CN112556213B - Variable transmittance heliostat device and control method - Google Patents

Variable transmittance heliostat device and control method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112556213B
CN112556213B CN202011430951.4A CN202011430951A CN112556213B CN 112556213 B CN112556213 B CN 112556213B CN 202011430951 A CN202011430951 A CN 202011430951A CN 112556213 B CN112556213 B CN 112556213B
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heliostat
light transmission
variable
transmittance
transmission device
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CN112556213A (en
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王建熊
施斌
周慧
宓霄凌
刘盛豪
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Cosin Solar Technology Co Ltd
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Cosin Solar Technology Co Ltd
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S23/00Arrangements for concentrating solar-rays for solar heat collectors
    • F24S23/70Arrangements for concentrating solar-rays for solar heat collectors with reflectors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S23/00Arrangements for concentrating solar-rays for solar heat collectors
    • F24S23/30Arrangements for concentrating solar-rays for solar heat collectors with lenses
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S50/00Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S50/00Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors
    • F24S50/20Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors for tracking
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S70/00Details of absorbing elements
    • F24S70/30Auxiliary coatings, e.g. anti-reflective coatings
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/47Mountings or tracking

Abstract

The invention discloses a heliostat device with variable transmittance, which comprises a heliostat main body, wherein the heliostat main body comprises a variable light transmission device for changing the transmittance and a reflection part for reflecting incident light, the variable light transmission device is arranged at a preset position of the heliostat main body close to the front, and the reflection part is arranged at a preset position of the heliostat main body close to the back, wherein the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat device is achieved by controlling the transmittance of the variable light transmission device. A method of controlling the reflectivity of a heliostat device is also disclosed. The heliostat device can realize stepless, rapid and accurate change of the transmittance of the variable light transmission device of the heliostat device in the whole heliostat field or in the local heliostat field according to requirements, thereby realizing smooth lifting of the reflectivity of the heliostat device, realizing real-time accurate heat load control of different parts of the photo-thermal solar heat absorber, being convenient to control and needing no field withdrawal.

Description

Variable transmittance heliostat device and control method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of solar thermal power generation, in particular to a heliostat device with variable self light transmittance, a heliostat field comprising the heliostat device, a control method and a solar thermal power generation system.
Background
In the solar thermal power generation industry, heliostats play an important role in concentrating and collecting light. In the actual operation process of the photothermal project, special weather conditions such as too much sunlight or cloud sky at noon often occur. In previous mirror field operation strategies, the mirror field needs to be partially or completely removed to avoid damage to the heat collector and its accessories due to (1) excessive heat, (2) rapid transient heat change, or (3) large thermal stress caused by uneven heat. In addition, the problems of uneven temperature on the peripheral surface of the heat absorber and the like caused by improper large-scale mirror field automatic scheduling can be caused. In the face of such problems, the conventional heliostat field often has the problem that condensation cannot be accurately and rapidly recovered or the local load of the heat absorber cannot be accurately adjusted, so that the overall photo-thermal efficiency of the heat absorber in the operation process is reduced.
Therefore, it is highly desirable to provide a heliostat device capable of adjusting the transmittance of light.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a heliostat device with variable light transmittance, which can solve the defects in the prior art.
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
the utility model provides a variable light transmittance's heliostat device, includes the heliostat main part, the heliostat main part is including the variable light transmittance device that is used for changing the transmittance and the reflection portion that is used for reflecting incident light, variable light transmittance device locates the heliostat main part is close to positive preset position department, the reflection portion is located the preset position department that the heliostat main part is close to the back, wherein, through control variable light transmittance device's transmittance to reach the effect of control heliostat device reflectivity.
The variable light transmission device is used for controlling the transmittance of incident light, so that the effect of controlling the reflectivity is achieved, and under the condition that a mirror field is not removed in special weather or under the condition that the light transmission of the variable light transmission device is adjusted rapidly and accurately in a large area, the reflectivity is smoothly lifted, so that the real-time accurate heat load control on different parts of the photo-thermal solar heat absorber is achieved.
In some embodiments, the variable light transmission device at least partially covers the reflective surface of the reflective portion such that the light transmission of a partial area of the reflective surface of the heliostat device is adjustable, which can save costs if the adjustable area of the reflective surface of the heliostat can be customized. In some embodiments, the variable light transmission device covers the entire reflective surface of the reflective portion such that the light transmission of the entire reflective surface of the heliostat device is adjustable. The coverage area of the variable light transmission device can be set according to actual requirements, and is not described herein again.
In some embodiments, the area covered by the variable light transmission device is a variable light transmission area, wherein a plurality of the variable light transmission areas are uniformly distributed or non-uniformly distributed on the reflecting surface of the heliostat. The transmittance of the variable transmittance region is made adjustable, thereby customizing the adjustable region of the heliostat reflecting surface.
