CN113906895B - Onion harvester and onion harvesting method - Google Patents

Onion harvester and onion harvesting method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113906895B
CN113906895B CN202111067280.4A CN202111067280A CN113906895B CN 113906895 B CN113906895 B CN 113906895B CN 202111067280 A CN202111067280 A CN 202111067280A CN 113906895 B CN113906895 B CN 113906895B
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conveying device
chain
leaf
onion
stem
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CN113906895A (en
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漆海霞
余浩明
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South China Agricultural University
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South China Agricultural University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D27/00Machines with both topping and lifting mechanisms
    • A01D27/04Machines with both topping and lifting mechanisms with moving or rotating tools
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D27/00Machines with both topping and lifting mechanisms
    • A01D27/02Machines with both topping and lifting mechanisms with rigid tools
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D33/00Accessories for digging harvesters
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D33/00Accessories for digging harvesters
    • A01D33/06Haulm-cutting mechanisms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D33/00Accessories for digging harvesters
    • A01D33/08Special sorting and cleaning mechanisms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D33/00Accessories for digging harvesters
    • A01D33/10Crop collecting devices, with or without weighing apparatus
    • A01D33/105Devices for gathering the crop in a row

Abstract

The invention discloses an onion harvester and an onion harvesting method, wherein the onion harvester comprises a rack, a harvesting device, a stem spiral conveying device, a leaf spiral conveying device, a soil sieving device, a lifting conveying device and a storage box body, the harvesting device is arranged at the front part of the rack, the stem spiral conveying device and the leaf spiral conveying device are both arranged below the rear end of the harvesting device, the soil sieving device is arranged below an outlet of the stem spiral conveying device, the lifting conveying device is arranged at the rear end of the soil sieving device, the storage box body is positioned at the rear end of the lifting conveying device, and the stem spiral conveying device, the leaf spiral conveying device, the soil sieving device and the lifting conveying device are connected in a chain transmission mode. The onion harvester can reduce the damage degree to the onions, improve the harvesting efficiency and facilitate the later screening and storage work.

Description

Onion harvester and onion harvesting method
Technical Field
The invention relates to an onion harvester and an onion harvesting method, and belongs to the field of harvesting machine design.
Background
The onion is widely distributed in China, cultivated in all parts of the south and the north, is one of the main vegetables cultivated in China, and according to the 2017 statistical data of the International food and agriculture organization, the total planting area of the onion in China is 102.5 ten thousand hm 2 (1537.5 ten thousand mu), the yield is 2230 ten thousand t, and the area and the yield are all in the first place in the world. The harvesting work of the majority of onions in China is still carried out manually, and the production of the onions has the outstanding problems of low mechanical utilization rate, more labor, high strength, low efficiency, high production cost and the like. Most of the current harvesting machines on the market are designed to dig and plane by using a shovel blade tool, which is not beneficial to ensuring the nondestructive rate of fruits.
Disclosure of Invention
The first purpose of the invention is to overcome the defects of the existing tobacco leaf mechanical harvesting, and provide an onion harvester which can reduce the damage degree to onions, improve the harvesting efficiency and facilitate the later screening and storage work.
The second purpose of the invention is to provide an onion harvesting method, which is realized based on the onion harvester.
The first purpose of the invention can be achieved by adopting the following technical scheme:
the utility model provides an onion harvester, includes frame, harvesting device, stem screw conveyor, leaf screw conveyor, sieve native device, lifting conveyer and storage box, harvesting device sets up in the frame front portion, stem screw conveyor and leaf screw conveyor all set up in harvesting device's rear end below, sieve native device and set up in stem screw conveyor's export below, lifting conveyer sets up the rear end at sieve native device, the storage box is located lifting conveyer rear end, stem screw conveyor, leaf screw conveyor, sieve native device and lifting conveyer pass through chain drive mode and connect.
Furthermore, the number of the harvesting devices is two, the two harvesting devices are bilaterally symmetrical, each harvesting device comprises a leaf guiding and gathering mechanism, a chain conveying mechanism and a leaf cutting mechanism, the leaf guiding and gathering mechanism is arranged at the front end of the chain conveying mechanism, and the leaf cutting mechanism is arranged below the rear end of the chain conveying mechanism.
Further, chain conveying mechanism includes first mounting panel, second mounting panel, driving shaft, first driven shaft, driving gear, first driven gear, first driving chain and second driving chain, first driving chain sets up around first mounting panel, the second driving chain sets up around the second mounting panel, the driving shaft sets up on first mounting panel to by hydraulic motor drive, first driven shaft sets up on the second mounting panel, the driving gear is installed on the driving shaft, first driven gear installs on first driven shaft, the driving gear meshes with first driven gear, first driving chain meshes with the second driving chain.
