the dryer (2) is communicated with the flue gas outlet of the heating furnace (3);
the tail gas treatment device (1), the tail gas treatment device (1) is provided with an inlet and an outlet; an inlet of the tail gas treatment device (1) is communicated with a flue gas outlet of the dryer (2), and an outlet of the tail gas treatment device (1) is communicated with a third inlet of the premixing device and used for introducing sealing air; the outlet of the tail gas treatment device (1) is communicated with the third inlet of the combustion furnace (8).
2. The solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating of claim 1, characterized in that the pyrolysis reactor (5) is a vertical reactor;
the bottom of the pyrolysis reactor (5) is uniformly provided with flute-shaped pipes (10), the inlets of the flute-shaped pipes (10) are communicated with the outlet of the tail gas treatment device (1), and the outlets of the flute-shaped pipes (10) are communicated with the pyrolysis reactor (5).
3. The solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating of claim 2, characterized in that a central rotating shaft is installed inside a cylinder of the pyrolysis reactor (5), and a helical blade is fixedly arranged on the central rotating shaft and used for stirring a mixture of solid waste and the solid heat carrier to be treated in a pyrolysis reaction process.
4. The solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating of claim 2 is characterized in that the amount of flue gas introduced into the pyrolysis reactor (5) through the flute-shaped pipes (10) is 10-15% of the total amount of flue gas.
5. The solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating of claim 1, characterized in that the heat exchanger is a radiant convection heat exchanger (7).
6. The solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating of claim 1, wherein the solid heat carrier is metal balls, and the volume ratio of the solid heat carrier to the solid waste is (1.5-3): 1.
7. the solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating of claim 1, further comprising:
the gas locker (11), the gas locker (11) is arranged at the solid product outlet of the pyrolysis reactor (5), and the tail gas output by the tail gas treatment device (1) is used as sealing air;
the material separator (13) is used for separating solid products and solid heat carriers in the solid mixture output by the pyrolysis reactor (5) after pyrolysis treatment;
and the elevator (12) is used for conveying the separated solid heat carrier into the heating furnace (3) through the solid heat carrier inlet.
8. The solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating of claim 1 is characterized in that the total amount of sealing air introduced into the premixing device and the air locker (11) is less than 3% of the total amount of flue gas.
9. The solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating of claim 1, characterized in that the temperature of the flue gas output from the flue gas outlet of the combustion furnace (8) is 950-1000 ℃, and the oxygen content of the output flue gas is lower than 3%.
10. The solid waste pyrolysis system based on solid heat carrier heating of claim 1, characterized in that,
the temperature of the solid waste output after the drying of the dryer (2) is 100-110 ℃;
the temperature range of the solid heat carrier output after being heated by the heating furnace (3) is 600-900 ℃;
the solid waste temperature range after the heat transfer by the solid heat carrier in the pyrolysis reactor (5) is 500-800 ℃.
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