In some embodiments, the variable light transmission device has the effect of changing its own light transmission in response to environmental changes, such that the heliostat body changes reflectivity in response to environmental changes. The environmental factors include an electric field, an optical field, a thermal field, and the like. By adopting the structure, the transmittance of the variable light transmission device can be changed by changing the environmental factors around the variable light transmission device in response to environmental changes, so that the transmittance of incident light is controlled, and the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat main body is achieved. Environmental factors are relatively easy to control relative to field withdrawal, thereby making control of the heliostat device easier.
Preferably, the variable light transmission device comprises a variable light transmission part, and the variable light transmission part is mainly made of an electrochromic material; preferably, the electrochromic material is: at least one of a photochromic material, a thermochromic material, an electrochromic material, a gasochromic material or a solvolochromic material. The variable light transmission part changes the color or the transmittance of the variable light transmission part in response to the change of the environmental factors by changing the light intensity, the temperature, the electric field, the gas and the solvent, so that the effect of controlling the reflectivity is achieved, and the environmental factors are relatively easy to control.
Preferably, the variable light transmission part is a thin film layer having an electro-optic blocking effect, the variable light transmission device further comprises a filling liquid layer generating hydrogen ions through electrolysis, and the amount of the hydrogen ions entering the thin film layer is controlled by controlling a voltage applied to the filling liquid layer, so that the effect of controlling the light transmission of the thin film layer is achieved. By adjusting the voltage of the external power supply, the heliostat device can realize stepless, rapid and accurate adjustment of the transmittance of the thin film layer for the whole heliostat field or the heliostat device at the local part of the heliostat field according to requirements under the condition that the heliostat field is not removed in special weather or special conditions, thereby realizing the smooth lifting of the whole or local reflectivity of the heliostat field and achieving the real-time accurate heat load control of different parts of the photo-thermal solar heat absorber.
The thin film layer is provided in such a manner that hydrogen ions can enter the thin film layer during electrolysis, and preferably, the thin film layer is provided on the lower surface of the filling liquid layer, or on the upper surface of the filling liquid layer, or the thin film layer is provided in the filling liquid layer.
Preferably, the thin film layer is disposed parallel to the reflection portion, or the thin film layer is disposed at a predetermined angle to the reflection portion.
Preferably, the thin film layer is a vanadium dioxide thin film layer, the filling liquid layer is an acid solution layer, the acid solution layer is electrically connected with the anode of the power supply, and the vanadium dioxide thin film layer is electrically connected with the cathode of the power supply.
Preferably, the variable light transmission part comprises a thermochromic material layer, the variable light transmission device further comprises a temperature control device for controlling the temperature of the thermochromic material layer, and the effect of adjusting the transmittance of the variable light transmission part is achieved by controlling the temperature of the thermochromic material layer.
Preferably, an accommodating space is formed in the heliostat main body, and the variable light transmission device is arranged in the accommodating space.
Preferably, the heliostat main body comprises a first mirror body and a second mirror body, the variable light transmission device is arranged between the first mirror body and the second mirror body, and the reflection part is arranged on the mirror body far away from the incident direction.
In some embodiments, the variable light transmission device comprises at least two polarizing lenses having functions of shielding and transmitting incident light, and a driving mechanism for driving the polarizing lenses to rotate so as to change the relative positions of the lenses; when the driving mechanism drives one of the polarized lenses to rotate, the angle between the grating of the polarized lens and the grating of the other polarized lens is deflected, and the transmittance of the variable light transmission device is changed, so that the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat device is achieved.
Preferably, each of the polarized lenses is disposed in a mutually parallel and overlapped manner, wherein the polarized lenses are linear polarized lenses, spiral polarized lenses or circular polarized lenses, and the reflectivity of the heliostat body is adjusted by rotating one of the polarized lenses in the circumferential direction.
Specifically, taking linear polarization as an example, when the gratings of two linear polarization lenses are overlapped with each other, light with the same direction as the polarization of the polarization lenses is transmitted, when the two polarization lenses rotate relatively, an included angle and a gap are generated between the gratings of the two polarization lenses, when the size of the gap is larger than the amplitude of the light, the light transmittance is reduced, the included angle is further increased, when the included angle is 90 degrees, the size of the gap between the gratings is smaller than the amplitude of the light, a complete closing effect is generated, the incident light cannot be transmitted, and the light transmittance is zero at this time. According to the polarization principle, through the design of a proper polarization mode or grating density and the like, when one of the polarization lenses is controlled to deflect, the light transmittance is theoretically adjustable between 0 and 1, and therefore the adjustment of the reflectivity is achieved.
The invention also provides a method for controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat device, which comprises the following steps: providing a heliostat device, wherein the heliostat device comprises a heliostat main body, the heliostat main body comprises a variable light transmission device for changing transmittance and a reflection part for reflecting incident light, the variable light transmission device is arranged at a preset position of the heliostat main body close to the front surface, and the reflection part is arranged at a preset position of the heliostat main body close to the back surface; and controlling the variable light transmission device to change the transmittance of incident light, thereby achieving the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat device.
In some embodiments, the variable light transmission device includes a thin film layer made of an electrochromic material and an acid solution layer; the control method further comprises the step of providing a power supply, wherein the acid solution layer is electrically connected with the positive electrode of the power supply, the thin film layer is electrically connected with the negative electrode of the power supply, and the quantity of hydrogen ions entering the thin film layer is controlled by controlling the voltage output by the power supply, so that the light transmittance of the thin film layer is adjusted.