Furthermore, leaf cutting mechanism includes disc cutter, driven subassembly and third driving chain, the disc cutter sets up the below at first mounting panel rear end, driven subassembly includes a plurality of second driven shaft and a plurality of second driven gear, second driven shaft and second driven gear one-to-one, and every second driven gear is installed on the second driven shaft that corresponds, and a plurality of second driven gear meshes in proper order, and first second driven shaft passes through the third driving chain and is connected with first driven shaft, and last second driven shaft is connected with the disc cutter.
Furthermore, the leaf guiding and gathering mechanism is in a shape that the large front end opening is transited to the small middle opening through an arc.
Further, the stem spiral conveying device comprises a first spiral roller and a first box body, the first spiral roller is arranged on the first box body, the spiral directions of blades on two sides of the first spiral roller are distributed in a mirror-directional mode relative to the center, and an inclined outlet is formed in the middle of the first box body;
the blade spiral conveying device comprises a second spiral rolling shaft and a second box body, the second spiral rolling shaft is arranged on the second box body, the spiral direction of blades of the second spiral rolling shaft is a single direction, and an outlet is formed in one side of the second box body;
the stem spiral conveying device is connected with the leaf spiral conveying device through a transmission chain shaft.
Furthermore, the soil sieving device comprises two rolling bodies with outer rings being thin rods, the two rolling bodies are distributed in a trapezoidal shape, the two rolling bodies are connected through a transmission chain shaft, and the soil sieving device is connected with the stem spiral conveying device through the transmission chain shaft.
Furthermore, the lifting conveying device comprises a movable plate, a pulley, a rail and a fourth transmission chain, the movable plate is matched with the pulley in the rail through the connection of the fourth transmission chain, and the lifting conveying device is connected with the soil screening device through a transmission chain shaft.
Furthermore, the onion harvester also comprises a suspension traction device, wherein the suspension traction device is arranged at the front end of the rack and is used for being connected with a traction tractor to pull the onion harvester to walk.
The second purpose of the invention can be achieved by adopting the following technical scheme:
an onion harvesting method is realized based on the onion harvester, and the method comprises the following steps:
in the harvesting device, the scattered onion tubular leaves are guided and gathered into a bundle at the front end through a leaf guiding and gathering mechanism, then the onion tubular leaves gathered into the bundle are clamped in a gap between a first transmission chain and a second transmission chain by a chain transmission mechanism, the onion is pulled up and lifted and conveyed to the rear end of the chain transmission mechanism by using the chain transmission operation, when the lifted and conveyed onion reaches a leaf cutting mechanism, the onion is separated into stems and leaves, the cut leaves are continuously conveyed to the rear end along the chain transmission mechanism, and the cut stems fall freely;
the cut stems freely fall into a stem spiral conveying device, and the stem spiral conveying device conveys the fallen stems from two sides to the middle in a centralized manner and outputs the stems from an outlet in the middle; the cut leaves are conveyed to the end of the rear end along a chain conveying mechanism of the harvesting device and then fall into a leaf spiral conveying device, and the leaf spiral conveying device conveys the cut leaves to one side of the whole machine and falls on the ground from an outlet of the side;
the clay on the surface of the stems falling from the outlet of the stem screw conveying device is shaken up by the soil sieving device, and the rolled stems are received on the movable plate of the lifting conveying device and lifted to a certain height so as to be loaded into the storage box body.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
the onion harvester is provided with the harvesting device, the stem spiral conveying device, the leaf spiral conveying device, the soil sieving device and the lifting conveying device, wherein the stem spiral conveying device and the leaf spiral conveying device are arranged below the rear end of the harvesting device, the soil sieving device is arranged below an outlet of the stem spiral conveying device, the lifting conveying device is arranged at the rear end of the soil sieving device, and compared with a scraper knife which is in direct contact with onion tubers, the harvesting device can effectively avoid damage to the onions, has the function of separating the onion leaves from the tubers, reduces the consumption of subsequent manual labor, conveys the tubers through the stem spiral conveying device and the leaf spiral conveying device respectively, shakes and disperses soil adhered to the surfaces of the stems through the soil sieving device, facilitates subsequent reduction processing work, and directly loads the stems into the storage box through the lifting conveying device; in addition, the onion harvester of the invention meets the agricultural requirements of local planting, has compact structure and light weight and saves fuel loss in the harvesting process under the condition of meeting the use strength.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly described below, it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and for those skilled in the art, other drawings can be obtained according to the structures shown in the drawings without creative efforts.
