CN112257009B - Method for determining depth of cut hole of rock roadway blasting tunneling - Google Patents

Method for determining depth of cut hole of rock roadway blasting tunneling Download PDF

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CN112257009B
CN112257009B CN202010902577.7A CN202010902577A CN112257009B CN 112257009 B CN112257009 B CN 112257009B CN 202010902577 A CN202010902577 A CN 202010902577A CN 112257009 B CN112257009 B CN 112257009B
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depth
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tunneling
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杨仁树
丁晨曦
郑昌达
安晨
张召冉
陈程
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University of Science and Technology Beijing USTB
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Abstract

The embodiment of the invention discloses a method for determining the depth of a cut hole in rock roadway blasting tunneling, which relates to the technical field of rock roadway tunneling and can effectively improve blasting effect and tunneling speed. Determining the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole according to tunneling conditions and explosive properties; and determining the depth of the undercut hole according to the preset common blast hole depth and the ultra-deep depth. The invention can be used in the field of rock well drift tunneling.

Description

Method for determining depth of cut hole of rock roadway blasting tunneling
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of rock and rock well head tunneling, and particularly relates to a method for determining the depth of a cut hole in rock well head blasting tunneling.
Background
The drilling and blasting method is one of the main construction methods of the existing rock shaft tunnel tunneling, and accounts for more than 95% in the rock shaft tunnel construction. In the tunnel tunneling construction, the rock tunnel drilling and blasting tunneling level is maintained at 70-80 m/month throughout the year, and the normal circulation rate is only 75%; in the vertical shaft excavation engineering, the drilling and blasting tunneling level is kept at a low level of 80 m/month throughout the year. The low tunneling speed of the shaft lane becomes a bottleneck for restricting efficient mining of mine resources. Therefore, the realization of efficient tunneling of rock roadway blasting has important significance for relieving contradiction of mining tension, shortening mine construction period and improving economic benefit.
The key of the efficient tunneling of the drilling and blasting method is the effect of cutting and blasting. The depth of the cut hole is one of the most basic blasting parameters in rock shaft heading. However, in the eighties of the last century, under any condition of rock well drift tunneling in China, the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole relative to a common blast hole is not changed all the time and is 200 mm, so that the blasting effect and the tunneling speed are further improved.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above, the embodiment of the invention provides a method for determining the depth of a cut hole in rock roadway blasting tunneling, which can effectively improve the blasting effect and accelerate the rock roadway tunneling speed.
The embodiment of the invention also provides a method for determining the depth of the cut hole of the rock roadway blasting tunneling, which comprises the following steps: determining the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole according to tunneling conditions and explosive properties;
and determining the depth of the undercut hole according to the preset common blast hole depth and the ultra-deep depth.
Optionally, the tunneling conditions include at least one of: rock properties of the rock roadway, section size, depth of the common blast hole and cutting form of the cut hole.
Optionally, the determining the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole according to the tunneling condition and the explosive property comprises:
the ultra-deep depth is determined according to the following formula:
Figure BDA0002659819520000021
wherein y is the ultra-deep depth, x is the normal blasthole depth, K1 is an empirical coefficient related to a rock firmness coefficient, K2 is an empirical coefficient related to a cross-sectional area of a roadway, K3 is an empirical coefficient related to a non-undercut blasthole depth, K4 is an empirical coefficient related to an undercut form, and K5 is an empirical coefficient related to explosive properties; a1, a2, a3, a4, a5 are weight coefficients, respectively, and a 1 +a 2 +a 3 +a 4 +a 5 =1。
Optionally, the K1 is determined according to the pohshing coefficient of the rock, the K2 is determined according to the cross-sectional area of the rock, the K3 is determined according to the depth of the common blast hole, the K4 is determined according to whether the undercut is in the form of a slant-hole undercut or a straight-hole undercut, and the K5 is determined according to the detonation velocity and the fierce of the explosive.
Optionally, the determining of K4 as a canted or straight undercut according to the undercut form includes:
if the cutting form is inclined hole cutting, the value range of K4 is 15% -20%, wherein the included angle between the blast hole of the inclined hole cutting and the free surface of the roadway is less than 90 degrees;
if the cutting form is straight-hole cutting, the value range of K4 is 20% -25%, wherein the included angle between the blast hole of the inclined-hole cutting and the free surface of the roadway is equal to 90 degrees.
Optionally, the oblique eye cut comprises a single wedge cut and/or a double wedge cut; the straight-eye undercut includes a corner post undercut and/or a diamond undercut.
Optionally, the ratio of the cut depth to the normal blasthole depth ranges from 115% to 125%.
Optionally, the common blast hole depth is determined by the following formula:
Figure BDA0002659819520000022
wherein Lo is a tunneling roadway month task, T is the time for finishing the tunneling task, N1 is the number of days of working days per month, N2 is the number of working shifts per day, N3 is the number of cycles per shift, eta 1 is the utilization rate of a blast hole, and eta 2 is the normal cycle rate.
The method for determining the depth of the cut hole in the rock roadway blasting tunneling can determine the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole according to tunneling conditions and explosive properties, and determine the depth of the cut hole according to the preset common blast hole depth and the ultra-deep depth. Therefore, the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole can be determined in a targeted manner according to specific tunneling conditions and different used explosives, the cut hole depth and the common blast hole depth can be matched better, the cut cavity can meet the crushing expansion space required by non-cut hole blasting, the blast hole utilization rate and blasting effect are effectively improved, and the rock shaft heading speed is accelerated.