In some embodiments, the variable light transmission device includes at least two polarization lenses having functions of shielding and transmitting incident light, and the relative positions of the two polarization lenses are controlled to deflect an angle between a grating of one of the polarization lenses and a grating of the other polarization lens, so as to change the transmittance of the incident light, thereby achieving an effect of adjusting the reflectance of the heliostat body.
The invention also provides a heliostat field comprising a heliostat device of variable light transmission as described in any of the preceding.
The invention also provides a heliostat device comprising a variable transmittance as described above or a solar thermal power generation system comprising a heliostat field as described above.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
firstly, the heliostat device can achieve the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat device by controlling the transmittance through the variable light transmission device, so that the heliostat field can rapidly and accurately realize the smooth lifting of the reflectivity through adjusting the transmittance of the variable light transmission device in a large area under the condition that the heliostat field is not removed in special weather or situations, thereby achieving the real-time accurate thermal load control of different parts of the photo-thermal solar heat absorber.
Secondly, in the heliostat device or the control method of the invention, the variable light transmission device can have the function of changing the self light transmission in response to the environmental change, wherein the variable light transmission part is mainly made of the field-induced color-changing material, and the color or the light transmission of the variable light transmission part can be changed in response to the change of the environmental factor by changing the environmental factor, such as changing the light intensity, the temperature, the voltage, the gas or the solvent; and the control of the environmental factors is easier, for example, the control can be realized in an electric control mode, and compared with a field withdrawal mode, the control of the environmental factors is easier in the electric control mode, so that the reflectivity of the whole heliostat device or a heliostat field is easier to adjust, and the control cost is saved.
Thirdly, according to the heliostat device and the control method, when the variable light transmission part is the vanadium dioxide thin film layer, the amount of hydrogen ions entering the vanadium dioxide thin film layer is controlled by controlling the applied voltage, so that the light transmission of the vanadium dioxide thin film layer is changed; because the voltage application is very easy to control artificially and the electrogenerated phase change of the vanadium dioxide film layer is very fast (nanosecond level), the heliostat device can rapidly and accurately realize the smooth lifting of the reflectivity; when the variable light transmission part is the thermochromic material layer, the temperature of the thermochromic material layer is controlled through the temperature control device, so that the color or transmittance of the variable light transmission part can be changed, and the control is simple, convenient and easy to implement.
Fourthly, the heliostat device of the invention has the advantages that the variable light transmission device comprises at least two polarized lenses with the functions of shielding and transmitting incident light, and the light transmission of the variable light transmission device is changed by controlling the superposition or deflection between the gratings of the two polarized lenses, thereby achieving the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat device; compared with field withdrawal, the control of the rotation of the polarizing lens is relatively easy, so that the control of the reflectivity of the whole heliostat device or a heliostat field is easier to realize, and the control cost is saved.
Fifthly, according to the heliostat device, the variable light transmission device can partially cover the reflecting surface of the reflecting part, so that the light transmission of partial area of the reflecting surface of the heliostat device can be adjusted, the adjustable area of the reflecting surface of the heliostat can be customized, and the cost can be saved; the variable light transmission device may also cover the reflective surface of the entire reflective portion such that the light transmission of the entire reflective surface of the heliostat device is adjustable.
Of course, it is not necessary for any product in which the invention is practiced to achieve all of the above-described advantages at the same time.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural view of a heliostat device of embodiment 1 of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural view of another heliostat device of embodiment 1 of the invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic structural view of a heliostat device of embodiment 2 of the invention;
FIGS. 4a and 4b are schematic views showing the microstructure of the polarizing lens in example 2 of the present invention;
fig. 4c, 4d, 4e and 4f are schematic diagrams of the polarizing lens according to embodiment 2 of the present invention;
fig. 5 is a schematic view of the principle of the linearly polarizing lens of embodiment 2 of the present invention.
Reference numerals: a heliostat body 100; a first mirror 101; a second mirror 102; a variable light transmission device 110; a reflection section 120; a thin film layer 111; a liquid-filled layer 112; an accommodating space 130; a thermochromic material layer 140; a heating medium 150; a first polarizing lens 161; a second polarizing lens 162; the first grating 161 a; a second grating 162 a; a drive mechanism 170.
Detailed Description
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that "electrochromic materials" are a general term for substances that undergo a stable and reversible optical change under the action of an external field (electricity, heat, light, gas, etc.), and often exhibit a reversible change in color and transparency in appearance. The electrochromic materials may be classified into thermochromic materials, electrochromic materials, photochromic materials, gasochromic materials, and the like according to the difference of external stimuli.
