CN114453895A - Milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing open type thin-wall workpiece - Google Patents

Milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing open type thin-wall workpiece Download PDF

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Publication number
CN114453895A
CN114453895A CN202111042483.8A CN202111042483A CN114453895A CN 114453895 A CN114453895 A CN 114453895A CN 202111042483 A CN202111042483 A CN 202111042483A CN 114453895 A CN114453895 A CN 114453895A
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China
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drilling
horizontal
milling
workpiece
processing
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CN202111042483.8A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN114453895B (en
Inventor
李春燕
冯偲彬
耿其东
黄彬
耿彬
陆凯
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Anhui Chenze Intellectual Property Service Co ltd
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Yancheng Institute of Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23PMETAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P23/00Machines or arrangements of machines for performing specified combinations of different metal-working operations not covered by a single other subclass
    • B23P23/02Machine tools for performing different machining operations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q11/00Accessories fitted to machine tools for keeping tools or parts of the machine in good working condition or for cooling work; Safety devices specially combined with or arranged in, or specially adapted for use in connection with, machine tools
    • B23Q11/0042Devices for removing chips
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q3/00Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine
    • B23Q3/02Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine for mounting on a work-table, tool-slide, or analogous part
    • B23Q3/06Work-clamping means
    • B23Q3/062Work-clamping means adapted for holding workpieces having a special form or being made from a special material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q3/00Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine
    • B23Q3/02Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine for mounting on a work-table, tool-slide, or analogous part
    • B23Q3/06Work-clamping means
    • B23Q3/08Work-clamping means other than mechanically-actuated
    • B23Q3/082Work-clamping means other than mechanically-actuated hydraulically actuated
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q7/00Arrangements for handling work specially combined with or arranged in, or specially adapted for use in connection with, machine tools, e.g. for conveying, loading, positioning, discharging, sorting
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/10Greenhouse gas [GHG] capture, material saving, heat recovery or other energy efficient measures, e.g. motor control, characterised by manufacturing processes, e.g. for rolling metal or metal working

Abstract

The invention discloses a milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing open type thin-wall workpieces, which comprises a frame, a movable workbench, a clamping mechanism, a vertical drilling mechanism, a horizontal milling mechanism and a horizontal drilling mechanism, wherein the movable workbench is arranged on the frame; the loading, processing and unloading processes are realized without manual operation by moving the workbench, the vertical drilling mechanism, the horizontal milling mechanism and the horizontal drilling mechanism are used for processing the bracket, the processing in two directions is completed on the same composite machine tool, the station arrangement of the machine tool is reasonable, the clamping and positioning times are reduced, and the production cost is reduced; according to the characteristics that the opening type thin-wall workpiece has multiple holes and is thin in wall and easy to deform, the clamping mechanism reduces damage to the support by using point contact at the part needing to be compressed of the thin-wall structure, meanwhile, the triangular compression plate is arranged to reduce play, and the compression arrangement structure is stable; aiming at the problem of poor rigidity of the opening, the supporting unit is added to improve the supporting strength, and the workpiece is ensured to be free of damage and deformation in the processing and clamping process.

Description

Milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing open type thin-wall workpiece
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of machining, and particularly relates to a milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for machining an open type thin-wall workpiece.
Background
The bracket type part is one of typical parts commonly used in mechanical products, and the bracket type part is used as a key connecting piece in a vehicle and mainly plays a supporting and positioning function. The shape of the clamp is especially provided with one opening, the machining requirement is complex, the clamp generally needs to be machined from multiple directions, holes are multiple, the wall is thin, the precision is high, the machining is easy to deform, and the clamping frequency is multiple. When a common machine tool is used for machining, a plurality of processes are needed, different clamps and different equipment are adopted to realize part machining in multiple directions, meanwhile, the common machine tool cannot realize continuity of drilling and milling processes, and the drilling and milling processes need to be completed on two machine tools respectively, so that the parts cannot be machined continuously, a large amount of time and human resources are wasted, and the product period is long and the efficiency is low.
In the manufacturing process of the bracket shown in fig. 1, according to the production line processing requirement, the processing contents distributed to the process comprise: milling two groups of surfaces on two sides of the small end, drilling a group of phi 17 double-layer holes, drilling 2 groups of phi 18 holes, and drilling 2 groups of phi 17 holes; the machining allowance is not more than 3 mm; the single piece processing time is 6 min.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention provides a milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing open type thin-wall workpieces, which shortens the processing time, improves the working efficiency and obtains higher economic benefit through ordered and efficient drilling and milling processing.
