CN112128769A - Hazardous waste treatment system and process - Google Patents

Hazardous waste treatment system and process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112128769A
CN112128769A CN202010915556.9A CN202010915556A CN112128769A CN 112128769 A CN112128769 A CN 112128769A CN 202010915556 A CN202010915556 A CN 202010915556A CN 112128769 A CN112128769 A CN 112128769A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
hazardous waste
flue gas
rotary kiln
tower
waste treatment
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Pending
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CN202010915556.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
刘尚生
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No 1 Coal Chemical Branch Of Luxi Chemical Group Co ltd
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No 1 Coal Chemical Branch Of Luxi Chemical Group Co ltd
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Priority to CN202010915556.9A priority Critical patent/CN112128769A/en
Publication of CN112128769A publication Critical patent/CN112128769A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/08Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating
    • F23G5/14Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion
    • F23G5/16Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating including secondary combustion in a separate combustion chamber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/04Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment drying
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/20Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having rotating or oscillating drums
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/44Details; Accessories
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/44Details; Accessories
    • F23G5/46Recuperation of heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/02Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material
    • F23J15/022Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material for removing solid particulate material from the gasflow
    • F23J15/025Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material for removing solid particulate material from the gasflow using filters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/02Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material
    • F23J15/04Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material using washing fluids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2202/00Combustion
    • F23G2202/10Combustion in two or more stages
    • F23G2202/103Combustion in two or more stages in separate chambers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2204/00Supplementary heating arrangements
    • F23G2204/10Supplementary heating arrangements using auxiliary fuel
    • F23G2204/103Supplementary heating arrangements using auxiliary fuel gaseous or liquid fuel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2206/00Waste heat recuperation
    • F23G2206/20Waste heat recuperation using the heat in association with another installation
    • F23G2206/203Waste heat recuperation using the heat in association with another installation with a power/heat generating installation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2209/00Specific waste
    • F23G2209/10Liquid waste
    • F23G2209/101Waste liquor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2217/00Intercepting solids
    • F23J2217/10Intercepting solids by filters
    • F23J2217/104High temperature resistant (ceramic) type
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/12Heat utilisation in combustion or incineration of waste

Abstract

The invention discloses a hazardous waste treatment system and a process, wherein the hazardous waste treatment system is obliquely arranged in a rotary kiln incinerator, a secondary combustion chamber, a waste heat boiler, a cyclone dust collector, a quench tower, an alkali wash tower and a bag-type dust collector are sequentially arranged in the flow direction of flue gas arranged at a flue gas outlet of the rotary kiln incinerator; the inlet end of the rotary kiln incinerator is higher than the outlet end, the furnace wall in the rotary kiln incinerator is provided with a fire grate, the fire grate is formed by arranging and staggering a plurality of inclined rod-shaped structures, the bottom of the kiln head at the inlet of the rotary kiln is provided with two combustors, the two combustors are provided with a pressure pump and an air supply device, and the combustors are connected with a gas source; a water spray layer is arranged in the quench tower and is connected with a water pump; an atomizing nozzle is arranged in the alkaline tower and connected with an alkaline pump. The invention can simultaneously treat various solid, semi-solid and liquid hazardous wastes, has wide application range and complete treatment and can recover the waste heat.

Description

Hazardous waste treatment system and process
Technical Field
The invention relates to a hazardous waste treatment system and a hazardous waste treatment process.
Background
The information in this background section is only for enhancement of understanding of the general background of the invention and is not necessarily to be construed as an admission or any form of suggestion that this information forms the prior art that is already known to a person of ordinary skill in the art.