"thermochromic material" refers to a functional material whose absorption spectrum changes during heating and cooling, and which has a property that light transmittance or color changes with temperature, such as vanadium dioxide (VO)2) Vanadium dioxide, a typical thermochromic material, has the property of spontaneously generating a reversible semiconductor-metal reversible phase transition around 340K, while causing a change in optical properties. VO when the temperature is lower than 340K2The crystal is a monoclinic system, has higher infrared transmittance at the moment, and is beneficial to the improvement of indoor temperature; VO when the temperature is higher than 340K2Is tetragonal system, infrared ray is reflected more, transmittance is lower, and absorption of heat radiation is reducedAnd (6) harvesting.
"electrochromic material" refers to a phenomenon in which a material undergoes light absorption or light scattering under the action of an electric current or an electric field, thereby causing a reversible change in color or light transmittance. The electrochromic material can actively respond to an external electric field to generate stable and reversible optical change, and can play a role in sensitively regulating and controlling light intensity. Electrochromic materials can be roughly divided into inorganic electrochromic materials and organic electrochromic materials according to the types of the materials; the inorganic electrochromic material has stable performance, and the light absorption change of the inorganic electrochromic material is caused by double injection and extraction of ions and electrons; the organic electrochromic material has rich colors, is easy to carry out molecular design, and the light absorption change of the organic electrochromic material comes from oxidation-reduction reaction.
The photochromic material is a phenomenon that when a compound A is irradiated by light with a certain wavelength, a product B with different structures and spectral properties can be generated through a specific chemical reaction, and under the action of light or heat with another wavelength, the B can reversibly generate the compound A, namely, a certain substance can reversibly change between two states, so that the color or the light transmittance can reversibly change. In which at least one change in direction is caused by light radiation, e.g. transition metal oxides (principally WO)3、MoO3、TiO2Etc.) and metal halides (e.g., cupric chloride, silver chloride, etc.). WO3As an important inorganic photochromic material, the composite material has the advantages of good stability, low cost and the like, and the photochromic efficiency of the composite material can be obviously improved by compounding the composite material with ZnO nanoparticles. The discoloration mechanism of the organic photochromic material is the breakage and combination of double bonds (heterolytic and homolytic bond cleavage), the formation of isomers (proton transfer tautomerism and cis-trans isomerism), redox reaction, and pericyclic reaction. Organic photochromic materials such as diarylethene, spiropyran, spirooxazine, fulgide, azo.
By "gasochromic material" is meant a material that undergoes a reversible change in color or light transmittance upon exposure to certain volatile organic compounds.
In the description of the present invention, it is noted that an optical device made up of a large number of parallel slits of equal width and equal spacing is called a "grating". A commonly used "grating" is made by etching a large number of parallel notches on a glass sheet, where the notches are opaque portions (i.e., gratings), and a smooth portion between two notches can transmit light, which is equivalent to a slit. The refined grating is engraved with thousands or even tens of thousands of nicks within 1cm of width.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that "transmittance" is a physical term that indicates the ability of light to transmit through a medium, and is the percentage of the luminous flux transmitted through a transparent or translucent body to the luminous flux incident thereon.
In the present invention, "transmittance" is also referred to as "transmittance", and "polarizing lens" is also referred to as "lens".
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that "front" refers to a side facing an incident light ray, and "back" refers to a side facing away from the incident light ray. The terms "center," "upper," "lower," "left," "right," "vertical," "horizontal," "inner," "outer," and the like refer to an orientation or positional relationship that is based on the orientation or positional relationship shown in the drawings for ease of description and simplicity of description only, and do not indicate or imply that the referenced device or element must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a particular orientation, and therefore should not be construed as limiting the present invention. Furthermore, the terms "first," "second," and "third" are used for descriptive purposes only and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that, unless otherwise explicitly specified or limited, the terms "mounted," "connected," and "connected" are to be construed broadly, e.g., as meaning either a fixed connection, a removable connection, or an integral connection; can be mechanically or electrically connected; they may be connected directly or indirectly through intervening media, or they may be interconnected between two elements. The specific meanings of the above terms in the present invention can be understood in specific cases to those skilled in the art.
As used in this specification, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural referents unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. As used in this specification, the term "or" is generally employed in its sense including "and/or" unless the content clearly dictates otherwise.
The invention will be further illustrated with reference to the following specific examples.
Example 1
The present embodiment provides a heliostat device with variable transmittance, referring to fig. 1 and 2, the heliostat device includes a heliostat main body 100, the heliostat main body includes a variable light transmission device 110 for changing transmittance and a reflection portion 120 for reflecting incident light, the variable light transmission device 110 is disposed at a predetermined position of the heliostat main body 100 close to the front, and the reflection portion 120 is disposed at a predetermined position of the heliostat main body 100 close to the back, wherein the variable light transmission device 110 is controlled to change transmittance of the incident light, thereby achieving an effect of controlling reflectivity of the heliostat device.
In this embodiment, the transmittance is changed by controlling the variable light transmission device 110, so as to achieve the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat device, and thus, the heliostat device can rapidly and accurately achieve the smooth lifting of the reflectivity by adjusting the transmittance of the variable light transmission device 110 in a large area under the condition that the heliostat field is not removed in special weather or in special situations, so as to achieve real-time accurate thermal load control of different parts of the photo-thermal solar heat absorber.
