CN112319302A - Electric commercial vehicle battery replacement system - Google Patents

Electric commercial vehicle battery replacement system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112319302A
CN112319302A CN202011337257.8A CN202011337257A CN112319302A CN 112319302 A CN112319302 A CN 112319302A CN 202011337257 A CN202011337257 A CN 202011337257A CN 112319302 A CN112319302 A CN 112319302A
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China
Prior art keywords
battery
battery pack
electric
commercial vehicle
bin
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Pending
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CN202011337257.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈维加
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Individual
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Individual
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Priority to CN202011337257.8A priority Critical patent/CN112319302A/en
Publication of CN112319302A publication Critical patent/CN112319302A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/80Exchanging energy storage elements, e.g. removable batteries
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K1/00Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units
    • B60K1/04Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units of the electric storage means for propulsion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K1/00Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units
    • B60K1/04Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units of the electric storage means for propulsion
    • B60K2001/0455Removal or replacement of the energy storages
    • B60K2001/0461Removal or replacement of the energy storages from the side
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K1/00Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units
    • B60K1/04Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units of the electric storage means for propulsion
    • B60K2001/0455Removal or replacement of the energy storages
    • B60K2001/0494Removal or replacement of the energy storages with arrangements for sliding
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors

Abstract

The invention discloses a battery replacement system for an electric commercial vehicle, which comprises the electric commercial vehicle with a replaceable battery pack and a battery replacement station, and is characterized in that: the bottom of the crossbeam of the electric commercial vehicle is provided with a transverse battery compartment, one end of the crossbeam of the electric commercial vehicle is provided with a compartment door, and the other end wall opposite to the compartment door is provided with a connecting socket butted with a battery pack plug; the battery compartment is internally provided with a compartment inner rail which is matched with the battery pack roller; the battery changing station comprises a battery changing trolley and a charging pile, wherein the battery changing trolley comprises a base provided with a walking mechanism and a lifting frame arranged on the base and driven by a lifting mechanism to lift, a frame rail matched with a battery pack roller is arranged on the lifting frame, and a battery pack push-pull mechanism is arranged on the frame rail; the charging pile is provided with a pile track for the battery pack to slide, and the end plug panel is provided with a charging socket. The invention realizes the standardization of the battery pack specifications of the electric commercial vehicles with different tonnages, is replaced by the same battery replacing equipment, has high battery replacing efficiency, extremely low cost and easy popularization, and thoroughly solves the problem that the electric commercial vehicles cannot be popularized.

Description

Electric commercial vehicle battery replacement system
Technical Field
The invention relates to an electric commercial vehicle battery replacement system.
Background
The change of automobile oil into electricity is a major strategic policy of the nation for reducing a large amount of oil imports and an important national policy of energy conservation, emission reduction and green development. Compared with the traditional automobile, the electric automobile can realize zero emission in the driving process, has low noise and has far lower driving cost than the traditional automobile. Through years of efforts, the change of oil to electricity of buses in China is steadily promoted, and electric household small-sized vehicles are rapidly developed.
Although the state has come out of a plurality of electric automobile supporting policies and electric automobiles also have a plurality of advantages, the electric automobiles still cannot be popularized comprehensively, and the fundamental reason for restricting the comprehensive popularization of the electric automobiles is that the electric automobiles have fatal weaknesses: the driving mileage is short, and the charging time is long. The technical development bottleneck of the current battery pack is broken away, and the key points are finally attributed to the charging problem. At present, the electric cars have two modes: and charging and replacing the battery. Problem with charging mode: the fuel oil vehicle is fully charged for 2 hours on the premise of ensuring the service life of the battery according to the current battery technology, which is the most fundamental problem that the electric vehicle cannot replace the fuel oil vehicle; the battery replacement mode can replace the battery quickly, but has the problems of multiple battery specifications, large capacity difference, complex battery replacement equipment, high cost and non-uniform specification, so that the battery replacement mode cannot be popularized and applied.
Commercial vehicles are vehicles for transporting people and goods in terms of design and technical features. Commercial vehicles include all trucks and passenger cars with more than 9 seats, such as various trucks, semi-tractors, buses, engineering vehicles and the like, and belong to the category of commercial vehicles. From the technical architecture, the device comprises a girder, a power system, a running system and a steering system.
Compared with the household small-sized vehicle, the problem of electrically driving the commercial vehicle which accounts for 12.13% of the motor vehicle holding capacity but accounts for more than 48.14% of the pollution emission of the motor vehicle is more prominent because of the following aspects:
1) on the premise of the prior battery technology, the fully charged running mileage of the battery reasonably configured by the current electric commercial vehicle is about 300km-400km by considering the factors of the weight, the volume, the price and the like of the battery, and if two hours are needed for charging every time, the freight industry is not acceptable for transport vehicles.
2) The adoption fills electric pile and directly fills to on-vehicle battery package and need occupy a parking stall for a long time, and as is known, the space that commercial car itself occupy all will be far more than ordinary domestic small-size car, hardly builds and popularizes like the charging station of domestic small-size car in a large number, leads to the demand of charging of electronic commercial car to realize hardly.
3) For a commercial vehicle with a large tonnage, if the same charging mode as that of the existing electric household small vehicle is adopted, the electric quantity of the electric commercial vehicle is larger, the charging current is also larger, compared with the situation that the driving range of the electric household small vehicle is 400 kilometers, the battery pack capacity of the electric household small vehicle is 10 times that of the electric household small vehicle, the charging current is 10 times that of the electric household small vehicle, the electric household small vehicle is charged by using the existing national standard direct current charging gun, and at least 6 charging guns can meet the requirement under the same charging time. This has greatly increased the charging station construction investment of commercial car, and the actual operation is also very troublesome. These have all limited the popularity and spread of electric commercial vehicles to a great extent.