The hazardous waste treatment system is characterized in that hazardous wastes generated by chemical enterprises are various in types, and are divided into solid hazardous wastes, semi-solid hazardous wastes, liquid hazardous wastes and the like according to the state of the hazardous wastes, the multi-state hazardous wastes are difficult to treat, and the inventor finds that the common hazardous waste treatment system is lack of adaptability and flexibility for the multi-state hazardous waste treatment, wherein an incinerator is not completely combusted, and smoke generated by combustion easily causes secondary pollution; and the common dangerous waste treatment system is difficult to treat the dangerous waste containing chlorine and sulfur.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the defects of the prior art, the invention aims to provide a hazardous waste treatment system and process, which can treat various solid, semi-solid and liquid hazardous wastes simultaneously, have wide application range and complete treatment and can recover waste heat.
In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
on one hand, the hazardous waste treatment system is obliquely provided with a rotary kiln incinerator, and a flue gas outlet of the rotary kiln incinerator is provided with a secondary combustion chamber, a waste heat boiler, a cyclone dust collector, a quench tower, an alkali wash tower and a bag-type dust collector in sequence in the flow direction of flue gas;
the inlet end of the rotary kiln incinerator is higher than the outlet end of the rotary kiln incinerator, the furnace wall of the rotary kiln incinerator is provided with a fire grate, the fire grate is formed by arranging and staggering a plurality of inclined rod-shaped structures, the bottom of the kiln head at the inlet of the rotary kiln is provided with two combustors, the two combustors are provided with a pressure pump and an air supply device, and the combustors are connected with a gas source;
a water spraying layer is arranged in the quenching tower and is connected with a water pump;
and an atomizing spray head is arranged in the alkaline tower and is connected with an alkaline pump.
Aiming at the problem of incomplete combustion of an incinerator, the bottom of the kiln head is provided with the combustor, the combustor is provided with the air supply device, air is sprayed upwards from the bottom of the kiln head, hazardous waste is fully mixed with oxygen in the air in the process of falling into the rotary kiln, materials are promoted to be stirred and mixed in the kiln by means of rotation of the kiln, the materials are fully contacted with combustion-supporting air in the combustion process, and the whole process of drying, combustion and burnout is completed. Secondly, the inventor finds that solid hazardous waste, semi-solid hazardous waste and liquid hazardous waste are treated at the same time, ash is easy to generate, the rod-shaped fire grates are arranged in a staggered mode, and meanwhile, fuel gas is sprayed upwards from the bottom of the kiln head, so that the hazardous waste can be combusted more completely, meanwhile, an incinerator grate furnace is cooled, the ash is effectively prevented from being formed, and the method can be suitable for treating various kinds of garbage; meanwhile, the phenomena of corrosion of the material of the inner wall of the rotary kiln and wall adhesion of molten ash are reduced, the service life of the kiln body is prolonged, and the maintenance time is shortened. The invention also discloses a method for treating the solid-state hazardous waste, the semi-solid hazardous waste and the liquid-state hazardous waste simultaneously, which is characterized in that a cyclone dust collector is arranged between the waste heat boiler and the quenching tower, so that the solid particles in the combustion flue gas can be greatly reduced, the gas can be cleaned, the dust content brought into the quenching tower can be reduced, and the operation condition and the quenching effect of the quenching tower can be improved.
On the other hand, the hazardous waste treatment process provides the hazardous waste treatment system, solid hazardous waste, semi-solid hazardous waste and/or liquid hazardous waste are added into the rotary kiln incinerator, in the process that solid hazardous waste, semi-solid hazardous waste and/or liquid hazardous waste fall to the rotary kiln incinerator, the hazardous waste is fully mixed with oxygen in air, the hazardous waste completes the whole process of drying, burning and burning out in the rotary kiln incinerator, the flue gas after burning in the rotary kiln incinerator is mixed with hot air and enters a secondary combustion chamber for secondary combustion, the flue gas after secondary combustion enters a waste heat boiler for waste heat recovery, the flue gas after waste heat recovery is subjected to solid particle removal through a cyclone dust collector, and (3) entering a quench tower for quenching and cooling, carrying out semi-dry deacidification and wet acid absorption on the quenched and cooled flue gas in an alkaline tower to remove acid gas in the flue gas, and then dedusting by using a bag-type dust remover.