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In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings that are required in the embodiments or the description of the prior art will be briefly described, it being obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the invention, and that other drawings may be obtained according to these drawings without inventive effort for a person skilled in the art.
FIG. 1 is a flow chart of a method for determining the depth of a cut in a rock roadway blasting tunnelling according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a rock roadway blasthole arrangement in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the rock roadway borehole corresponding to FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a rock vertical blast hole arrangement in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the rock vertical bore corresponding to fig. 4.
Detailed Description
Embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
It should be understood that the described embodiments are merely some, but not all, embodiments of the invention. All other embodiments, which can be made by those skilled in the art based on the embodiments of the invention without making any inventive effort, are intended to be within the scope of the invention.
As shown in fig. 1, the embodiment of the invention further provides a method for determining the depth of a cut hole in blasting tunneling of a rock roadway, which comprises the following steps:
s11, determining the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole according to tunneling conditions and explosive properties;
the cut hole can be applied to tunneling and can be generally arranged at the center of the face. The cut hole can be detonated firstly in blasting so as to throw out the central rock, and a free surface is added for surrounding rock, so that a better blasting effect is achieved. To enhance the blasting effect, the cut hole is typically deeper than the surrounding normal blast hole, and the explosive is also buried deeper. In the embodiment of the invention, the depth of the undercut hole beyond the common blast hole is called ultra-deep depth.
The driving conditions may refer to environmental factors associated with vertical or tunnel driving. The explosive property can refer to the energy released by the explosion of the explosive, the energy release rate and other factors.
S12, determining the depth of the cut hole according to the preset common blast hole depth and the ultra-deep depth.
After the ultra-deep depth is determined, the ultra-deep depth and the preset common blast hole depth can be used for determining the cut hole depth in the step, for example, the cut hole depth is equal to the sum of the ultra-deep depth and the common blast hole depth.
For example, in one embodiment of the present invention, a schematic diagram of a rock roadway blast hole arrangement may be shown in fig. 2, and a corresponding cross-sectional view may be shown in fig. 3, and reference is made to fig. 2 and 3, where reference numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are rock roadway cut holes, and Δh is a rock roadway cut hole ultra-deep depth. The black filling in the blasthole indicates the filled explosive and the sloping lines indicate the gravel blocking the blasthole.
For example, in one embodiment of the present invention, a schematic diagram of a rock vertical blast hole arrangement may be shown in fig. 4, and a corresponding cross-sectional view thereof may be shown in fig. 5, and reference is made to fig. 4 and 5, where reference numerals 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 are rock vertical pit holes, and Δh is a rock vertical pit hole ultra-deep depth. The black filling in the blasthole indicates the filled explosive and the sloping lines indicate the gravel blocking the blasthole.
The method for determining the depth of the cut hole in the rock roadway blasting tunneling can determine the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole according to tunneling conditions and explosive properties, and determine the depth of the cut hole according to the preset common blast hole depth and the ultra-deep depth. Therefore, the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole can be determined in a targeted manner according to specific tunneling conditions and different used explosives, the cut hole depth and the common blast hole depth can be matched better, the cut cavity can meet the crushing expansion space required by non-cut hole blasting, the blast hole utilization rate and blasting effect are effectively improved, and the rock shaft heading speed is accelerated.
Optionally, in one embodiment of the invention, the tunneling conditions include one or more of: rock properties of the rock roadway, section size, depth of the common blast hole and cutting form of the cut hole.
In step S11, determining the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole according to the tunneling condition and the explosive property may specifically include:
the ultra-deep depth is determined according to the following formula:
Figure BDA0002659819520000041
wherein y is the ultra-deep depth, x is the normal blasthole depth, K1 is an empirical coefficient related to a rock firmness coefficient, K2 is an empirical coefficient related to a cross-sectional area of a roadway, K3 is an empirical coefficient related to a non-undercut blasthole depth, K4 is an empirical coefficient related to an undercut form, and K5 is an empirical coefficient related to explosive properties; a1, a2, a3, a4, a5 are weight coefficients, respectively, and a 1 +a 2 +a 3 +a 4 +a 5 =1。
Based on this, the undercut hole depth l=x+y.
In equation (1), K1 may be determined according to the pohshing coefficient of the rock, K2 may be determined according to the rock cross-sectional area, K3 may be determined according to the general blast hole depth, K4 may be determined according to whether the undercut form is a slant or straight undercut, and K5 may be determined according to the detonation velocity and the slash of the explosive.
Optionally, determining K4 as a canted or straight undercut according to the undercut form may specifically include:
if the cutting form is inclined hole cutting, the value range of K4 is 15% -20%, wherein the included angle between the blast hole of the inclined hole cutting and the free surface of the roadway is less than 90 degrees;
if the cutting form is straight-hole cutting, the value range of K4 is 20% -25%, wherein the included angle between the blast hole of the inclined-hole cutting and the free surface of the roadway is equal to 90 degrees.
Alternatively, in embodiments of the invention, the oblique eye cuts may include single and/or double wedge cuts, or the like; the straight-eye undercut may include a corner post undercut and/or a diamond undercut, or the like.
For example, in one embodiment of the invention, K1 may be determined from the Prussian coefficient of the rock, K2 may be determined from the rock cross-sectional area, K3 may be determined from the normal blast hole depth, K4 may be determined from the undercut form as an oblique or straight undercut, and K5 may be determined from the detonation velocity and the severity of the explosive. Illustratively, the corresponding K and a values under different influencing factors may be as shown in table 1.