In order to solve the problem of changing oil into electricity of the commercial vehicle, the only current solution is to adopt an electricity changing mode. Of course, even if the battery replacement mode is adopted, the following problems need to be solved:
most of commercial vehicles using the battery replacement mode are trucks at present, the battery replacement equipment is only used for commercial vehicles with single specifications, the equipment is complex and expensive, and the battery replacement mode of the commercial vehicles can only be applied in limited areas, such as ports and mines. And the common commercial vehicle is between 1 and 49 tons, and the specification of the battery pack is more. Therefore, it cannot be popularized.
In order to solve the problem of electromotion of all commercial vehicles, a standardized battery replacement system is required to be used, the standard charging equipment capable of charging battery packs of different specifications is included, so that the requirement of charging and replacing the battery packs of all the electric commercial vehicles in different specifications is met, and the battery charging and replacing station is unmanned, standardized construction is adopted, the input cost is low, the management cost is low, and the construction period is short. Therefore, the problem of oil-to-electricity conversion of the commercial vehicle can be solved only by constructing a standardized unmanned charging and converting station in China and covering the station with a large number of networks and a whole network, and the electric commercial vehicle can be popularized and popularized really.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to: the utility model provides an electronic commercial car trades electric system, its battery package specification that can realize different tonnage electronic commercial cars standardizes to can adopt same set of trade electrical equipment to change, and change efficiently, the cost is extremely low, easily promotes, thereby solves the difficult problem of current electronic commercial car popularization.
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows: the utility model provides an electric commercial car trades electric system, includes the electric commercial car of taking removable battery package and trades the power station, its characterized in that:
the bottom of a crossbeam of the electric commercial vehicle is provided with a transverse battery compartment, one end of the crossbeam is provided with a compartment door, and the other end wall opposite to the compartment door is provided with a connecting socket butted with a plug arranged at the front end of a battery pack; the battery compartment is internally provided with an inner compartment rail, and the battery pack is provided with a roller or a sliding block matched with the inner compartment rail;
the battery pack is cuboid, is manufactured into a plurality of sizes according to different carrying capacities of the electric commercial vehicle, and corresponds to battery bins with different sizes;
trade the power station and including trading electric dolly and filling electric pile, wherein:
the battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism comprises a first translation driving mechanism and a translation block driven by the first translation driving mechanism, and the translation block and the bottom of the tail end of the battery pack are provided with key groove structures which can be embedded and connected;
fill electric pile and include the support and locate the stake track that the horizontal power supply battery package slided on the support, this stake track also with the gyro wheel or the slider cooperation on the battery package, the inserting panel of stake track end is equipped with the charging socket with the plug butt joint on the battery package.
In the design of the invention, the charging pile can be designed independently corresponding to the battery packs with various dimensions; and for the battery packs with different sizes and specifications, the battery packs need to be conveyed to the corresponding charging piles by the battery replacing trolley for charging. Of course in a further design concept, the present invention has the following more convenient design considerations:
the charging pile is adaptive to battery packs with different sizes, the length of a pile track is designed to at least adapt to the battery pack with the largest size, and a charging socket which can be in butt joint with a plug on each battery pack with the size is arranged on a plug-in panel at the end of the pile track; and the lifting frame is connected with an expansion bracket through a second translation driving mechanism, the battery pack push-pull mechanism is arranged on the expansion bracket, and the expansion bracket is used for prolonging the conveying length of each battery pack with the size specification so that the battery pack can be conveyed to the tail end of the pile track to be inserted into the charging socket.
Or, in another design, the charging pile is still adaptive to the battery packs with different sizes, and the pile track is a telescopic track to adapt to the battery packs with different sizes and specifications, and is conveniently butted with the rack track on the lifting rack.
Furthermore, a plurality of guide rods are arranged on the telescopic frame along the movement direction of the telescopic frame, and guide sleeves matched with the guide rods are arranged on the lifting frame. The guide rod and the guide sleeve are matched to further improve the translation stability of the telescopic frame.
It should be explained that the charging socket has the positions and the number of the battery pack connectors suitable for a plurality of specifications, and is suitable for battery packs with a plurality of sizes. For example, a total of four charging sockets on the patch panel at the end of the stake track correspond to four plugs side-by-side on the largest size specification battery pack. For a battery pack with a smaller size, the number of the plugs is only two, but the plugs can still be matched with the two middle charging sockets on the end socket panel of the pile track.
Furthermore, a notch for the embedded connection of the translation block and the key groove structure of the battery pack is formed in the bottom of one end, provided with the bin door, of the battery bin. Certainly, the design notch is only an optimal structural form, and the bottom of the battery bin is shortened in practical operation, so that the battery pack can be embedded and connected with the key groove structure of the translation block by extending the front end of the battery pack out of the bottom.
Furthermore, the key slot structure of the present invention is various, and one of the common forms includes an upward protruding key disposed on the translation block, and a connection groove disposed at the bottom of the end of the battery pack to be matched with the protruding key. Or the key groove structure can also be a groove arranged on the translation block and is matched with a connecting bulge arranged at the bottom of the tail end of the battery pack in an embedding manner.