In order to achieve the technical purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing open type thin-wall workpieces further comprises a frame, a movable workbench, a clamping mechanism, a vertical drilling mechanism, a horizontal milling mechanism and a horizontal drilling mechanism; wherein the content of the first and second substances,
the movable workbench is arranged on the rack; the movable workbench comprises a mounting table and a transmission unit; the mounting table is connected to the transmission unit, and the transmission unit drives the mounting table to reciprocate on the rack along an X axis;
the clamping mechanism is arranged on the mounting table and used for clamping the workpiece; the workpiece comprises a plurality of horizontal thin walls, a plurality of vertical thin walls and an opening mainly consisting of two thin walls; the clamping mechanism comprises a clamp base, a clamping unit, a limiting unit and a supporting unit; wherein the clamping unit is mounted on the clamp base; the clamping unit comprises a first pressing plate, a second pressing plate and a third pressing plate which are respectively in point contact with the horizontal thin wall of the workpiece; three contact points of the first pressure plate, the second pressure plate and the third pressure plate with the horizontal thin wall are triangular on a horizontal plane; the limiting unit is arranged on the clamp base and is abutted against the vertical thin wall of the workpiece; the supporting unit extends into the opening of the workpiece and supports two thin walls at the opening;
the vertical drilling mechanism is arranged at one end of the rack; for machining a bore hole from the Z-axis direction;
the horizontal milling mechanism is arranged at the downstream end of the vertical drilling mechanism; the plurality of horizontal milling mechanisms are symmetrically arranged on two sides of the rack by an X axis and are used for milling end faces by taking a Z axis as a feeding direction;
the horizontal drilling mechanism is fixedly arranged at the downstream end of the horizontal milling mechanism; the horizontal drilling mechanisms are arranged in a plurality of numbers, are symmetrically arranged on two sides of the rack in an X-axis mode, and are used for machining and drilling holes from the Y-axis direction.
Further, the mobile workbench both sides all are provided with spiral chip cleaner, spiral chip cleaner is located vertical drilling mechanism horizontal milling mechanism with horizontal drilling mechanism below is used for collecting the processing the sweeps and the discharge of work piece.
Furthermore, the vertical drilling mechanism comprises a first upright post, a second upright post, a gantry type servo sliding table and a drill bit; the first upright post and the second upright post are symmetrically arranged on two sides of the movable workbench; the gantry type servo sliding table is arranged between the first upright post and the second upright post and is positioned above the movable workbench; the drill bit is arranged on the gantry type servo sliding table; the gantry type servo sliding table drives the drill bit to move up and down along the Z axis.
Further, the vertical drilling mechanism further comprises a movable drill sleeve, and the movable drill sleeve is arranged below the drill bit; the movable drill bushing comprises a telescopic assembly, a drilling guide block and a detection unit; the drilling guide block is arranged at the movable end of the telescopic assembly and slides linearly along the horizontal direction; the drilling guide block comprises a support plate and a guide hole, and the support plate extends into the position above the thin wall of the workpiece to be drilled; the guide hole is formed in the support plate, and a drill bushing is arranged in the guide hole; the detection unit detects the displacement position of the drilling guide block.
Furthermore, an adjusting unit is arranged between the gantry type servo sliding table and the drill bit and used for adjusting the left and right positions of the drill bit installation; the adjusting unit is arranged on the gantry type servo sliding table; the adjusting unit comprises an adjusting groove and an adjusting slide block; the adjusting groove is formed in the mounting surface of the gantry type servo sliding table for mounting the drill bit; the adjusting groove is arranged along the horizontal direction; the adjusting sliding blocks are slidably mounted on the adjusting grooves, and the two adjusting sliding blocks are respectively arranged on the left side and the right side of the drill bit.
Furthermore, two horizontal milling mechanisms are arranged and are respectively installed on the side wall of the first upright post and the side wall of the second upright post; and linear guide rails are arranged on the side wall of the first upright post and the side wall of the second upright post to drive the horizontal milling mechanism to perform Z-axis feeding motion.
Further, the clamping unit further comprises a centering clamping part and a mandril, wherein the centering clamping part comprises a first clamping plate, a second clamping plate and a bidirectional screw rod, and the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate are movably arranged on the bidirectional screw rod; the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate are arranged on two sides of the workpiece by taking an X axis as a symmetrical axis, and move oppositely along a Y axis to clamp the workpiece; the ejector rod moves linearly along the X-axis direction and tightly abuts against the workpiece from the X-axis direction, and the force application direction of the ejector rod to the workpiece is opposite to that of the limiting unit.
Furthermore, the first pressing plate, the second pressing plate and the third pressing plate are rotatably arranged on the clamp base, a supporting stud is arranged on the top surface of the clamp base, the supporting stud corresponds to the first pressing plate, the second pressing plate and the third pressing plate, and the supporting stud is arranged below the workpiece.