In some embodiments, the variable light transmission device 110 at least partially covers the reflection surface of the reflection part 120, for example, the light transmittance of the reflection surface of the customized heliostat device is adjustable from 80% to 100%, or the light transmittance of the reflection surface is adjustable within a range from 50% to 100%, or other desired light transmittance ranges, so that economic cost can be saved.
Specifically, the area covered by the variable light transmission device 110 is a variable transmittance area, wherein a plurality of the variable transmittance areas are uniformly distributed or non-uniformly distributed on the reflection surface of the heliostat. For example, the variable light transmission devices 110 may be arranged in a stripe configuration spaced apart in a parallel manner on the reflective surface of the heliostat. Or the variable light transmission device 110 is a structure with a certain geometric shape, and is distributed on the reflecting surface of the heliostat device in a staggered manner, and can be uniformly distributed or non-uniformly distributed, so that the light transmission of the variable light transmission area covered by the variable light transmission device 110 can be adjusted, and the adjustable area of the reflecting surface of the heliostat can be customized. The geometric shape may be a triangle, a square, a pentagon, a hexagon, an octagon, a circle, an oval, etc., and may be a regular geometric shape or an irregular special shape.
In some embodiments, the variable light transmission device 110 covers the entire reflective surface of the reflective portion, thereby making the light transmission of the entire heliostat device adjustable. The area covered by the variable light transmission device 110 should be selected according to the location of the actual day-setting place and the production cost, and will not be described herein again.
In this embodiment, the variable light transmission device 110 has a function of changing its light transmission in response to environmental changes, so that the heliostat body 100 changes its reflectivity in response to environmental changes. The environment around the variable light transmission device 110 can be changed, so that the variable light transmission device 110 changes its own light transmittance in response to the environmental change, thereby controlling the transmittance of incident light and achieving the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat body 100. Wherein, environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, electric field, gas or solvent, etc. are relatively easy to control, thereby the reflectivity of the heliostat device and the heliostat field is easier to control without partial or complete field withdrawal.
Further, the variable light transmission device 110 includes a variable light transmission portion, and the variable light transmission portion is made of an electrochromic material, where the electrochromic material is: at least one of a photochromic material, a thermochromic material, an electrochromic material, a gasochromic material or a solvolochromic material. The transmittance of the variable light transmission part is adjustable by controlling environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, electric field and the like.
Referring to fig. 1, in the present embodiment, the variable light transmission portion includes a thin film layer 111 having an electro-optic blocking effect, and the variable light transmission device 110 further includes a filler layer 112 generating hydrogen ions through electrolysis, and the amount of the hydrogen ions entering the thin film layer 111 is controlled by controlling a voltage applied to the filler layer 112, so as to achieve an effect of controlling the light transmission of the thin film layer 111.
Specifically, the thin film layer 111 is a vanadium dioxide thin film layer, and the filler liquid layer 112 is an acid solution layer, wherein the acid solution may be a chemically stable acid solution such as dilute hydrochloric acid or dilute nitric acid, and the acid solution is used for providing hydrogen ions and can be selected according to actual needs. By utilizing the effect that the light transmittance of the transparent insulating semiconductor material vanadium dioxide is closed by light (namely the vanadium dioxide is changed into a non-transparent conductive metal material) after hydrogen ions are added into the transparent insulating semiconductor material vanadium dioxide, the amount of the hydrogen ions entering the vanadium dioxide thin film layer is controlled by applying voltage on the acid solution layer and the vanadium dioxide thin film, and the light transmittance of the transparent vanadium dioxide thin film layer is adjusted. The acid solution layer is electrically connected with the anode of the power supply, the vanadium dioxide thin film layer is electrically connected with the cathode of the power supply, the larger the applied voltage is, the larger the amount of hydrogen ions entering the vanadium dioxide thin film layer is, the lower the light transmittance of the vanadium dioxide thin film layer is, and the fewer incident light rays penetrating through the variable light transmission device 110 are, so that the reflectivity of the heliostat device can be reduced. Conversely, the smaller the applied voltage, the smaller the amount of hydrogen ions entering the vanadium dioxide thin film layer, the higher the light transmittance of the vanadium dioxide thin film layer, the more incident light rays pass through the variable light transmission device 110, and thus the reflectivity of the heliostat device can be increased. Because the voltage is applied easily and manually controlled, and the electrogenerated phase change of the vanadium dioxide film layer is extremely fast (nanosecond level), the heliostat device can rapidly and accurately realize the smooth lifting of the reflectivity by changing the transmittance in a large area under the condition that the field of the heliostat field is not removed in special weather or under the condition of special weather or situation, so as to achieve the real-time accurate heat load control of different parts of the photo-thermal solar heat absorber.
In this embodiment, the thin film layer 111 is provided on the lower surface of the filler liquid layer 112, and the filler liquid layer 112 and the hydrogen ions electrolyzed after voltage application can be brought into sufficient contact with the thin film layer 111 by gravity, thereby improving the effectiveness of the entire device. Of course, in other embodiments, the thin film layer 111 may be provided on the upper surface of the filler liquid layer 112, or the thin film layer 111 may be provided in the filler liquid layer 112 so that the hydrogen ions after electrolysis can enter the thin film layer 111.