Furthermore, the lifting frame is provided with a plurality of positioning butt joint bulges which are used for correspondingly matching with bin positioning grooves or bin positioning holes arranged at the bottom of a battery bin of the electric commercial vehicle one by one so as to position the lifting frame; similarly, the positioning butt joint bulge is also used for correspondingly matching with a pile positioning hole or a pile positioning groove arranged at the bottom of the support of the charging pile one by one so as to position the lifting frame. In the actual battery replacement process, the battery replacement trolley can move when conveying the battery pack in consideration of the existence of a reaction force, so that the battery pack cannot be stably and reliably conveyed into a battery compartment of the electric commercial vehicle. After the matching structure of the positioning butt joint bulge and the bin positioning groove or the bin positioning hole is added, the reaction force can be eliminated, and the battery changing trolley is ensured to be more stable. Similarly, in the process of charging the charging pile by conveying the battery pack to the charging pile through the battery replacing trolley, the battery replacing trolley needs to be stably positioned with the charging pile.
Furthermore, a plurality of guide positioning holes are formed in one end wall of the battery pack, battery bin guide positioning columns which are in one-to-one correspondence with the guide positioning holes are formed in the other end wall, opposite to the bin door, in the battery bin, and similarly, charging pile guide positioning columns which are in one-to-one correspondence with the guide positioning holes are also formed in the plug-in panel of the charging pile;
or a plurality of guiding positioning columns are arranged on one end wall of the battery pack, battery bin guiding positioning holes which are in one-to-one correspondence with the guiding positioning columns are arranged on the other end wall, opposite to the bin door, in the battery bin, and charging pile guiding positioning holes which are in one-to-one correspondence with the guiding positioning columns are also arranged on the plugging panel of the charging pile. The connection counterpoint that above-mentioned design made plug and the socket connection in the battery compartment or filled the socket that charges on the electric pile on the battery package is more accurate reliable.
Further, the bin door of the battery bin is positioned on the side face of the electric commercial vehicle.
Furthermore, the walking mechanism is a universal traveling mobile platform with an AI artificial intelligence road finding function.
Furthermore, the lifting mechanism is an electric lifting mechanism, such as a common worm and gear lifter driven by a servo motor, or a pneumatic or hydraulic lifting mechanism; the first translation driving mechanism is an electric screw rod, the frame rails are two T-shaped guide rails which are symmetrically arranged on two sides of the electric screw rod in parallel, and the in-bin rail and the pile rail are both formed by two parallel T-shaped guide rails. Of course, the T-shaped guide rail is only an optimal design form, and an L-shaped guide rail convenient for rolling of the roller can be designed actually; correspondingly, if the battery pack adopts the slider to slide, the slide block with the T-shaped groove matched with the T-shaped guide rail is adopted by the in-bin track, the frame track and the pile track, and the matching form of the guide rail and the slide block is also diversified.
It should be noted that the tracks in the present invention are not limited to be bottom-mounted tracks, but may also be top-mounted tracks, for example, the tracks in the battery compartment are two parallel T-shaped tracks installed on the top or the side walls of the battery compartment, and the corresponding battery pack runs on the tracks by being suspended by the rollers, and in match with this, the rack tracks and the pile tracks are also designed to be top-mounted.
Further, the second translation driving mechanism is an electric lead screw.
Furthermore, in order to improve the fixing stability of the battery pack in the battery compartment, a plurality of battery pack fastening mechanisms are arranged on the battery compartment, each battery pack fastening mechanism comprises a screw nailed into the battery compartment and a screw frame supporting the screw, and the screw is used for being matched with a screw hole formed in the surface of the battery pack to fix the battery pack in the battery compartment. In specific implementation, the screw hole may be disposed on the bottom surface, the top surface or the side surface of the battery pack, but the invention is not limited thereto.
Furthermore, the lifting frame is provided with an electric screw assembling and disassembling device corresponding to the screw. Of course, the electric screw assembling and disassembling device is the prior art, and is already applied to the existing automobile battery replacing equipment, and the detailed description is not provided in the invention.
The commercial vehicle comprises all trucks and passenger cars with more than 9 seats, such as various heavy trucks, semi-tractors, buses, engineering vehicles and the like.
The overall working principle of the invention is as follows:
taking a truck as an example, if the carrying capacity is different, the size specification of the battery pack and the size specification of the corresponding battery compartment are also different; but the widths of the tracks in the battery compartment, the frame track on the battery replacing trolley and the pile track on the charging pile can be designed consistently, and the battery replacing trolley is adapted to battery pack rollers or sliding blocks with all sizes and specifications so as to implement unified replacement.
According to the tonnage of the truck of the existing national standard, the battery pack is manufactured into the following four dimensions:
total mass unit ton of truck and cargo Dimension (length x width x height) unit mm
Battery pack A 49 2150x2000x400
Battery pack B 25 2150x1600x300
Battery pack C 4.5 1900x1400x200
Battery pack D 2 1300x1200x150
When the electric commercial vehicle needs to change the battery, the vehicle drives into the battery changing station, and the bin door of the battery bin is automatically or manually opened. The battery replacing process can be completed by matching two battery replacing trolleys, one is used for discharging the battery, namely taking out the battery pack in the battery bin of the electric commercial vehicle, and the other is used for charging, namely charging the battery pack which is charged into the battery bin.
Firstly, a power conversion trolley for discharging power moves to the lower part of a battery bin of a battery commercial vehicle, and a first translation driving mechanism in a battery pack push-pull mechanism drives a translation block to move to the front end, so that a convex key on the translation block is opposite to a connecting groove at the bottom of the tail end of an upper battery pack. And then, the lifting mechanism on the base of the battery replacing trolley drives the lifting frame to lift until the frame rail on the lifting mechanism is aligned with the inner rail of the battery compartment, and the butt joint of the lifting frame and the battery compartment is also completed. Meanwhile, the convex key on the translation block is embedded into the connecting groove at the bottom of the battery pack to complete matching. Meanwhile, the positioning butt joint bulge on the lifting frame is matched with the bin positioning groove arranged at the bottom of the battery bin of the electric commercial vehicle in a one-to-one correspondence mode to position the lifting frame.