A processing method of a milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing an open type thin-wall workpiece is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step 1, installing a workpiece to be machined on a clamping mechanism in a worker operation area;
step 2, moving the clamping mechanism provided with the workpiece to be processed to a processing station of the vertical drilling mechanism at the farthest end of the rack through a transmission unit of the movable workbench;
step 3, the vertical drilling mechanism carries out fast feeding and working feeding to carry out drilling processing; after the processing is finished, quickly returning to the original position;
step 4, the workpiece enters a processing station of the horizontal milling mechanism through a transmission unit of the movable workbench; the horizontal milling mechanisms symmetrically arranged on the two sides of the rack in the X-axis direction simultaneously start milling;
step 5, after the milling process is finished, the horizontal milling mechanism keeps the finishing position unchanged; the horizontal milling mechanism returns to the original position after the workpiece enters the processing station of the horizontal drilling mechanism through the transmission unit of the movable workbench;
step 6, starting the horizontal drilling mechanism on one side of the rack to perform drilling processing, and starting the horizontal drilling mechanism on the other side of the rack after a limited time; the horizontal drilling mechanism which is started firstly retreats to the original position after the machining amount of the horizontal drilling mechanism reaches 1/2 of the depth to be drilled, and then the horizontal drilling mechanism which is started later retreats to the original position after drilling through the hole to be drilled;
and 7, returning the machined workpiece and the clamping mechanism to a worker operation area through a transmission unit of the movable workbench, and unloading the machined workpiece by an operator.
The invention has the following beneficial effects:
firstly, through the implementation of the scheme of the invention, the manual operation is not needed in the processes of feeding, processing and discharging through the movable workbench; the vertical drilling mechanism, the horizontal milling mechanism and the horizontal drilling mechanism are used for processing the bracket, the processing in two directions is completed on the same composite machine tool, the station arrangement of the machine tool is reasonable, the clamping and positioning times are reduced, and the production cost is reduced; according to the characteristics that the opening type thin-wall workpiece has multiple holes and is thin in wall and easy to deform, the clamping mechanism reduces damage to the support by using point contact at the part needing to be compressed of the thin-wall structure, meanwhile, the triangular pressing plates are arranged to reduce play, and the compression arrangement structure is stable; aiming at the problem of poor rigidity of the opening, the supporting unit is added to improve the supporting strength, and the workpiece is ensured to be free of damage and deformation in the processing and clamping process.
Secondly, spiral chip removers are arranged on two sides of the movable workbench, so that processing scraps can be conveniently discharged.
And thirdly, in order to ensure the rigidity, a gantry servo sliding table is adopted, and upright columns on two sides are adopted for supporting and mounting, so that the phenomenon that the cutter is in a cantilever state due to the single-side upright column of the common vertical drilling machine is avoided, and the phenomenon that the machining precision is influenced due to deformation caused by long-term use is avoided.
Fourthly, when the slender holes are machined, the movable drill bushing is used for guiding the cutter to machine, vibration of the long drill bit is reduced, machining precision of the drilled holes is guaranteed, and coaxiality is guaranteed.
And the fifth upright post, the first upright post and the second upright post simultaneously support the vertical drilling mechanism and the horizontal milling mechanism, so that the machine tool mechanism is more compact, the number of parts is reduced, and the arrangement of the machine tool is more facilitated.
The sixth pressing plate, the first pressing plate, the second pressing plate and the third pressing plate are rotatably arranged on the clamp base, so that the first pressing plate, the second pressing plate and the third pressing plate do not need to be integrally lifted up and removed when workpieces are fed and discharged; the installation time is saved, the installation precision is improved, meanwhile, enough upper space is reserved, and the production line is convenient to feed and discharge.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a view showing the construction of a stent according to the present invention
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a perspective view of the composite numerically controlled machine tool of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a front view of the composite numerical control machine tool of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a top view of the gantry, the mobile table, and the cooling system of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic perspective view of the center frame, the movable table and the vertical drilling mechanism according to the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a schematic view of an enlarged view of portion A in FIG. 5
FIG. 7 is a schematic structural view of a gantry servo slide table;
FIG. 8 is a schematic view of a horizontal drilling mechanism of the present invention assembled in a right side view of a numerically controlled machine tool of the present invention;
FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of the right side view of the horizontal milling mechanism of the present invention assembled to the numerically controlled machine tool of the present invention;
FIG. 10 is a perspective view of the assembly of the clamping mechanism and the bracket of the present invention;
FIG. 11 is a schematic front view of an assembly of the chuck mechanism and the holder of the present invention;
FIG. 12 is a schematic top view of an assembly of the chuck mechanism and the holder of the present invention;
description of the symbols:
1. the device comprises a rack, 1-1 parts of a first upright column, 1-2 parts of a second upright column, 1-3 parts of a linear guide rail, 1-4 parts of an upright column servo sliding table, 2 parts of a movable workbench, 2-1 parts of an installation table, 2-2 parts of a transmission unit, 3 parts of a clamping mechanism, 3-1 parts of a clamp base, 3-2 parts of a first pressing plate, 3-3 parts of a second pressing plate, 3-4 parts of a third pressing plate, 3-5 parts of an ejector rod, 3-6 parts of a first telescopic oil cylinder, 3-7 parts of a first bracket, 3-8 parts of a second telescopic oil cylinder, 3-9 parts of a second bracket, 3-10 parts of a supporting unit, 3-11 parts of a first limiting plate, 3-12 parts of a second limiting plate, 3-13 parts of a supporting nail column, 3-14 parts of a first clamping plate, 3-15 parts of a bidirectional screw rod, 4. The drilling machine comprises a vertical drilling mechanism, 4-1 gantry servo sliding table, 4-1-1 adjusting groove, 4-1-2 positioning key, 4-1-3 adjusting slide block, 4-2 movable drill bushing, 4-2-1 telescopic assembly, 4-2-2 support plate, 4-2-3 detection unit, 4-2-4 guide hole, 4-3 drill bit, 4-3-1 vertical drilling motor, 4-3-2 twist drill bit, 5 horizontal milling mechanism, 5-1 double-shaft milling head, 5-2 milling cutter, 5-3 milling motor, 6 horizontal drilling mechanism, 6-1 horizontal servo sliding table, 6-2 four-shaft U-drill power head, 6-3U-drill motor, 7. The device comprises an aerial bridge, 8 brackets, 9 cooling systems and 10 spiral chip removers.