Fig. 1 is a schematic perspective view of an onion harvester according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic front view of the onion harvester according to the embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic top view of an onion harvester according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a schematic perspective view of a harvesting device according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is a schematic plan view of a harvesting device according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 6 is a schematic diagram of the mechanism of the disc cutter drive of the embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 7 is a schematic perspective view of a stem screw conveying device according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 8 is a schematic perspective view of a leaf spiral conveying device according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 9 is a schematic perspective view of an earth sieving device according to an embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 10 is a schematic perspective view of a lifting conveyor according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 11 is a schematic plan view of a lifting conveyor according to an embodiment of the present invention.
The harvester comprises a machine frame 1, a rubber wheel 101, a crawler wheel 102, a harvesting device 2, a leaf guiding and gathering mechanism 201, a chain conveying mechanism 202, a first mounting plate 2021, a second mounting plate 2022, a driving shaft 2023, a first driven shaft 2024, a driving gear 2025, a first driven gear 2026, a first transmission chain 2027, a second transmission chain 2028, a leaf cutting mechanism 203, a disc cutter 2031, a third transmission chain 2032, a second driven shaft 2033, a second driven gear 2034, a screw stem 3, a first screw roller 301, a first box 302, a leaf screw conveying device 4, a second screw roller 401, a second box 402, a soil sieving device 5, a rolling body 501, a transmission device 6, a movable plate 601, a movable plate 602, a pulley 603, a track 604, a fourth transmission chain 7, a suspension box and a traction device 8.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the embodiments of the present invention clearer and more complete, the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are some embodiments of the present invention, but not all embodiments, and all other embodiments obtained by a person of ordinary skill in the art without creative efforts based on the embodiments of the present invention belong to the protection scope of the present invention.
Example (b):
as shown in fig. 1 to 3, the present embodiment provides an onion harvester, which includes a frame 1, a harvesting device 2, a stem screw conveyor 3, a leaf screw conveyor 4, a soil sieving device 5, a lifting conveyor 6 and a storage box 7, wherein the harvesting device 2 is disposed at the front of the frame 1, the stem screw conveyor 3 and the leaf screw conveyor 4 are both disposed below the rear end of the harvesting device 2, the soil sieving device 5 is disposed below the outlet of the stem screw conveyor 3, the lifting conveyor 6 is disposed at the rear end of the soil sieving device 5, the storage box 7 is located at the rear end of the lifting conveyor 6, and the stem screw conveyor 3, the leaf screw conveyor 4, the soil sieving device 6 and the lifting conveyor 7 are connected by chain transmission with equal transmission ratios.
In order to tow the onion harvester to walk, the onion harvester of the embodiment may further include a hanging towing device 8, and the hanging towing device 8 is installed at the front end of the frame 1 and is used for being connected with a towing tractor to tow the onion harvester to walk.
Further, the frame 1 is formed by welding and assembling C50X40X15X1.5 type C steel, drilling holes are formed in necessary positions so as to facilitate installation of all devices, two rubber wheels 101 which are symmetrical left and right are installed at the front bottom of the frame 1, and two crawler wheels 102 which are symmetrical left and right are installed at the rear bottom of the frame 1.
As shown in fig. 1 to 5, the harvesting devices 2 are two groups, the two groups of harvesting devices 2 are bilaterally symmetrical, each group of harvesting devices includes a leaf guiding and gathering mechanism 201, a chain conveying mechanism 202 and a leaf cutting mechanism 203, the leaf guiding and gathering mechanism 201 is arranged at the front end of the chain conveying mechanism 202, and is specifically installed at the front end of the chain conveying mechanism 202 through threaded connection, and the leaf cutting mechanism 203 is arranged below the rear end of the chain conveying mechanism 202.
Further, the leaf guiding and gathering mechanism 201 is designed in a shape that the large front end opening is transited to the small middle opening through an arc, the distance between the large front end opening and the small middle opening is 80mm, and the transverse distance between the small middle opening and the ground is 15mm.