TABLE 1 advice on the corresponding K and a values under different influencing factors
Figure BDA0002659819520000051
Figure BDA0002659819520000061
For example, in one example of the rock roadway of the present invention, the surrounding rock has a praise coefficient of 4-6, the roadway has a rectangular cross section, the net width x the net height=2.70 m x 2.75m, and the cross section area s= 7.425m 2 In the rock roadway example, K1 is determined to be 20% according to the Prussian coefficient of rock, a1 is determined to be 20% according to the Prussian coefficient of rock, K2 can be determined to be 25% according to the cross-sectional area of the rock, a2 is determined to be 20% according to the cross-sectional area of the rock, and K3 can be determined to be 3, wherein the depth of a common blast hole is 1.80m, the slitting mode is wedge slitting, the explosive adopts three-stage coal mine allowable emulsion explosive, the detonation velocity is 3500m/s, and the suggestions of the value ranges of K value and a value under different influencing factors in the table 1 are comparedIn order to determine 25% according to the common blast hole depth, a3 is determined to be 20% according to the common blast hole depth, K4 can be determined to be 20% according to the undercut form, a4 is determined to be 20% according to the undercut form, K5 can be determined to be 20% according to the detonation velocity of the explosive, and a5 is determined to be 20% according to the detonation velocity of the explosive. Calculated according to equation (1), y=0.396m, l=2.196 m in the example.
Alternatively, in embodiments of the present invention, the ratio of the cut hole depth to the normal blasthole depth may range from 115% to 125% taking into account the tunneling conditions and the explosive properties.
The ultra-deep depth is a part of the cut hole deeper than the common blast hole, and after the ultra-deep depth is determined, the ultra-deep depth can be added on the basis of the common blast hole depth to obtain the cut hole depth. The depth of the common blast hole can be determined by the following formula:
Figure BDA0002659819520000062
wherein Lo is a tunneling roadway month task, T is the time for finishing the tunneling task, N1 is the number of days of working days per month, N2 is the number of working shifts per day, N3 is the number of cycles per shift, eta 1 is the utilization rate of a blast hole, and eta 2 is the normal cycle rate.
The blasthole utilization rate refers to the ratio of the actual circulating footage to the average blasthole depth in the tunneling process, and the calculation formula is as follows:
Figure BDA0002659819520000071
the regular cycle rate is generally the ratio of the regular cycle number of the whole month to the daily cycle number prescribed by the operation schedule, and the calculation formula is as follows:
Figure BDA0002659819520000072
the number of working days in whole month refers to the number of days in the month minus the number of external factors such as holidays, stop checks, power failure or other influences, and the influence time of each day cannot be accumulated and then the number of days is calculated.
For example, in one embodiment of the present invention, the tunneling roadway month task Lo is 105m, the time T for completing the tunneling task is 1 month, the number of days per month N1 is 25 days, the number of shifts N2 per day is 3, the number of cycles per shift N3 is 1, the actual footage per cycle is 1.56m, the average depth of the blasthole is 1.8m, the blasthole utilization rate η1 is 87%, the regular number of cycles per month is 66 times, the working day per month is 25 days, the number of daily cycles of the operation procedure is 3, the regular number of cycles η2 is 88%, and x=1.83 m in the example is calculated according to the formula (1).
After the depth of the cut hole is determined according to the mode, the blast holes can be arranged according to the design requirement by adopting a hole punching mode of an air drill or a hydraulic umbrella drill, wherein the depth of the cut hole is 115% -125% of the ultra-deep length of the non-cut hole, each circle of charge adopts common charge, the charge coefficient is 0.65-0.75, broken sand is adopted for plugging, the plugging length is not less than 0.5m, and after the blast holes are punched, the hole depth of each hole is measured, so that whether the design requirement is met is determined. And simultaneously blowing holes to each hole, ensuring that the blast holes are free of stones and other impurities, and detonating according to the detonation sequence of the undercut hole, the auxiliary hole and the peripheral hole, so as to finish full-section primary detonation.
The invention provides a method for determining the depth of a cut hole suitable for blasting and tunneling of a rock roadway, which comprises a semi-empirical formula for determining the depth of the cut hole, wherein the depth of the cut hole is composed of a common blast hole depth (x) and an ultra-deep depth (y), and factors such as lithology, section size, non-cut hole depth, cut form, explosive property and the like are comprehensively considered, so that the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole is optimally matched, the free surface and the expansion space required by the non-cut hole blasting can be met by a cut cavity, the efficient blasting of the rock roadway is realized, and the tunneling speed of the rock roadway is also effectively accelerated.
It is noted that relational terms such as first and second, and the like are used solely to distinguish one entity or action from another entity or action without necessarily requiring or implying any actual such relationship or order between such entities or actions. Moreover, the terms "comprises," "comprising," or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus. Without further limitation, an element defined by the phrase "comprising one does not exclude the presence of other like elements in a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises an element.
In this specification, each embodiment is described in a related manner, and identical and similar parts of each embodiment are all referred to each other, and each embodiment mainly describes differences from other embodiments.
In particular, for the device embodiments, since they are substantially similar to the method embodiments, the description is relatively simple, and reference is made to the description of the method embodiments in part.
For convenience of description, the above apparatus is described as being functionally divided into various units/modules, respectively. Of course, the functions of the various elements/modules may be implemented in the same piece or pieces of software and/or hardware when implementing the present invention.
The foregoing is merely illustrative of the present invention, and the present invention is not limited thereto, and any changes or substitutions easily contemplated by those skilled in the art within the scope of the present invention should be included in the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the invention is subject to the protection scope of the claims.