Detailed Description
Specific embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings, but it should be understood that the scope of the present invention is not limited to the specific embodiments.
As shown in fig. 1-12, a milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing open-type thin-walled workpieces comprises a frame 1, a movable workbench 2, a clamping mechanism 3, a vertical drilling mechanism 4, a horizontal milling mechanism 5 and a horizontal drilling mechanism 6; wherein, the movable worktable 2 is arranged on the frame 1; the movable workbench 2 comprises a mounting platform 2-1 and a transmission unit 2-2; the mounting table 2-1 is connected to the transmission unit 2-2, and the transmission unit 2-2 drives the mounting table 2-1 to reciprocate on the rack along the X axis; preferably, the transmission unit 2-2 includes a servo motor, model 150 ST-M32015M; 2 both sides of travelling table all are provided with spiral chip cleaner 10, and the length of spiral chip cleaner 10 is not less than travelling table 2's length along the X axle direction, and the processing sweeps carries out the chip removal through spiral chip cleaner 10, in unified cooling system 9 of arranging digit control machine tool one end, includes cooling tube and cooling chip removal system in cooling system 9, is carried away by the dolly again.
The vertical drilling mechanism 4 is fixedly arranged at one end of the rack 1; the vertical drilling mechanism 4 is fixed at one end of the frame 1 far away from a worker operation area; the vertical drilling mechanism comprises a first upright post 1-1, a second upright post 1-2, a gantry type servo sliding table 4-1, a drill bit 4-3 and a movable drill bushing 4-2, wherein the first upright post 1-1 and the second upright post 1-2 are symmetrically arranged on two sides of a movable working table 2; the gantry type servo sliding table 4-1 is arranged between the first upright post 1-1 and the second upright post 1-2 and is positioned above the movable workbench 2, preferably, the first upright post 1-1 and the second upright post 1-2 are used as supports, and the left side and the right side of the gantry type servo sliding table 4-1 are arranged at the tops of the first upright post 1-1 and the second upright post 1-2; the drill 4-3 is arranged on the gantry type servo sliding table 4-1; the gantry type servo sliding table 4-1 drives the drill bit 4-3 to move up and down along the Z axis; the drill 4-3 comprises a vertical drilling motor 4-3-1 and a twist drill 4-3-2; the model of the vertical drilling motor 4-3-1 is Y90L-4B5, and the twist drill 4-3-2 is used for drilling a double-layer hole with the diameter of 17 mm; the movable drill bushing 4-2 is arranged below the drill bit 4-3; the movable drill bushing 4-2 comprises a telescopic component 4-2-1, a drilling guide block and a detection unit 4-2-3; the drilling guide block is arranged at the movable end of the telescopic assembly 4-2-1 and slides linearly along the horizontal direction, preferably, the telescopic assembly 4-2-1 is a telescopic oil cylinder, and the cylinder body end of the telescopic oil cylinder is arranged on the side wall of the first upright post 1-1 or the second upright post 1-2 and moves linearly along the Y axis; the drilling guide block comprises a support plate 4-2-2 and a guide hole 4-2-4, the support plate 4-2-2 extends into the position above the thin wall of the workpiece to be drilled, and according to the double-layer hole structure of the support 8, the support plate 4-2-2 is divided into an upper support plate and a lower support plate, wherein the upper support plate is positioned above the thin wall of the first layer of holes, and the lower support plate extends into the position between the first layer of thin wall and the second layer of thin wall from the side surface; the guide hole 4-2-4 is formed in the support plate 4-2-2, a drill sleeve is arranged in the guide hole 4-2-4, the movable drill sleeve 4-2 is used for guiding a cutter to process, vibration of a long twist drill bit is reduced, processing precision of the two holes is guaranteed, and coaxiality is guaranteed; and the detection unit 4-2-3 is used for detecting the displacement position of the drilling guide block and ensuring the positioning precision of the drilling guide block.