Further, the chain conveying mechanism 202 includes a first mounting plate 2021, a second mounting plate 2022, a driving shaft 2023, a first driven shaft 2024, a driving gear 2025, a first driven gear 2026, a first transmission chain 2027, and a second transmission chain 2028, the first transmission chain 2027 is disposed around the first mounting plate 2021, the second transmission chain 2028 is disposed around the second mounting plate 2022, the driving shaft 2023 is disposed on the first mounting plate 2021 and is driven by a hydraulic motor, the first driven shaft 2024 is disposed on the second mounting plate 2022, the driving gear 2025 is mounted on the driving shaft 2023, the first driven gear 2026 is mounted on the first driven shaft 2024, the driving gear 2025 is engaged with the first driven gear 2026, and the first transmission chain 2027 is engaged with the second transmission chain 2028.
During installation, the first mounting plate 2021 and the second mounting plate 2022 are arranged obliquely relative to the horizontal plane, specifically, 35 degrees are formed between the first mounting plate 2021 and the second mounting plate 2022, the first mounting plate 2021 and the second mounting plate 2022 are aligned in parallel, and the corresponding chain links of the first transmission chain 2027 and the second transmission chain 2028 are staggered and opposite, so that the area of the hollow space in the middle is 20mm 2 Left and right.
Furthermore, the leaf cutting mechanism 203 comprises a disc cutter 2031, a driven assembly and a third transmission chain 2032, the disc cutter 2031 is arranged below the rear end of the first mounting plate, a drive shaft 2023 of the chain conveying mechanism 202 is designed to have a nine-to-one transmission ratio through gear transmission and chain transmission to transmit power for operation, a schematic diagram of the transmission mechanism of the disc cutter 2031 is shown in fig. 6, the number of blades of the disc cutter 331 of the embodiment is designed to be three, the disc cutter 331 can be well adapted to the chain conveying mechanism 202 and is convenient to mount and dismount; the driven assembly includes three second driven shafts 2033 and three second driven gears 2034, second driven shaft 2033 and second driven gear 2034 one-to-one, every second driven gear 2034 is installed on the second driven shaft 2033 that corresponds, three second driven gear meshes in proper order, first second driven shaft 2033 is connected with first driven shaft 2024 through third driving chain 2032, third (last) second driven shaft 2033 is connected with disc cutter 2031.
In the specific implementation of the harvesting device 2, the scattered onion tubular leaves are guided and gathered into a bundle at the front end by the leaf guiding and gathering mechanism 201, then the chain conveying mechanism 202 clamps the onion tubular leaves gathered into a bundle in the gap between the first transmission chain 2027 and the second transmission chain 2028, the onion is pulled up and lifted by using the chain transmission operation and conveyed to the rear end of the chain conveying mechanism, when the lifted and conveyed onion reaches the leaf cutting mechanism 203, the onion is separated into stems and leaves, the cut leaves are continuously conveyed to the rear end along the chain conveying mechanism 202, and the cut stems fall freely.
As shown in fig. 1 to 3 and 7 to 8, the stalk screw conveyer 3 is installed right below the disc cutter 2031, and includes a first screw roller 301 and a first box 302, the first screw roller 301 is disposed on the first box 302, the screw directions of the blades at both sides of the first screw roller 301 are distributed in a mirror direction with respect to the center, and an inclined outlet is disposed in the middle of the first box 302; similarly, the blade conveying auger 4 is installed right below the rear end of the chain conveying mechanism 202, and includes a second spiral roller 401 and a second box 402, the second spiral roller 401 is disposed on the second box 402, the spiral direction of the blade of the second spiral roller 401 is a single direction, and an outlet is disposed at one side of the second box 402; the stem spiral conveying device 3 is connected with the leaf spiral conveying device 4 through a transmission chain shaft.
In the specific implementation of the stem spiral conveying device 3 and the leaf spiral conveying device 4, the stem spiral conveying device 3 conveys the fallen stems from two sides to the middle in a centralized manner and outputs the stems from an outlet in the middle; the cut leaves are transported to the end of the rear end along the chain conveyor 202 and then fall into the leaf spiral conveyor 4, and the leaf spiral conveyor 4 transports the cut leaves to one side of the whole machine and falls on the ground from the outlet of the side.
As shown in fig. 1 to 3 and 9, the soil sieving device 5 is disposed below the outlet of the stem screw conveyor 3, and includes two rolling bodies 501 with outer rings being thin rods, the two rolling bodies 501 are distributed in a trapezoidal manner, and the two rolling bodies 501 are connected by a transmission chain shaft, so that the clay on the surface of the stem falling from the outlet of the stem screw conveyor 4 can be shaken off by passing through the soil sieving device 6, and the subsequent labor cost is reduced.