And then, the electric screw assembling and disassembling device on the lifting frame unloads the screws at the bottom of the battery bin, and loosens the fixed connection between the battery pack and the battery bin. Then a battery pack push-pull mechanism on the battery replacing trolley works to pull the battery pack out of the battery bin, the battery pack sequentially moves along the track in the bin and the rack track and finally stays on the lifting rack, and the lifting rack is driven by the lifting mechanism to fall back.
The battery replacing trolley for subsequent power unloading needs to carry a battery pack to a charging pile for charging. Consequently trade electric dolly and remove to the stake track below of filling electric pile, the crane lifting makes the frame track on it align with the stake track under elevating system's drive, also accomplishes the butt joint of crane and filling electric pile. Meanwhile, the positioning butt joint protrusions on the lifting frame are matched with the pile positioning holes in the bottom of the support of the charging pile in a one-to-one correspondence mode to position the lifting frame.
At the moment, if the battery replacing trolley is provided with the telescopic frame, the transmission length of the battery pack can be prolonged by driving the telescopic frame to extend into the pile track according to the length specification of the battery pack. For example, for a battery pack with a small length specification, the expansion bracket needs to extend into the pile track for a certain distance, so that the battery pack push-pull mechanism can be ensured to completely send the battery pack to the end of the pile track to be plugged with the charging socket. But also can be the stake track of filling electric pile is designed scalable track in order to adapt to the battery package of different length specifications, the convenient frame track butt joint on with the crane simultaneously.
On the other hand, the electric commercial vehicle taking out the battery pack needs to be filled with the charged battery pack, so that the battery replacing trolley waiting beside runs to the lower part of the battery bin, the lifting frame is lifted to be in butt joint with the battery bin, and finally the battery pack on the battery replacing trolley is pushed into the battery bin of the electric commercial vehicle by means of the battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism to complete connection between a plug on the battery pack and a socket in the battery bin, and finally the bin door is closed to complete the whole battery replacing process.
The invention has the advantages that:
1. the battery changing system provided by the invention is a standardized system with a battery charging and changing function, and comprises unified battery changing equipment of the electric commercial vehicle, a battery pack specification design, a high-efficiency and quick battery changing trolley and a charging pile, so that the unified battery charging and changing of different specifications of battery packs of all electric commercial vehicles can be met, and the battery changing station can be completely operated without people. The standardized power station is extremely low in construction cost in practical implementation. Therefore, the problem of changing oil into electricity of the commercial vehicle can be solved only by constructing a standardized electricity changing station in China, and the electric commercial vehicle is really popularized and popularized.
2. The battery replacing trolley disclosed by the invention adopts a transverse plug-in battery replacing mode, so that the overall battery replacing efficiency is improved, and the structure is simple. The battery pack push-pull mechanism and the battery pack are designed to adopt a key groove structure which can be embedded and matched with each other, so that the structural improvement of the battery pack push-pull mechanism and the battery pack is very small, and particularly, the battery pack has a simple design structure, low cost and easy implementation.
3. According to the further design scheme, the charging pile is designed into the adaptive charging piles for the battery packs with different sizes and specifications, the corresponding battery replacing trolley is matched with the telescopic frame for conveying the battery packs with various specifications to be in butt joint with the charging pile, the design further simplifies the equipment configuration of the charging station, ensures that the quick and efficient battery replacing operation can be carried out on the battery packs with various specifications by using a single battery replacing trolley and the charging pile, greatly improves the convenience, further ensures the battery pack specification unification of the electric commercial vehicle, is convenient to implement the battery replacing operation better, and is extremely low in implementation cost.
4. The whole system can completely realize the automatic battery replacement of the 1-49 ton full-specification electric commercial vehicle, and the battery pack can be replaced within a few minutes under normal conditions, so that the problem of endurance is solved.
Drawings
The invention is further described with reference to the following figures and examples:
FIG. 1 is a schematic overall structure diagram of an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of an isolated perspective structure of the battery pack of fig. 1;
fig. 3 is a bottom view of the battery pack;
fig. 4 is a plug end elevation view of the battery pack;
fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of an isolated three-dimensional structure of the battery compartment in fig. 1 (a compartment door is opened);
FIG. 6 is a bottom view of the battery compartment;
fig. 7 is a door end elevation view of the battery compartment (door open state);
FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of an independent perspective structure of the battery changing trolley in FIG. 1;
FIG. 9 is a top view of the swap trolley;
FIG. 10 is a front view of the battery changing cart;
fig. 11 is a schematic view of an isolated perspective structure of the charging pile of fig. 1;
fig. 12 is a top view of the charging pile;
fig. 13 is a front view of the charging post;
fig. 14 is a schematic diagram showing the change of the working state of the battery changing cart for conveying a battery pack of one specification to the charging pile;
fig. 15 is a schematic diagram of the change of the working state of the battery changing trolley for conveying a battery pack of another specification to the charging pile.
Wherein: 1. an electric commercial vehicle; 2. a battery pack; 201. a plug; 202. a roller; 203. a connecting groove; 204. guiding the positioning hole; 205. a screw hole; 3. a battery compartment; 301. a bin gate; 302. a connection socket; 303. an in-bin track; 304. a bin positioning groove; 305. the battery bin is guided to the positioning column; 306. a recess; 4. battery changing trolley; 401. a base; 402. a lifting mechanism; 403. a lifting frame; 403a, positioning and butting protrusions; 404. a rack rail; 405. a first translation drive mechanism; 406. a translation block; 406a, a convex key; 407. a second translation drive mechanism; 408. a telescopic frame; 409. a guide bar; 410. a guide sleeve; 5. charging piles; 501. a support; 501a, pile positioning holes; 502. a pile track; 503. a patch panel; 504. a charging socket; 505. a charging pile guiding positioning column; 6. a screw; 7. a screw frame; 8. electric screw assembling and disassembling device.