Because of the influence of temperature change in summer and winter and the influence of different batches of moulds, the position of the double-layer hole on the bracket 8 needs to be correspondingly adjusted, and the fine adjustment quantity of left and right (+/-) 1 mm needs to be ensured on the vertical drilling mechanism 4; therefore, an adjusting unit is arranged between the gantry type servo sliding table 4-1 and the drill bit 4-3 and is used for adjusting the left and right positions of the drill bit 4-3; the adjusting unit is arranged on the gantry type servo sliding table 4-3; the adjusting unit comprises an adjusting groove 4-1-1 and an adjusting slide block 4-1-3; the adjusting groove 4-1-1 is formed in the installation surface of the gantry type servo sliding table 4-3 for installing the drill bit 4-3, and preferably, the adjusting groove 4-1-1 is a T-shaped groove; the adjusting groove 4-1-1 is arranged along the horizontal direction, and a positioning key 4-1-2 is arranged on the adjusting groove 4-1-1 and connected with the drill bit 4-3 for fixing the mounting position of the drill bit 4-3 on the Z axis; the adjusting slide blocks 4-1-3 are arranged on the adjusting grooves 4-1-1 in a sliding mode, two adjusting slide blocks 4-1-3 are arranged and are respectively arranged on the left side and the right side of the drill bit 4-3, and the left position and the right position of the drill bit 4-3 on the X axis are finely adjusted through the horizontally sliding adjusting slide blocks 4-1-3.
The horizontal milling mechanism 5 is arranged at the downstream end of the vertical drilling mechanism 4; according to the structure of the support 8 in the scheme, two horizontal milling mechanisms 5 are arranged and are respectively arranged on the side wall of the first upright post 1-1 and the side wall of the second upright post 1-2; linear guide rails 1-3 are arranged on the side wall of the first upright post 1-1 and the side wall of the second upright post 1-2, and upright post servo sliding tables 1-4 are arranged on the first upright post 1-1 and the second upright post 1-2; the vertical column servo sliding table 1-4 drives the horizontal milling mechanism 5 to do Z-axis up-and-down reciprocating motion on the linear guide rails 1-3; the first upright post 1-1 and the second upright post 1-2 simultaneously support the vertical drilling mechanism 4 and the horizontal milling mechanism 5, so that the machine tool mechanism is more compact, the number of parts is reduced, and the arrangement of the machine tool is more facilitated; the horizontal milling mechanism 5 comprises a double-shaft milling head 5-1 and a milling motor 5-3; wherein, two milling cutters 5-2 are arranged in the double-shaft milling head 5-1; the model of the milling motor 5-3 is Y132M-6B 5; the horizontal milling mechanism 5 performs machining from two sides simultaneously, so that time is saved, and efficiency is improved.
The horizontal drilling mechanism 6 is arranged at the downstream end of the horizontal milling mechanism 5; according to the structure of the support 8 in the scheme, two horizontal drilling mechanisms 6 are arranged for processing and drilling holes from the Y-axis direction, and when the required hole positions are too close to each other, the processing needs to be carried out in two steps; the horizontal drilling mechanism 6 comprises a horizontal servo sliding table 6-1, a four-axis U-drill power head 6-2 and a U-drill motor 6-3; the horizontal servo sliding table 6-1 is mounted on the rack 1, and a servo motor in the horizontal servo sliding table 6-1 is 150ST-M32015M in model and used for controlling the Y-axis feeding amount of the horizontal drilling mechanism 6; the U-drill motor 6-3 is Y112M-4B 5.
The clamping mechanism 3 is arranged on the mounting table 2-1 and used for clamping the bracket 8; firstly, confirming the placing mode of the bracket 8 according to the processing requirement; drilling a group of phi 17 double-layer holes as slender holes for processing, and arranging a cutter along a Z axis; two groups of phi 18 holes are drilled, two groups of phi 17 holes are drilled for hole processing, and a cutter needs to be arranged along an X axis.
Two groups of surfaces milling two sides of the small end are milled at two sides, and the alternatives are as follows: end face milling, wherein a cutter main shaft is arranged along an X axis; milling the side surface, wherein a cutter main shaft is arranged along a Z axis or a Y axis; considering that the end face milling precision is high and the surface roughness is easy to guarantee, the same arrangement mode as that of phi 18 hole and phi 17 hole processing cutters is selected, and the cutters are arranged on two sides of a workpiece along an X axis and are processed horizontally.