The invention can avoid the bonding of the flue gas with water in the cloth bag by using the semi-dry deacidification and the wet acid absorption. The corrosion of the acidic gas in the flue gas to the bag type dust collector can be reduced.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the rotary kiln incinerator is provided with the fire grate, and the air inlet arranged at the bottom of the rotary kiln incinerator can simultaneously treat various solid, semi-solid and liquid hazardous wastes.
2. The invention adopts semi-dry deacidification and wet acid absorption to avoid the bonding of the flue gas with water in the cloth bag, and simultaneously can ensure that the tail gas reaches the standard and is discharged.
3. The waste heat boiler is arranged, so that waste heat recovery can be performed on high-temperature flue gas, and energy conservation and consumption reduction are realized.
4. According to the invention, the cyclone dust collector is arranged between the waste heat boiler and the quench tower, so that solid particles in flue gas generated by processing solid hazardous waste, semi-solid hazardous waste and liquid hazardous waste can be reduced, and the quench effect of the quench tower is improved.
5. The system resistance of the invention is less than 1800Pa, and the deacidification efficiency is more than 99.9 percent. After the flue gas is purified by a series of physical and chemical processes, the pollutants reach the standard and are discharged. In order to reduce energy consumption and pollutant discharge, the incineration system is provided with a waste heat boiler to recover waste heat, and the generated steam is merged into a steam pipe network and incinerated by the waste heat boiler to be utilized to the maximum extent, thereby saving energy and reducing consumption.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, are included to provide a further understanding of the invention, and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate exemplary embodiments of the invention and together with the description serve to explain the invention and not to limit the invention.
FIG. 1 is a process flow diagram of a hazardous waste treatment process in example 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a radial cross-sectional structure of the rotary kiln of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the radial cross-section of the kiln head of the rotary kiln of the present invention;
wherein, 1, a fire grate, 2, a kiln head, 3 and a spray head.
Detailed Description
It is to be understood that the following detailed description is exemplary and is intended to provide further explanation of the invention as claimed. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs.
It is noted that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of exemplary embodiments according to the invention. As used herein, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" are intended to include the plural forms as well, and it should be understood that when the terms "comprises" and/or "comprising" are used in this specification, they specify the presence of stated features, steps, operations, devices, components, and/or combinations thereof, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.
In view of the defect that the conventional common hazardous waste treatment system is difficult to treat solid hazardous waste, semi-solid hazardous waste and liquid hazardous waste simultaneously, the invention provides a hazardous waste treatment system and a hazardous waste treatment process.
The invention provides a typical embodiment mode and provides a hazardous waste treatment system, wherein the hazardous waste treatment system is obliquely arranged on a rotary kiln incinerator, a flue gas outlet of the rotary kiln incinerator is provided with a secondary combustion chamber, a waste heat boiler, a cyclone dust collector, a quench tower, an alkaline tower and a bag-type dust collector in sequence in the flow direction of flue gas;
the inlet end of the rotary kiln incinerator is higher than the outlet end of the rotary kiln incinerator, the furnace wall of the rotary kiln incinerator is provided with a fire grate, the fire grate is formed by arranging and staggering a plurality of inclined rod-shaped structures, the bottom of the kiln head at the inlet of the rotary kiln is provided with two combustors, the two combustors are provided with a pressure pump and an air supply device, and the combustors are connected with a gas source;
a water spraying layer is arranged in the quenching tower and is connected with a water pump;
and an atomizing spray head is arranged in the alkaline tower and is connected with an alkaline pump.