Further, the thin film layer 111 is adjacent to the reflection portion 120, the thin film layer 111 covers the reflection portion, and the closer the thin film layer 111 is to the reflection portion 120, the better the adjustment effect of the transmittance is. And the thin film layer 111 is disposed in parallel to the reflection portion 120, so that the thin film layer 111 can effectively cover the reflection portion 120, thereby effectively controlling the incident light to the reflection portion 120. Of course, in some embodiments, the thin film layer 111 may also be disposed at a predetermined angle to the reflection part 120. Specifically, the reflection part 120 may be a total reflection coating layer coated with a predetermined coating layer, or the reflection part 120 may also be a total reflection mirror surface, the reflection part 120 reflects the incident light, and the form of the reflection part 120 may be selected according to actual conditions.
In some embodiments, the variable light transmission portion comprises a thermochromic material layer 140, and the variable light transmission device 110 further comprises a temperature control device for heating or cooling the thermochromic material layer 140, as shown in fig. 2. The temperature of the thermochromic material layer 140 is controlled by controlling the heating or cooling effect of the temperature control device, so that the thermochromic material layer changes color or transmittance in response to the change in temperature, and the amount of light incident to the reflection portion 120 is adjusted, thereby achieving the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat device. Because the heating and cooling temperatures of the temperature control device can be controlled by the applied voltage, the heating is rapid, so that the thermochromic material layer 140 can rapidly respond to change the transmittance, and the heliostat reflectivity can be adjusted.
Specifically, the temperature control device comprises a resistance wire for heating, and the thermochromic material layer can be directly heated through the resistance wire. Or, the temperature control device further includes a heating medium 150, such as water, oil, etc., for heating the thermochromic material layer 140, the heating medium 150 is heated by the resistance wire, the thermochromic material layer is heated by the heating medium 150, and other heating methods can be adopted, and the heating method is not used for limiting the protection scope of the present invention, and will not be described herein again. Wherein, the temperature control device can also comprise a cooling device for cooling, such as temperature control by filling inert gas (nitrogen), and the like.
In some embodiments, the variable light transmission portion may also be made of other electrochromic materials, such as photochromic materials, which change their light transmission in response to changes in light intensity. When the light of the heliostat device is strong, the photochromic material changes color or changes light transmittance under the action of illumination, so that the light transmittance is reduced, and the reflectivity of the heliostat device is reduced; conversely, when the light intensity is small, the photochromic material generates reversible change, so that the light transmittance is increased, and the reflectivity of the heliostat device is increased. Of course, in other embodiments, the electrochromic material may also be a gasochromic material, or other existing materials that change their light transmittance in response to environmental changes, or may also be existing high molecular materials or organic compound materials, etc.
Further, in some embodiments, the heliostat device further comprises a power supply for applying an electric field to the variable light transmission device, and the output voltage of the power supply is controlled to control environmental factors of the variable light transmission device.
An accommodating space 130 is formed in the heliostat body 100, and the variable light transmission device 110 is disposed in the accommodating space 130. In this case, the heliostat body 100 is a complete mirror body, the accommodating space 130 is formed when the heliostat body 100 is molded, and the variable light transmission device 110 is disposed in the accommodating space 130 when the heliostat body 100 is molded.
In some embodiments, the heliostat body 100 includes a first mirror 101 and a second mirror 102, the variable light transmission device 110 is disposed between the first mirror 101 and the second mirror 102, the first mirror 101 allows light to transmit therethrough, and the reflection part 120 is disposed on the mirror far from the incident direction. The first mirror 101 and the second mirror 102 can be assembled to form a closed structure or a non-closed structure, and the variable light transmission device 110 is disposed in a space between the first mirror 101 and the second mirror 102. Referring to fig. 1 and 2, the first mirror 101 is located on the front surface of the heliostat body 100 and close to the incident direction, the second mirror 102 is located on the back surface of the heliostat body 100 and far from the incident direction, and the reflection part 120 is disposed on the second mirror.
Since the environmental factors of the electrochromic material can be artificially controlled and the control of the environmental factors can be performed by an external device, the control is easier, and thus the control of the reflectivity of the heliostat body 100 is also easier. Therefore, compared with the existing heliostat field withdrawal method, the control strategy and the control method for the reflectivity of the heliostat are simpler, so that the implementation is easier, and the operation risk and the control cost are reduced.
Example 2
The present embodiment provides a heliostat device with variable light transmittance, and referring to fig. 3, the heliostat device of the present embodiment is similar to embodiment 1, except for the structure of the variable light transmittance device 110 and the principle of varying light transmittance.
The variable light transmission device 110 in this embodiment includes at least two polarizing lenses having functions of shielding and transmitting incident light, and further includes a driving mechanism 170 for driving the polarizing lenses to rotate to change a relative position between the lenses; when the driving mechanism 170 drives the relative position of one of the polarized lenses, the angle between the grating of the polarized lens and the grating of the other polarized lens is deflected, so that the transmittance of the polarized lens and thus the variable transmittance device 110 is changed, thereby achieving the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat device.