Claims (4)

1. The method for determining the depth of the cut hole of the explosion tunneling of the rock roadway is characterized by comprising the following steps:
determining the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole according to tunneling conditions and explosive properties;
determining the depth of the undercut hole according to the preset depth of the common blast hole and the ultra-deep depth;
the tunneling conditions include: rock properties, section size, common blast hole depth and cut form of the cut hole of the rock roadway;
the determining the ultra-deep depth of the cut hole according to the tunneling condition and the explosive property comprises the following steps:
the ultra-deep depth is determined according to the following formula:
Figure FDA0004273971240000011
wherein y is the ultra-deep depth, x is the normal blasthole depth, K1 is an empirical coefficient related to a rock firmness coefficient, K2 is an empirical coefficient related to a cross-sectional area of a roadway, K3 is an empirical coefficient related to a non-undercut blasthole depth, K4 is an empirical coefficient related to an undercut form, and K5 is an empirical coefficient related to explosive properties; a1, a2, a3, a4, a5 are weight coefficients, respectively, and a 1 +a 2 +a 3 +a 4 +a 5 =1;
The K1 is determined according to the Prussian coefficient of the rock, the K2 is determined according to the cross-sectional area of the rock, the K3 is determined according to the depth of the common blast hole, the K4 is determined according to whether the cutting mode is inclined-hole cutting or straight-hole cutting, and the K5 is determined according to the explosion speed and the high explosive;
the depth of the common blast hole is determined by the following formula:
Figure FDA0004273971240000012
wherein Lo is a tunneling roadway month task, T is the time for finishing the tunneling task, N1 is the number of days of working days per month, N2 is the number of working shifts per day, N3 is the number of cycles per shift, eta 1 is the utilization rate of a blast hole, and eta 2 is the normal cycle rate.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the K4 determination from the undercut form being a slanted or straight undercut comprises:
if the cutting form is inclined hole cutting, the value range of K4 is 15% -20%, wherein the included angle between the blast hole of the inclined hole cutting and the free surface of the roadway is less than 90 degrees;
if the cutting form is straight-hole cutting, the value range of K4 is 20% -25%, wherein the included angle between the blast hole of the inclined-hole cutting and the free surface of the roadway is equal to 90 degrees.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein the oblique eye cut comprises a single wedge cut and/or a double wedge cut; the straight-eye undercut includes a corner post undercut and/or a diamond undercut.
4. A method according to any one of claims 1-3, characterized in that the ratio of the cut hole depth to the normal blast hole depth ranges from 115% to 125%.
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