Detailed Description
Example (b): the following describes the electric power exchange system for the electric commercial vehicle provided by the invention in detail with reference to fig. 1 to 15 as follows:
firstly, as shown in fig. 1, as a whole, the present invention is composed of an electric commercial vehicle 1 capable of replacing a battery pack 2, a battery compartment 3 arranged on the electric commercial vehicle 1 and accommodating the battery pack 2, an electricity changing trolley 4 and a charging pile 5, wherein the electricity changing trolley 4 and the charging pile 5 are arranged in an electricity changing station, and the electricity changing station naturally further includes a power supply (omitted in the figure) for supplying power to the charging pile 5.
The electric commercial vehicle 1 provided by the invention has no improvement on the power driving part, and only the battery compartment 3, the arrangement form of the battery compartment and the matched battery pack 2 are improved.
Firstly, the battery pack 2 is described with reference to fig. 2 to 4, and the battery pack 2 of the present invention is designed to be rectangular, and is manufactured into a plurality of sizes and specifications according to different carrying capacities of the electric commercial vehicle 1, and corresponds to the battery compartments 3 of different sizes and specifications. The electric commercial vehicle 1 exemplified in this embodiment is, for example, a conventional electric container semi-trailer tractor having a total cargo mass of 49 tons, and the size of the corresponding battery pack 2 is made to be 2150x2000x400 in mm.
As shown in fig. 3 and 4, the bottom of the battery pack 2 is provided with two rows of rollers 202 in parallel symmetrically along the center line with respect to the length direction thereof. Meanwhile, four plugs 201 are arranged side by side on the front end wall of the battery pack 2, and are used for being matched and connected with a connecting socket 302 in the battery compartment 3 and a charging socket 504 on the charging pile 5. Simultaneously still be equipped with two guiding orientation hole 204 on this end wall of battery package 2 for with battery compartment 3 with fill the corresponding structure cooperation that is equipped with on the electric pile 5 in order to realize the guiding orientation function. As shown in fig. 3, the battery pack 2 has a connection groove 203 at a middle position near the bottom of the end wall, and the connection groove is used for cooperating with a battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism on the battery changing cart 4. Meanwhile, the bottom of the battery pack 2 is provided with two screw holes 205 which are bilaterally symmetrical about the connecting groove 203 and are used for being matched with the screws 6 to fix the battery pack 2 into the battery compartment 3.
Referring to fig. 1, 5 to 7, a transverse battery compartment 3 is disposed at the bottom of a girder of a vehicle head of the electric commercial vehicle 1 in the embodiment, a compartment door 301 that can be controlled to open by the electric commercial vehicle 1 is disposed at one end of the battery compartment 3 through an electric hinge, and the compartment door 301 is located at a side surface of the electric commercial vehicle 1 for facilitating loading and unloading of the battery pack 2. The other end wall opposite to the door 301 is provided with four connecting sockets 302 in parallel for butting with the plug 201 arranged on the battery pack 2, and the end wall is provided with battery compartment guiding positioning columns 305 correspondingly matched with the two guiding positioning holes 204 on the battery pack 2 one by one, as shown in fig. 7. And two parallel inner bin rails 303 are arranged inside the battery bin 3 and are matched with the two rows of rollers 202 on the battery pack 2.
As shown in fig. 6 and 7, the battery compartment 3 is provided with two battery pack fastening mechanisms on the bottom surface near the compartment door 301 end, the battery pack fastening mechanisms are composed of screws 6 driven into the battery compartment 3 and screw holders 7 supporting the screws 6, and the inner circumference of the screw holders 7 is milled with a step surface for holding the heads of the screws 6 to prevent the screws 6 from falling down. The screw 6 is engaged with the screw hole 205 provided on the bottom surface of the battery pack 2 to fix the battery pack in the battery compartment 3.
And the battery compartment 3 is further provided with a notch 306 and two compartment positioning grooves 304 on the bottom surface near the end of the compartment door 301, which are related to the battery changing cart 4 and will be described below.
Referring to fig. 8 to 10, the trolley 4 in this embodiment includes a base 401 having a traveling mechanism and a lifting frame 403 driven to lift by a lifting mechanism 402 disposed on the base 401, the lifting frame 403 is provided with a frame rail 404 engaged with the roller 202 of the battery pack 2, the lifting frame 403 is connected to a telescopic frame 408 via a second translation driving mechanism 407, the telescopic frame 408 is provided with a battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism for pushing and pulling the battery pack 2 to move along the frame rail 404 to enter and exit the battery compartment 3, the battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism includes a first translation driving mechanism 405 and a translation block 406 driven by the first translation driving mechanism, and the translation block 406 and the bottom of the end of the battery pack 2 are provided with a key groove structure capable of being embedded and connected. The expansion bracket 408 is used to extend the transport length of each size battery pack 2 so that the battery pack 2 can be delivered to the end of the post track 502 for mating with the charging receptacle 504, as will be described in detail below.