The clamping mechanism 3 comprises a clamp base 3-1, a clamping unit, a limiting unit, a supporting unit 3-10, a centering clamping part, a mandril 3-5 and a supporting stud 3-13; the clamping unit comprises a first pressing plate 3-2, a second pressing plate 3-3 and a third pressing plate 3-4, the first pressing plate, the second pressing plate and the third pressing plate are in point contact with a horizontal thin-wall point of the workpiece, and the contact point is triangular on the horizontal plane; according to the structure of the bracket 8, the first pressing plate 3-2 and the second pressing plate 3-3 are arranged at the position of a flat plate behind the bracket 8, the upper surface of the flat plate part of the bracket 8 is pressed from the Z-axis direction, and the first pressing plate 3-2 and the second pressing plate 3-3 are arranged in tandem in the X-axis direction; the contact points are not on a straight line; the third pressing plate 3-4 is arranged at an opening in front of the bracket 8, and has a larger size from the first pressing plate 3-2 and the second pressing plate 3-3, so that a larger coverage area of the three points is ensured; the top surface of the clamp base 3-1 is provided with support studs 3-13, the support studs 3-13 are arranged corresponding to the first pressure plate 3-2, the second pressure plate 3-3 and the third pressure plate 3-4, and the support studs 3-13 are arranged below the bracket 8 and provide support from the Z-axis direction; the supporting units 3-10 extend into the opening of the bracket 8, support two side walls at the opening and are arranged corresponding to the third pressing plate 3-4, so that the bracket 8 is prevented from deforming due to the poor rigidity of the opening; the clamping unit limits three degrees of freedom of Z-axis movement, X-axis rotation and Y-axis rotation of the support 8.
The centering and clamping part comprises a first clamping plate 3-14, a second clamping plate and a two-way screw rod 3-15, wherein the first clamping plate 3-14 and the second clamping plate are movably arranged on the two-way screw rod 3-15; the first clamping plates 3-14 and the second clamping plates are arranged on two sides of the bracket 8 by taking an X axis as a symmetrical axis and move oppositely along a Y axis, the vertical surfaces of the bracket 8 are clamped, and the centering clamping parts limit the Y axis movement of the bracket 8.
The limiting unit is arranged on the clamp base 3-1 and abuts against a vertical thin wall on a workpiece, and according to the structure of the support 8, the limiting unit comprises a first limiting plate 3-11 and a second limiting plate 3-12, the first limiting plate 3-11 and the second limiting plate 3-12 are vertically arranged and are arranged on two sides of the support 8 by taking an X axis as a center, and the limiting unit abuts against the front side of the vertical side wall of the support 8 from the X axis direction, so that the movement of the support 8 on the X axis is limited, and the rotation freedom degree of a Z axis is limited; the ejector rod 3-5 moves linearly along the X-axis direction and tightly abuts against the bracket 8 from the X-axis direction, and the force application direction of the ejector rod 3-5 to the bracket 8 is opposite to that of the limiting unit; preferably, the ejector rods 3-5 tightly prop against the rear end of the bracket 8 from the X-axis direction; the bracket 8 is ensured to reliably lean against the first limit plate 3-11 and the second limit plate 3-12.
Considering the loading and unloading of the robot, the clamping mechanism is designed to be open at the upper part; the first pressing plate 3-2, the second pressing plate 3-3 and the third pressing plate 3-4 are rotatably mounted on the clamp base 3-1; according to the structural design of the bracket 8, the first pressing plate 3-2 and the second pressing plate 3-3 are rotatably opened and closed by adopting a Y axis, so that enough upper space is reserved during feeding and discharging; the third press plate 3-4 rotates 90 degrees along the Z axis to reserve a space for feeding and discharging materials for the support 8; specifically, a first telescopic oil cylinder 3-6, a first support 3-7, a second telescopic oil cylinder 3-8 and a second support 3-9 are respectively arranged on a clamp base 3-1, wherein the rear end of a first pressing plate 3-2 is hinged with the piston rod end of the first telescopic oil cylinder 3-6, a boss is arranged on the side wall of the first pressing plate 3-2, the boss extends into a guide hole formed in the first support 3-7 in an inclined manner, and the first telescopic oil cylinder 3-6 performs telescopic motion to drive the boss to slide in the guide hole formed in the inclined manner; the rear end of the second pressing plate 3-3 is hinged with a piston rod end of a second telescopic oil cylinder 3-8, a boss is arranged on the side wall of the second pressing plate 3-3, and the boss extends into a guide hole which is obliquely formed in the second support 3-9; the first pressing plate 3-2 and the second pressing plate 3-3 can do rotary opening and closing movement along the Y axis.
The frame 1 also comprises an aerial bridge 7 which is arranged above the operation area of the frame worker and used for feeding and discharging.