As shown in fig. 1 to 3 and 10 to 11, the lifting and conveying device 6 is arranged at the rear end of the soil sieving device 5 and comprises a movable plate 601, a pulley 602, a track 603 and a fourth transmission chain 604, the movable plate 601 is matched with the pulley 602 in the track 603 through the connection of the fourth transmission chain 604 to form combined motion, the effect that the movable plate 601 can be lifted at one side, the movable plate 601 can be retracted inside at the other side, and the movable plate 601 can be smoothly transited at the arc transition position is achieved, so that the space is saved, and the lifting and conveying of the onion tubers are facilitated; the lifting conveyor 6 is connected to the soil screening device 5 by means of a drive chain shaft, and the rolled stems are received on a movable plate 601 of the lifting conveyor 6, lifting them to a certain height for loading into the storage box 7.
The embodiment also provides an onion harvesting method, which is realized based on the onion harvester and comprises the following steps:
s1, in a harvesting device, the scattered onion tubular leaves are guided and gathered into a bundle at the front end through a leaf guiding and gathering mechanism, then the chain conveying mechanism clamps the gathered onion tubular leaves in a gap between a first transmission chain and a second transmission chain, the onion is pulled up and lifted and conveyed to the rear end of the chain conveying mechanism through chain transmission, when the lifted and conveyed onion reaches a leaf cutting mechanism, stem and leaf separation of the onion is achieved, the cut leaves are continuously conveyed to the rear end along the chain conveying mechanism, and the cut stems fall freely.
S2, the cut stems freely fall into a stem spiral conveying device, and the stem spiral conveying device conveys the fallen stems from two sides to the middle in a centralized manner and outputs the stems from an outlet in the middle; the cut leaves are conveyed to the end of the rear end along a chain conveying mechanism of the harvesting device and then fall into a leaf spiral conveying device, and the leaf spiral conveying device conveys the cut leaves to one side of the whole machine and falls on the ground from an outlet of the side.
S3, shaking and dispersing clay on the surface of the stems falling from the outlet of the stem spiral conveying device through the soil sieving device, enabling the rolled stems to be received on a movable plate of the lifting conveying device, and lifting the stems to a certain height so as to load the stems into the storage box body.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that, unless otherwise explicitly specified or given otherwise, the terms "disposed," "mounted," and "connected" are to be construed broadly, e.g., as being fixedly connected, detachably connected, or integrally connected; can be mechanically or electrically connected; they may be connected directly or indirectly through intervening media, or they may be interconnected between two elements. To those of ordinary skill in the art, the specific meanings of the above terms in the present invention can be understood according to specific situations, and the terms "upper", "lower", "left", "right", and the like are used for illustrative purposes only and do not mean a unique embodiment.
In summary, the onion harvester of the invention is provided with the harvesting device, the stem spiral conveying device, the leaf spiral conveying device, the soil sieving device and the lifting conveying device, wherein the stem spiral conveying device and the leaf spiral conveying device are both arranged below the rear end of the harvesting device, the soil sieving device is arranged below the outlet of the stem spiral conveying device, the lifting conveying device is arranged at the rear end of the soil sieving device, and compared with a scraper knife in direct contact with onion tubers, the harvesting device can effectively avoid damage to the onions, has the function of separating onion leaves and tubers, reduces the consumption of subsequent manual labor, respectively conveys the tubers through the stem spiral conveying device and the leaf spiral conveying device, shakes and disperses soil adhered to the surface of the stems through the soil sieving device, facilitates subsequent reduction of processing work, and directly loads the stems into the storage box body through the lifting conveying device; in addition, the onion harvester of the invention meets the agricultural requirements of local planting, has compact structure and light weight under the condition of meeting the use strength, and saves the fuel loss in the harvesting process.