The lifting mechanism 402 in this embodiment employs four electric lifting mechanisms. The first translation driving mechanism 405 and the second translation driving mechanism 407 are both electric lead screws, which are the prior art, and the specific structure thereof is not described in detail. In the first translation driving mechanism 405, the mechanism for translating is a translation block 406, and an upward convex key 406a is integrally formed on the translation block 406, and is just matched and connected with the connection groove 203 arranged at the bottom of the end of the battery pack 2 as shown in fig. 3, so as to drive the battery pack 2 to move. The notch 306 is provided on the battery compartment 3 for the convenience of the engagement between the convex key 406a and the connecting groove 203. For the second translation driving mechanism 407, the translation mechanism is the telescopic frame 408, and in order to improve the motion stability of the telescopic frame 408, two guide rods 409 are further arranged on the telescopic frame 408 along the motion direction of the telescopic frame 408, as shown in fig. 8, and the lifting frame 403 is provided with a guide sleeve 410 matched with the guide rods 409.
In this embodiment, the traveling mechanism on the base 401 adopts the currently mature universal traveling mobile platform with the AI artificial intelligence road finding function, and can realize relatively accurate fixed-point displacement.
In this embodiment, the front portion of the lifting frame 403 is provided with two positioning and docking protrusions 403a, which are used for correspondingly matching the bin positioning grooves 304 (as shown in fig. 6) formed at the bottom of the battery bin 3 of the electric commercial vehicle 1 one by one to position the lifting frame 403, so as to prevent the displacement of the battery replacing trolley 4 caused by the reaction force generated in the battery replacing process. Meanwhile, the lifting frame 403 is provided with two electric screw assembling and disassembling devices 8 for correspondingly assembling and disassembling the screws 6 (shown in fig. 6) at the bottom of the battery compartment 3.
As shown in fig. 11 to 13, the charging pile 5 is described, and the charging pile 5 is composed of a bracket 501, a pile rail 502 that is provided on the bracket 501 and on which the battery pack 2 horizontally slides, and a patch panel 503 that is connected to the end of the pile rail 502. The two parallel pile tracks 502 are also matched with the rollers 202 on the battery pack 2, and four parallel charging sockets 504 which are butted with the plugs 201 on the battery pack 2 are arranged on the plugging panel 503 at the end of the pile tracks 502. Meanwhile, the inserting panel 503 is also provided with a charging pile guiding positioning column 505 corresponding to the two guiding positioning holes 204 on the battery pack 2 one by one for guiding and positioning the battery pack 2 during inserting.
As shown in fig. 11 and 12, the bracket 501 is provided with two pile positioning holes 501a for matching with the positioning butting protrusions 403a on the lifting frame 403 of the electricity changing trolley 4, so that the electricity changing trolley 4 can be positioned by the charging pile 5.
In this embodiment, the frame rails 404 are two T-shaped guide rails symmetrically disposed in parallel on two sides of the first translation driving mechanism 405, and the in-bin rail 303 and the pile rail 502 are also formed by two parallel T-shaped guide rails, and are both matched with the two rows of rollers 202 at the bottom of the battery pack 2.
It should be noted that, in this embodiment, the charging post 5 is a battery pack adaptive charging post with different dimensions, the length of the post rail 502 is designed to at least adapt to the battery pack 2 with the largest dimension, and the charging socket 504 on the plug panel 503 at the end of the post rail 502 can also be connected to the plug 201 on each battery pack 2 with different dimensions, which is described in conjunction with fig. 14 and 15.
As shown in fig. 14, the battery changing cart 4 transports the battery pack 2 with the size of 2150mmx2000mmx400mm to the charging pile 5 for charging. As can be seen, the length of the stake track 502 is just appropriate for the size of the battery pack. After the convex key 406a on the battery replacing trolley 4 is matched with the connecting groove 203 on the battery pack 2, the battery pack 2 moves onto the pile track 502 along the frame track 404 until being pushed into the bottom under the driving of the first translation driving mechanism 405, so that the plug 201 on the battery pack 2 is connected with the charging socket 504 on the connecting panel 503 in a connecting mode, the second translation driving mechanism 407 does not work in the process, and the telescopic frame 408 does not move.
As shown in fig. 15, when a battery pack 2 (1300 mmx1200mmx150 mm) with a small size and a small size is to be carried, the expansion bracket 408 is driven by the second translation driving mechanism 407 to move toward the pile rail 502 and extend into the pile rail 502 for a certain distance to extend the conveying length of the battery pack 2, and finally, the battery pack 2 is smoothly conveyed to the position to complete the insertion connection with the charging socket 504 on the insertion panel 503 under the driving of the first translation driving mechanism 405.
The working principle of the invention is as follows:
when the electric commercial vehicle 1 needs to exchange electricity, the vehicle drives into an electricity exchange station, and the bin gate 301 of the battery bin 3 is controlled to be opened by the electric commercial vehicle 1. The battery replacing process can be completed by matching two battery replacing trolleys 4, one is used for discharging the battery, namely the battery pack 2 in the battery bin 3 of the electric commercial vehicle 1 is taken out, and the other is used for charging the battery, namely the battery pack 2 which is charged is filled into the battery bin 3.
Firstly, the power changing trolley 4 for discharging power moves to the lower part of the battery bin 3 of the battery commercial vehicle 1, the first translation driving mechanism 405 in the battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism drives the translation block 406 to move to the front end, so that the convex key 406a on the translation block 406 is opposite to the connecting groove 203 at the bottom of the tail end of the upper battery pack 2. Subsequently, the lifting mechanism 402 on the base of the battery replacing trolley 4 drives the lifting frame 403 to lift until the frame rail 404 on the lifting frame is aligned with the in-bin rail 303 of the battery bin 3, that is, the butt joint of the lifting frame 403 and the battery bin 3 is completed. And meanwhile, the convex key 406a on the translation block 406 is embedded into the connecting groove 203 at the bottom of the battery pack 2 to complete the matching. Meanwhile, the positioning butting protrusions 403a on the lifting frames 403 are correspondingly matched with bin positioning grooves 304 arranged at the bottom of the battery bin 3 of the electric commercial vehicle 1 one by one so as to position the lifting frames 403.