A machining method of a milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for machining a support is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step 1, installing a workpiece to be machined on a clamping mechanism in a worker operation area; firstly, feeding and pushing a to-be-processed bracket, abutting against a first limiting plate and a second limiting plate, manually operating a bidirectional screw rod to enable a first clamping plate and a second clamping plate to center and clamp the bracket, and abutting against the rear end of the to-be-processed bracket by using an ejector rod; the supporting unit extends into the opening of the bracket; clamping the bracket to be processed by using a first pressing plate, a second pressing plate and a third pressing plate;
step 2, moving the clamping mechanism provided with the bracket to be processed to a processing station of the vertical drilling mechanism at the farthest end of the rack through a transmission unit of the movable workbench;
step 3, the vertical drilling mechanism carries out fast feeding and working feeding to carry out drilling processing; because the drilling of the vertical drilling mechanism is to drill a double-layer hole, the movable drill bushing extends into the upper part of the thin wall to be drilled before the drilling; after the processing is finished, quickly returning to the original position;
step 4, the bracket enters a processing station of the horizontal milling mechanism through a transmission unit of the movable workbench; the horizontal milling mechanisms symmetrically arranged on the two sides of the rack in the X-axis direction simultaneously start milling;
step 5, after the milling process is finished, the horizontal milling mechanism keeps the finishing position unchanged; after the support enters a processing station of the horizontal drilling mechanism through a transmission unit of the movable workbench, the horizontal milling mechanism returns to the original position;
step 6, starting a horizontal drilling mechanism on one side of the rack to perform drilling processing, and starting the horizontal drilling mechanism on the other side of the rack after 5 s; the horizontal drilling mechanism which is started firstly retreats to the original position after the machining amount of the horizontal drilling mechanism reaches 1/2 of the depth to be drilled, and then the horizontal drilling mechanism which is started later retreats to the original position after drilling through the hole to be drilled; the horizontal drilling mechanisms on the two sides are simultaneously processed, so that half of the working time can be reduced;
and 7, returning the machined workpiece and the clamping mechanism to a worker operation area through a transmission unit of the movable workbench, and unloading the machined workpiece by an operator.
In the machining process, the scraps produced in the machining process are discharged out of the machine tool through the spiral chip removers arranged on two sides of the movable workbench.
The above-mentioned embodiments are merely illustrative of the principles and effects of the present invention, and are not intended to limit the present invention, and any person skilled in the art can modify or change the above-mentioned embodiments without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention; accordingly, it is intended that all equivalent modifications or changes which can be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and technical spirit of the present invention be covered by the claims of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. A milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing open type thin-wall workpieces is characterized by comprising a frame, a movable workbench, a clamping mechanism, a vertical drilling mechanism, a horizontal milling mechanism and a horizontal drilling mechanism; wherein the content of the first and second substances,
the movable workbench is arranged on the rack; the movable workbench comprises a mounting table and a transmission unit; the mounting table is connected to the transmission unit, and the transmission unit drives the mounting table to reciprocate on the rack along an X axis;
the clamping mechanism is arranged on the mounting table and used for clamping the workpiece; the workpiece comprises a plurality of horizontal thin walls, a plurality of vertical thin walls and an opening mainly consisting of two thin walls; the clamping mechanism comprises a clamp base, a clamping unit, a limiting unit and a supporting unit; wherein the clamping unit is mounted on the clamp base; the clamping unit comprises a first pressing plate, a second pressing plate and a third pressing plate which are respectively in point contact with the horizontal thin wall of the workpiece; three contact points of the first pressure plate, the second pressure plate and the third pressure plate with the horizontal thin wall are triangular on a horizontal plane; the limiting unit is arranged on the clamp base and is abutted against the vertical thin wall of the workpiece; the supporting unit extends into the opening of the workpiece and supports two thin walls at the opening;
the vertical drilling mechanism is arranged at one end of the rack; for machining a borehole from the Z-axis direction;
the horizontal milling mechanism is arranged at the downstream end of the vertical drilling mechanism; the plurality of horizontal milling mechanisms are symmetrically arranged on two sides of the rack by an X axis and are used for milling end faces by taking a Z axis as a feeding direction;
the horizontal drilling mechanism is fixedly arranged at the downstream end of the horizontal milling mechanism; the horizontal drilling mechanisms are arranged in a plurality of numbers, are symmetrically arranged on two sides of the rack in an X-axis mode, and are used for machining and drilling holes from the Y-axis direction.
2. The milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing the open type thin-wall workpiece according to claim 1, wherein spiral chip removers are arranged on two sides of the movable workbench; the spiral chip remover is positioned below the vertical drilling mechanism, the horizontal milling mechanism and the horizontal drilling mechanism and used for collecting and processing the waste chips of the workpiece and discharging the waste chips.