The above description is only for the preferred embodiments of the present invention, but the protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any person skilled in the art can substitute or change the technical solution and the inventive concept of the present invention within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. An onion harvester is characterized by comprising a rack, a harvesting device, a stem spiral conveying device, a leaf spiral conveying device, a soil sieving device, a lifting conveying device and a storage box body, wherein the harvesting device is arranged at the front part of the rack, the stem spiral conveying device and the leaf spiral conveying device are both arranged below the rear end of the harvesting device, the soil sieving device is arranged below an outlet of the stem spiral conveying device, the lifting conveying device is arranged at the rear end of the soil sieving device, the storage box body is arranged at the rear end of the lifting conveying device, and the stem spiral conveying device, the leaf spiral conveying device, the soil sieving device and the lifting conveying device are connected in a chain transmission mode;
the harvesting devices are divided into two groups, the two groups of harvesting devices are bilaterally symmetrical, each group of harvesting devices comprises a leaf guiding and gathering mechanism, a chain conveying mechanism and a leaf cutting mechanism, the leaf guiding and gathering mechanism is arranged at the front end of the chain conveying mechanism, and the leaf cutting mechanism is arranged below the rear end of the chain conveying mechanism;
the chain conveying mechanism comprises a first mounting plate, a second mounting plate, a driving shaft, a first driven shaft, a driving gear, a first driven gear, a first transmission chain and a second transmission chain, the first transmission chain is arranged around the first mounting plate, the second transmission chain is arranged around the second mounting plate, the driving shaft is arranged on the first mounting plate and is driven by a hydraulic motor, the first driven shaft is arranged on the second mounting plate, the driving gear is arranged on the driving shaft, the first driven gear is arranged on the first driven shaft, the driving gear is meshed with the first driven gear, and the first transmission chain is meshed with the second transmission chain;
the leaf cutting mechanism comprises a disc cutting knife, a driven assembly and a third transmission chain, the disc cutting knife is arranged below the rear end of the first mounting plate, the driven assembly comprises a plurality of second driven shafts and a plurality of second driven gears, the second driven shafts correspond to the second driven gears one by one, each second driven gear is arranged on the corresponding second driven shaft, the second driven gears are meshed in sequence, the first second driven shaft is connected with the first driven shaft through the third transmission chain, and the last second driven shaft is connected with the disc cutting knife;
the lifting conveying device comprises a movable plate, a pulley, a rail and a fourth transmission chain, the movable plate is matched with the pulley in the rail through the connection of the fourth transmission chain, and the lifting conveying device is connected with the soil screening device through a transmission chain shaft.
2. The onion harvester of claim 1, wherein the leaf guide gathering mechanism is in the shape of a large front opening transitioning through an arc to a small middle opening.
3. The onion harvester of any one of claims 1 to 2, wherein the stem screw conveyor comprises a first screw roller and a first box, the first screw roller is disposed on the first box, the helical directions of blades on both sides of the first screw roller are distributed in a mirror-like manner with respect to a center, and an inclined outlet is disposed in the middle of the first box;
the blade spiral conveying device comprises a second spiral rolling shaft and a second box body, the second spiral rolling shaft is arranged on the second box body, the spiral direction of blades of the second spiral rolling shaft is a single direction, and an outlet is formed in one side of the second box body;
the stem spiral conveying device is connected with the leaf spiral conveying device through a transmission chain shaft.
4. The onion harvester as in any one of claims 1-2, wherein the soil screening device comprises two rolling elements with thin rods as outer rings, the two rolling elements are distributed in a trapezoid shape, and are connected with each other through a transmission chain shaft, and the soil screening device is connected with the stem screw conveyor through the transmission chain shaft.
5. The onion harvester of any one of claims 1 to 2, further comprising a hitch puller mounted at a front end of the frame for connection to a tractor for towing the onion harvester for travel.
6. An onion harvesting method implemented by the onion harvester of any one of claims 1-5, comprising:
in the harvesting device, the scattered onion tubular leaves are guided and gathered into a bundle at the front end through a leaf guiding and gathering mechanism, then the onion tubular leaves gathered into the bundle are clamped in a gap between a first transmission chain and a second transmission chain by a chain transmission mechanism, the onion is pulled up and lifted and conveyed to the rear end of the chain transmission mechanism by using the chain transmission operation, when the lifted and conveyed onion reaches a leaf cutting mechanism, the onion is separated into stems and leaves, the cut leaves are continuously conveyed to the rear end along the chain transmission mechanism, and the cut stems fall freely;
the cut stems freely fall into a stem spiral conveying device, and the stem spiral conveying device conveys the fallen stems from two sides to the middle in a centralized manner and outputs the stems from an outlet in the middle; the cut leaves are conveyed to the end of the rear end along a chain conveying mechanism of the harvesting device and then fall into a leaf spiral conveying device, and the leaf spiral conveying device conveys the cut leaves to one side of the whole machine and falls on the ground from an outlet of the side;
the clay on the surface of the stems falling from the outlet of the stem screw conveying device is shaken up by the soil sieving device, and the rolled stems are received on the movable plate of the lifting conveying device and lifted to a certain height so as to be loaded into the storage box body.
CN202111067280.4A 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 Onion harvester and onion harvesting method Active CN113906895B (en)

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