Next, the electric screw mounting and dismounting device 8 on the lifting frame 403 removes the screw 6 at the bottom of the battery compartment 3, and loosens the fixed connection between the battery pack 2 and the battery compartment 3. Then, a battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism on the battery replacing trolley 4 works to pull the battery pack 2 out of the battery compartment 3, the battery pack 2 moves along the compartment inner rail 303 and the compartment rail 404 in sequence, and finally stays on the lifting frame 403, and the lifting frame 403 falls back and forth under the driving of the lifting mechanism 402.
The battery replacing trolley 4 for subsequent power unloading needs to carry the battery pack 2 to a charging pile 5 for charging. Therefore, the trolley 4 moves to the position below the pile rail 502 of the charging pile 5, the lifting frame 403 is lifted under the driving of the lifting mechanism 402, so that the frame rail 404 on the trolley is aligned with the pile rail 502, and the butt joint of the lifting frame 403 and the charging pile 5 is completed. Meanwhile, the positioning and butting protrusions 403a on the lifting frames 403 are correspondingly matched with the pile positioning holes 501a at the bottom of the support 501 of the charging pile 5 one by one so as to position the lifting frames 403.
At this time, if the battery changing trolley 4 is provided with the telescopic frame 408, according to the length specification of the battery pack 2, the transmission length of the battery pack 2 can be extended by driving the telescopic frame 408 to extend into the pile rail 502, so that it is ensured that the battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism can completely deliver the battery pack 2 to the end of the pile rail 502 to complete the insertion with the charging socket 504.
On the other hand, the electric commercial vehicle 1 taking out the battery pack 2 needs to be loaded with the charged battery pack 2, so the battery replacing trolley 4 waiting beside and carrying the battery pack 2 runs to the lower part of the battery bin 3, the lifting frame 403 is lifted to be in butt joint with the battery bin 3, finally the battery pack 2 on the battery replacing trolley is pushed into the battery bin 3 of the electric commercial vehicle 1 by the battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism, the connection between the plug 201 on the battery pack 2 and the connecting socket 302 in the battery bin 3 is completed, and finally the bin gate 301 is closed, so that the whole battery replacing process is completed.
It should be understood that the above-mentioned embodiments are only illustrative of the technical concepts and features of the present invention, and are intended to enable those skilled in the art to understand the contents of the present invention and implement the present invention, and not to limit the scope of the present invention. All modifications made according to the spirit of the main technical scheme of the invention are covered in the protection scope of the invention.

Claims (14)

1. The utility model provides an electronic commercial car trades electric system, includes electronic commercial car (1) and the power station that trades of taking removable battery package (2), its characterized in that:
a transverse battery compartment (3) is arranged at the bottom of a crossbeam of the electric commercial vehicle (1), a compartment door (301) is arranged at one end of the crossbeam, and a connecting socket (302) which is butted with a plug (201) arranged at the front end of the battery pack (2) is arranged at the other end wall opposite to the compartment door (301); an inner bin track (303) is arranged in the battery bin (3), and a roller (202) or a sliding block matched with the inner bin track (303) is arranged on the battery pack (2);
the battery pack (2) is cuboid, is manufactured into a plurality of sizes according to different carrying capacities of the electric commercial vehicle (1), and corresponds to the battery bins (3) with different sizes;
trade power station including trading electric dolly (4) and fill electric pile (5), wherein:
the battery replacing trolley (4) comprises a base (401) provided with a walking mechanism and a lifting frame (403) driven to lift by a lifting mechanism (402) arranged on the base (401), a frame rail (404) matched with a roller (202) or a sliding block of a battery pack (2) is arranged on the lifting frame (403), a battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism used for pushing and pulling the battery pack (2) to move along the frame rail (404) to enter and exit the battery bin (3) is arranged on the lifting frame (403), the battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism comprises a first translation driving mechanism (405) and a translation block (406) driven by the first translation driving mechanism, and a key groove structure which can be embedded and matched and connected with the bottom of the tail end of the battery pack (2) is designed on the translation block (406);
fill electric pile (5) including support (501) and locate on support (501) horizontal supply battery package (2) gliding stake track (502), this stake track (502) also with gyro wheel (202) or slider cooperation on battery package (2), be equipped with on connecing the inserting panel (503) at stake track (502) end with the charging socket (504) of plug (201) butt joint on the battery package (2).
2. The electric commercial vehicle power replacing system according to claim 1, wherein the charging pile (5) is a battery pack adaptive charging pile with different dimensions, the length of a pile rail (502) of the charging pile is designed to at least adapt to a battery pack (2) with the largest dimension, and a charging socket (504) which can be butted with a plug (201) on each dimension battery pack (2) is arranged on a plug panel (503) at the end of the pile rail (502); the lifting frame (403) is connected with an expansion frame (408) through a second translation driving mechanism (407), the battery pack pushing and pulling mechanism is arranged on the expansion frame (408), and the expansion frame (408) is used for prolonging the conveying length of the battery packs (2) with various dimensions, so that the battery packs (2) can be conveyed to the end of the pile track (502) to be spliced with the charging socket (504).
3. The electric commercial vehicle power exchanging system as claimed in claim 2, wherein the telescopic frame (408) is provided with a plurality of guide rods (409) along the moving direction of the telescopic frame (408), and the lifting frame (403) is provided with guide sleeves (410) matched with the guide rods (409).