The bottom of the kiln head is provided with the burner which is provided with the air supply device to enable air to be upwards sprayed from the bottom of the kiln head, so that hazardous waste is fully mixed with oxygen in the air in the process of falling into the rotary kiln, materials are promoted to be stirred and mixed in the kiln by means of the rotation of the kiln, the materials are fully contacted with combustion-supporting air in the combustion process, and the whole process of drying, combustion and burnout is completed. Secondly, the staggered rod-shaped fire grates are arranged, and meanwhile, fuel gas is sprayed upwards from the bottom of the kiln head, so that hazardous waste can be combusted more completely, meanwhile, the incinerator fire grate furnace is cooled, ash residues are effectively prevented from being formed, and the incinerator is suitable for treating various kinds of garbage; meanwhile, the phenomena of corrosion of the material of the inner wall of the rotary kiln and wall adhesion of molten ash are reduced, the service life of the kiln body is prolonged, and the maintenance time is shortened. And thirdly, the cyclone dust collector is arranged between the waste heat boiler and the quenching tower, so that solid particles and clean gas in the combustion flue gas can be greatly reduced, the dust content brought into the quenching tower is reduced, and the operation condition and the quenching effect of the quenching tower are favorably improved.
In some examples of this embodiment, the quench tower is provided with a gas phase inlet in the lower side wall and a gas phase outlet at the top. Is favorable for improving the quenching effect of the quenching tower.
In some examples of this embodiment, a demister is installed between the caustic tower and the bag-type dust collector. Further removing water and trace acid gas in the flue gas, avoiding sticking a wet cloth bag, increasing the running resistance of the bag type dust collector and shortening the running period.
In some examples of this embodiment, an activated carbon absorber is installed between the caustic tower and the bag-type dust collector. Further removing water and trace acid gas in the flue gas, avoiding sticking wet cloth bags, increasing the running resistance of the bag type dust collector and shortening the running period.
In some examples of this embodiment, a demister and an activated carbon absorption unit are sequentially installed between the caustic tower and the bag-type dust collector. The effect of removing water and trace acid gas in the flue gas is better.
In some embodiments of this embodiment, the bottom of the alkaline washing tower is provided with an alkaline solution tank, a pH meter is arranged in the alkaline solution tank, an inlet of the alkaline solution pump is connected with the alkaline solution tank, and an outlet of the alkaline solution pump is connected with the atomizing nozzle. And a PH meter is utilized to monitor the alkali liquor concentration of the circulating water in real time, so that the optimal effect of acid absorption is ensured.
In another embodiment of the invention, a hazardous waste treatment process is provided, the hazardous waste treatment system is provided, solid hazardous waste, semi-solid hazardous waste and/or liquid hazardous waste are added into a rotary kiln incinerator, in the process that the solid hazardous waste, the semi-solid hazardous waste and/or the liquid hazardous waste fall into the rotary kiln incinerator, the hazardous waste is fully mixed with oxygen in air, the hazardous waste completes the whole process of drying, burning and burning out in the rotary kiln incinerator, flue gas after the rotary kiln incinerator is burnt is mixed with hot air and enters a secondary combustion chamber for secondary combustion, flue gas after the secondary combustion enters a waste heat boiler for waste heat recovery, flue gas after the waste heat recovery passes through a cyclone dust collector to remove solid particles, enters a quench tower for quenching cooling, the flue gas after quenching cooling is subjected to semi-dry deacidification and wet acid absorption in an alkaline tower to remove acid gas in the flue gas, then the dust is removed by a bag-type dust remover.
The invention can avoid the bonding of the flue gas with water in the cloth bag by using the semi-dry deacidification and the wet acid absorption. The corrosion of the acidic gas in the flue gas to the bag type dust collector can be reduced.
In some examples of the embodiment, the rotary kiln incinerator adopts negative pressure combustion, and the combustion temperature is 850-950 ℃. The generation of nitrogen oxides is reduced.
In some examples of the embodiment, the residence time of the ash in the kiln is 30-20 min. Ensuring that the thermal ignition loss of the slag is less than 5 percent.
In some examples of this embodiment, the combustion temperature in the secondary chamber is not less than 1100 ℃, the residence time is not less than 2s, and the oxygen content is 6-10%. Sufficiently decompose odor and polychlorinated compounds, and inhibit the generation of dioxin.