Specifically, each of the polarized lenses is disposed in a mutually parallel and overlapped manner, wherein the polarized lenses are linear polarized lenses, spiral polarized lenses or circular polarized lenses, and the reflectivity of the heliostat body is adjusted by rotating one of the polarized lenses in the circumferential direction.
In this embodiment, the variable light transmission device 110 includes a first polarization lens 161 and a second polarization lens 162, wherein the first polarization lens 161 and the second polarization lens 162 are linear polarizers, the first polarization lens 161 has a first grating 161a, and a schematic structural diagram of the first polarization lens 161 is shown in fig. 4 a; the second polarizer 162 has a second grating 162a, and the structure of the second polarizer 162 is schematically shown in fig. 4 b. When the first grating 161a of the first polarization lens 161 is overlapped with the second grating 162a of the second polarization lens 162, referring to fig. 4c, the included angle between the first grating 161a and the second grating 162a is 0, and light with the same polarity as the polarization lens is transmitted (i.e. light with the same vibration direction as the grating extending direction is transmitted), and the light transmittance is 1 (as close to 100% as possible). When the two polarization lenses rotate relatively, an included angle and a gap are generated between the first grating 161a and the second grating 162a, as shown in fig. 4d and 4e, the size of the gap is larger than the amplitude of light, and the light transmittance is reduced; when the angle is 90 degrees, as shown in fig. 4f, the size of the gap between the gratings is smaller than the amplitude of the light, a complete turn-off effect is generated, the incident light cannot penetrate through, and the light transmittance is zero at this time.
Here, the principle of the wave-particle duality of light is used, and sunlight is natural light and has no polarization itself. By utilizing the transverse wave property of sunlight, each time the light path passes through the heliostat device: the first piece of polarized lens 161 can make the sunlight have partial polarization or complete polarization (as shown in fig. 5) according to the difference of the grating size, and the second piece of polarized glass can further increase the polarization of the sunlight according to the difference of the grating size, so that the transmitted light energy is reduced, the brightness of the sunlight is darkened, or the sunlight with certain polarization is completely blocked, and at this time, the light transmittance is close to 0.
According to the polarization principle, through the design of a proper polarization mode, grating density and the like, the light transmittance of the variable light transmission device of the embodiment is theoretically changed between 0 and 1 by controlling the circumferential rotation angle of the first polarization lens 161 or the second polarization lens 162, so that the reflectivity of the heliostat device fluctuates within a required range (0 to 100%).
In this embodiment, the first polarizer 161 is close to the incident direction, the reflector 120 is disposed on the second polarizer 162, and the reflector 120 may be a total reflection coating or a mirror.
Further, the heliostat device further includes a driving mechanism 170, such as a driving motor, and the driving mechanism 170 is drivingly connected to the polarized lens for driving the polarized lens to rotate. Specifically, in this embodiment, the driving mechanism 170 is connected to the second polarized lens 162 to drive the second polarized lens 162 to rotate. Of course, in other embodiments, the driving mechanism 170 may be connected to the first polarization lens 161.
In this embodiment, two polarizing lenses are provided, but in other embodiments, other numbers of polarizing lenses, such as three, four or more polarizing lenses, may be provided according to the requirement of reflectivity. In this embodiment, the first and second polarizing lenses 161 and 162 are linear polarizing lenses, but in other embodiments, the second polarizing lens 162 may also be a circular polarizing lens or a spiral polarizing lens. The number of the polarized lenses, the form of the polarized lenses and the size of the grating can be set according to actual needs, and are not described in detail herein.
Example 3
The present embodiment provides a heliostat field, which includes several heliostat devices with variable light transmittance according to embodiment 1 or embodiment 2, wherein the power supply form of each heliostat device may adopt uniform power supply, distributed power supply, or individual power supply, and the voltage of each heliostat device or the voltage of the heliostats in a certain partition may be independently controlled in real time according to the load requirements of the heat absorber under different situations.
The foregoing disclosure of the preferred embodiments of the present invention is illustrative, and is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise form disclosed. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and its practical application, to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best utilize the invention and various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated and as may be made by the various embodiments without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
The invention is limited only by the claims and their full scope and equivalents. Obviously, many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching; in practice, the invention will be understood to cover all modifications and variations of the invention as may be practiced by those skilled in the art.

Claims (13)

1. A variable transmission heliostat device, comprising:
the heliostat comprises a heliostat main body and a control circuit, wherein the heliostat main body comprises a variable light transmission device for changing the transmittance and a reflection part for reflecting incident light, the variable light transmission device is arranged at a preset position of the heliostat main body close to the front surface, and the reflection part is arranged at a preset position of the heliostat main body close to the back surface;
the reflectivity of the heliostat device is controlled by controlling the transmittance of the variable light transmission device.
2. A variable transmission heliostat device of claim 1, wherein the variable transmission device at least partially covers the reflective surface of the reflective portion or the variable transmission device covers the entire reflective surface of the reflective portion.