4. The electric commercial vehicle battery replacement system according to claim 1, wherein the charging pile (5) is a charging pile adaptive to battery packs of different sizes, and the pile rail (502) is a telescopic rail to adapt to battery packs (2) of different sizes, and is conveniently butted with the frame rail (404) on the lifting frame (403).
5. The electric commercial vehicle power exchanging system according to claim 1, wherein a notch (306) for the translation block (406) to be connected with the keyway structure of the battery pack (2) in an embedding manner is formed at the bottom of one end of the battery compartment (3) provided with the compartment door (301).
6. The electric commercial vehicle replacement system according to claim 1 or 5, wherein the key groove structure comprises an upward convex key (406 a) arranged on the translation block (406) and a connecting groove (203) arranged at the bottom of the tail end of the battery pack (2) and matched with the convex key (406); or the key groove structure comprises a groove arranged on the translation block (406) and a connecting bulge arranged at the bottom of the tail end of the battery pack (2) and matched with the groove.
7. The electric commercial vehicle power replacing system according to claim 1, wherein the lifting frame (403) is provided with a plurality of positioning butt joint protrusions (403 a) which are used for being correspondingly matched with bin positioning grooves (304) or bin positioning holes arranged at the bottom of a battery bin (3) of the electric commercial vehicle (1) one by one to position the lifting frame (403); similarly, the positioning and butting bulge (403 a) is also used for correspondingly matching with a pile positioning hole (501 a) or a pile positioning groove arranged at the bottom of the support (501) of the charging pile (5) one by one so as to position the lifting frame (403).
8. The electric power replacing system for the electric commercial vehicle as claimed in claim 1, wherein a plurality of guiding positioning holes (204) are formed in one end wall of the battery pack (2), battery bin guiding positioning columns (305) corresponding to the guiding positioning holes (204) are formed in the other end wall, opposite to the bin door (301), of the battery bin (3), and charging pile guiding positioning columns (505) corresponding to the guiding positioning holes (204) are also formed in a plugging panel (503) of the charging pile (5);
or a plurality of guiding positioning columns are arranged on one end wall of the battery pack (2), battery bin guiding positioning holes which correspond to the guiding positioning columns one by one are arranged on the other end wall, opposite to the bin door (301), in the battery bin (3), and similarly, charging pile guiding positioning holes which correspond to the guiding positioning columns one by one are also arranged on the plugging panel (503) of the charging pile (5).
9. The electric commercial vehicle power exchange system according to claim 1, wherein the bin door (301) of the battery bin (3) is located at a side of the electric commercial vehicle (1).
10. The electric replacing system for the electric commercial vehicle as claimed in claim 1, wherein the walking mechanism is a universal driving mobile platform with an AI Artificial Intelligence (AI) road searching function.
11. The electric commercial vehicle power exchange system according to claim 1, wherein the lifting mechanism (402) is an electric lifting mechanism, or a pneumatic or hydraulic lifting mechanism; the first translation driving mechanism (405) is an electric screw rod, the frame rails (404) are two T-shaped guide rails which are symmetrically arranged on two sides of the electric screw rod in parallel, and the in-bin rail (303) and the pile rail (502) are both formed by two parallel T-shaped guide rails.
12. The electric commercial vehicle replacement system according to claim 2, wherein the second translation driving mechanism (407) is an electric lead screw.
13. The electric replacing system for the electric commercial vehicle as claimed in claim 1, wherein the battery compartment (3) is provided with a plurality of battery pack fastening mechanisms, the battery pack fastening mechanisms comprise screws (6) driven into the battery compartment (3) and screw frames (7) supporting the screws (6), and the screws (6) are used for being matched with screw holes (205) formed in the surface of the battery pack (2) to fix the battery pack in the battery compartment (3).
14. The electric commercial vehicle power exchanging system according to claim 13, wherein the lifting frame (403) is provided with an electric screw handling device (8) corresponding to the screw (6).
CN202011337257.8A 2020-11-25 2020-11-25 Electric commercial vehicle battery replacement system Pending CN112319302A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202011337257.8A CN112319302A (en) 2020-11-25 2020-11-25 Electric commercial vehicle battery replacement system

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202011337257.8A CN112319302A (en) 2020-11-25 2020-11-25 Electric commercial vehicle battery replacement system

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN112319302A true CN112319302A (en) 2021-02-05

Family

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN202011337257.8A Pending CN112319302A (en) 2020-11-25 2020-11-25 Electric commercial vehicle battery replacement system

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Country Link
CN (1) CN112319302A (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113715681A (en) * 2021-09-16 2021-11-30 浙江长兴中俄新能源材料技术研究院有限公司 New construction electric automobile fills and trades power station
CN114347843A (en) * 2022-01-14 2022-04-15 上海西井信息科技有限公司 Vehicle side battery replacement system, method, equipment and storage medium
CN114475346A (en) * 2022-02-28 2022-05-13 刘岩 Method for movably replacing battery of electric heavy truck
CN115782676A (en) * 2022-11-07 2023-03-14 浙江瓯鹏科技有限公司 Put formula quick change battery system in commercial car

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113715681A (en) * 2021-09-16 2021-11-30 浙江长兴中俄新能源材料技术研究院有限公司 New construction electric automobile fills and trades power station
CN114347843A (en) * 2022-01-14 2022-04-15 上海西井信息科技有限公司 Vehicle side battery replacement system, method, equipment and storage medium
CN114475346A (en) * 2022-02-28 2022-05-13 刘岩 Method for movably replacing battery of electric heavy truck
CN115782676A (en) * 2022-11-07 2023-03-14 浙江瓯鹏科技有限公司 Put formula quick change battery system in commercial car

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