3. The milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing the open type thin-wall workpiece according to claim 1, wherein the vertical drilling mechanism comprises a first upright, a second upright, a gantry type servo sliding table and a drill bit; the first upright post and the second upright post are symmetrically arranged on two sides of the movable workbench; the gantry type servo sliding table is arranged between the first upright post and the second upright post and is positioned above the movable workbench; the drill bit is arranged on the gantry type servo sliding table; the gantry type servo sliding table drives the drill bit to move up and down along the Z axis.
4. The milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing the open type thin-wall workpiece according to claim 3, characterized in that the vertical drilling mechanism further comprises a movable drill sleeve, and the movable drill sleeve is arranged below the drill bit; the movable drill bushing comprises a telescopic assembly, a drilling guide block and a detection unit; the drilling guide block is arranged at the movable end of the telescopic assembly and slides linearly along the horizontal direction; the drilling guide block comprises a support plate and a guide hole, and the support plate extends into the upper part of the thin wall of the workpiece to be drilled; the guide hole is formed in the support plate, and a drill bushing is arranged in the guide hole; the detection unit detects the displacement position of the drilling guide block.
5. The milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing the open type thin-walled workpiece according to claim 3, wherein an adjusting unit is arranged between the gantry type servo sliding table and the drill bit and used for adjusting the left and right positions of the drill bit installation; the adjusting unit is arranged on the gantry type servo sliding table; the adjusting unit comprises an adjusting groove and an adjusting slide block; the adjusting groove is formed in the mounting surface of the gantry type servo sliding table for mounting the drill bit; the adjusting groove is arranged along the horizontal direction; the adjusting sliding blocks are slidably mounted on the adjusting grooves, and the two adjusting sliding blocks are respectively arranged on the left side and the right side of the drill bit.
6. The milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing the open type thin-wall workpiece according to claim 3, characterized in that two horizontal milling mechanisms are arranged and respectively installed on the side wall of the first upright column and the side wall of the second upright column; and linear guide rails are arranged on the side wall of the first upright post and the side wall of the second upright post to drive the horizontal milling mechanism to perform Z-axis feeding motion.
7. The milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing the open type thin-wall workpiece according to claim 1, wherein the clamping unit further comprises a centering clamping part and a mandril, wherein the centering clamping part comprises a first clamping plate, a second clamping plate and a bidirectional screw rod, and the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate are movably mounted on the bidirectional screw rod; the first clamping plate and the second clamping plate are arranged on two sides of the workpiece by taking an X axis as a symmetrical axis, and move oppositely along a Y axis to clamp the workpiece; the ejector rod moves linearly along the X-axis direction and tightly abuts against the workpiece from the X-axis direction, and the force application direction of the ejector rod to the workpiece is opposite to that of the limiting unit.
8. The milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing the open type thin-walled workpiece according to claim 1, wherein the first pressing plate, the second pressing plate and the third pressing plate are rotatably mounted on the clamp base, a support stud is arranged on the top surface of the clamp base, the support stud is arranged corresponding to the first pressing plate, the second pressing plate and the third pressing plate, and the support stud is arranged below the workpiece.
9. A processing method of a milling and drilling composite numerical control machine tool for processing an open type thin-wall workpiece is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step 1, installing a workpiece to be machined on a clamping mechanism in a worker operation area;
step 2, moving the clamping mechanism provided with the workpiece to be processed to a processing station of the vertical drilling mechanism at the farthest end of the rack through a transmission unit of the movable workbench;
step 3, the vertical drilling mechanism carries out fast feeding and working feeding to carry out drilling processing; after the processing is finished, quickly returning to the original position;
step 4, the workpiece enters a processing station of the horizontal milling mechanism through a transmission unit of the movable workbench; the horizontal milling mechanisms symmetrically arranged on the two sides of the rack in the X-axis direction simultaneously start milling;
step 5, after the milling process is finished, the horizontal milling mechanism keeps the finishing position unchanged; the horizontal milling mechanism returns to the original position after the workpiece enters the processing station of the horizontal drilling mechanism through the transmission unit of the movable workbench;
step 6, starting the horizontal drilling mechanism on one side of the rack to perform drilling processing, and starting the horizontal drilling mechanism on the other side of the rack after a limited time; firstly, the horizontal drilling mechanism is started to process 1/2 with the required drilling depth and then retreats to the original position, and then the horizontal drilling mechanism is started to drill the hole to be drilled and retreats to the original position;
and 7, returning the machined workpiece and the clamping mechanism to a worker operation area through a transmission unit of the movable workbench, and unloading the machined workpiece by an operator.
CN202111042483.8A 2021-09-07 2021-09-07 Milling and drilling compound numerical control machine tool for machining open type thin-wall workpieces Active CN114453895B (en)

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CN116511983B (en) * 2023-07-05 2023-08-22 昆山台功精密机械有限公司 Noise reduction device for numerical control machining center

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