3. The variable transmission heliostat device of claim 1, wherein the variable transmission device covers an area that is a variable transmission area, and wherein a plurality of the variable transmission areas are uniformly distributed or non-uniformly distributed over the heliostat reflective surface.
4. A variable transmission heliostat device of claim 1 wherein the variable transmission device has the effect of changing its own transmission in response to environmental changes such that the heliostat body changes reflectivity in response to environmental changes.
5. A variable transmission heliostat device of claim 1 wherein the variable transmission means comprises a variable transmission portion made primarily of an electrochromic material; the electrochromic material is as follows: at least one of a photochromic material, a thermochromic material, an electrochromic material, a gasochromic material or a solvolochromic material.
6. The variable light transmission heliostat device of claim 5, wherein the variable light transmission part is a thin film layer having an electro-optic blocking effect, the variable light transmission device further comprises a filler liquid layer generating hydrogen ions through electrolysis, and the voltage applied to the filler liquid layer and the thin film layer is controlled to control the amount of hydrogen ions entering the thin film layer, thereby achieving the effect of controlling the light transmission of the thin film layer; the thin film layer is a vanadium dioxide thin film layer, the filling liquid layer is an acid solution layer, the acid solution layer is electrically connected with the positive electrode of the power supply, and the vanadium dioxide thin film layer is electrically connected with the negative electrode of the power supply.
7. The variable transmission heliostat device of claim 5, wherein the variable transmission section comprises a thermochromic material layer, and further comprising a temperature control device for controlling the temperature of the thermochromic material layer to effect adjustment of the transmission of the variable transmission section.
8. The variable transmission heliostat device of any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the heliostat body is formed with an accommodating space therein, and the variable transmission device is disposed in the accommodating space.
9. The variable transmission heliostat device of any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the heliostat body comprises a first mirror and a second mirror, the variable transmission device being disposed between the first mirror and the second mirror, the reflector being disposed on the mirror away from the direction of incidence.
10. A variable transmission heliostat device according to claim 1, wherein the variable transmission device comprises at least two polarizing lenses having a function of shielding and transmitting incident light, and a driving mechanism for driving the polarizing lenses to rotate to change a relative position between the lenses;
when the driving mechanism drives one of the polarized lenses to rotate, the angle between the grating of the polarized lens and the grating of the other polarized lens is deflected, and the transmittance of the variable light transmission device is changed, so that the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat device is achieved.
11. A method of controlling reflectivity of a heliostat device, comprising: providing a heliostat device, wherein the heliostat device comprises a heliostat main body, the heliostat main body comprises a variable light transmission device for changing transmittance and a reflection part for reflecting incident light, the variable light transmission device is arranged at a preset position of the heliostat main body close to the front surface, and the reflection part is arranged at a preset position of the heliostat main body close to the back surface; and controlling the variable light transmission device to change the transmittance of incident light, thereby achieving the effect of controlling the reflectivity of the heliostat device.
12. The control method according to claim 11, wherein the variable light transmission device includes a thin film layer made of an electrochromic material and an acid solution layer;
the control method further comprises the step of providing a power supply, wherein the acid solution layer is electrically connected with the positive electrode of the power supply, the thin film layer is electrically connected with the negative electrode of the power supply, and the quantity of hydrogen ions entering the thin film layer is controlled by controlling the voltage output by the power supply, so that the light transmittance of the thin film layer is adjusted.
13. The control method according to claim 11, wherein the variable light transmission device comprises at least two polarizing lenses having functions of shielding and transmitting incident light;
by controlling the relative positions of the two polarizing lenses, the angle between the grating of one of the polarizing lenses and the grating of the other polarizing lens is deflected, so that the transmittance of incident light is changed, and the effect of adjusting the reflectivity of the heliostat main body is achieved.
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Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5111329A (en) * 1990-11-28 1992-05-05 Ford Motor Company Solar load reduction panel with controllable light transparency
CN106014889A (en) * 2016-06-17 2016-10-12 西安交通大学 Tower type solar photo-thermal and photovoltaic combined power generating system
CN209586602U (en) * 2018-12-26 2019-11-05 中国神华能源股份有限公司 Solar power station
CN111006400A (en) * 2019-12-18 2020-04-14 吴祥初 Solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector
CN211782039U (en) * 2019-03-04 2020-10-27 兰州交通大学 Assembled linear fei nieer solar energy micro arc face heliostat

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5111329A (en) * 1990-11-28 1992-05-05 Ford Motor Company Solar load reduction panel with controllable light transparency
CN106014889A (en) * 2016-06-17 2016-10-12 西安交通大学 Tower type solar photo-thermal and photovoltaic combined power generating system
CN209586602U (en) * 2018-12-26 2019-11-05 中国神华能源股份有限公司 Solar power station
CN211782039U (en) * 2019-03-04 2020-10-27 兰州交通大学 Assembled linear fei nieer solar energy micro arc face heliostat
CN111006400A (en) * 2019-12-18 2020-04-14 吴祥初 Solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector

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