In some embodiments of the embodiment, the flue gas temperature of the flue gas inlet of the waste heat boiler is not lower than 1100 ℃, and the flue gas temperature of the flue gas outlet of the waste heat boiler is 550 +/-10 ℃.
In some embodiments of the embodiment, the temperature of the flue gas at the gas phase outlet of the quenching tower is 190-200 ℃. Can inhibit the regeneration of dioxin.
In some examples of this embodiment, the process for removing acid gases in the caustic tower is: and atomizing the alkali liquor, contacting the atomized alkali liquor with the flue gas, and simultaneously cooling the flue gas to 75-85 ℃ for discharge. The alkali liquor and the acid gas react to generate salt to remove the acid gas, and simultaneously, the temperature of the flue gas is further reduced, so that the moisture in the flue gas is condensed and discharged, and the flue gas deacidification process is also a drying process.
In some examples of this embodiment, the acidic gas in the flue gas is removed, and then the flue gas is subjected to demisting and/or activated carbon adsorption, and then subjected to dust removal by a bag-type dust remover.
In order to make the technical solutions of the present invention more clearly understood by those skilled in the art, the technical solutions of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to specific embodiments.
Example 1
The utility model provides a useless processing system of danger, the rotary kiln burns burning furnace slope installation, and the flow direction that the smoke outlet installation flue gas of rotary kiln burnt burning furnace installs second combustion chamber, exhaust-heat boiler, cyclone, quench tower, alkali wash tower, defroster, active carbon adsorber, sack cleaner in proper order. The material inlet of the rotary kiln incinerator is provided with a feeding machine matched with the material inlet.
The inlet end of the rotary kiln incinerator is higher than the outlet end, a fire grate is arranged in the rotary kiln incinerator, and as shown in figure 2, the fire grate 1 is formed by arranging and staggering a plurality of inclined rod-shaped structures.
As shown in fig. 3, two burners are arranged at the bottom of the kiln inlet head 2 of the rotary kiln, one burner is an auxiliary burner, and the other burner is a long flame burner. The combustor is from taking force (forcing) pump and air supply fan, the air feed pump of system carries the entry of combustor pump with the gas, then pressurize to 1.2 ~ 2.4Mpa by the combustor pump, through the shower nozzle blowout, mix with the primary air that the combustor fan bloated into, the completion is lighted, the overall process of burning and ashes, every combustor is furnished with two sets of pressure atomizing shower nozzles, the jet capacity of combustor shower nozzle can be adjusted through the output pressure of regulating pump, because of hydrogen is lighter, automatic upward movement, can fully burn, vaporific spout in, make the grate temperature unlikely too high simultaneously. The included angle between the directions of the two burner nozzles 3 is not more than 120 degrees.
The fuel of the burner adopts fuel gas (mainly containing H) generated by a pulverized coal pressurized gasification furnace297.01%). Is conveyed to an incinerator through a pipelineThe burner is sprayed into the furnace to support combustion. When the calorific value of the waste is higher and the incineration temperature reaches a set value, the auxiliary burner is flamed out; when the heat value of the waste is lower, the auxiliary burner automatically adjusts the auxiliary combustion according to the size of the fire.
The lateral wall of the lower part of the quenching tower is provided with a gas phase inlet, the top of the quenching tower is provided with a gas phase outlet, the quenching tower is internally provided with a water spraying layer, the bottom of the quenching tower is provided with a water collecting tank, the water spraying layer is connected with the outlet of a water pump, and the inlet of the water pump is connected with a cold water source.
Install atomizer in the alkaline tower, alkaline tower bottom sets up the lye pond, sets up the pH meter in the lye pond, and the access connection lye pond of alkali lye pump, the exit linkage atomizer of alkali lye pump.
The process flow, as shown in figure 1, comprises the following steps: hazardous wastes are sent into the kiln through a feeding machine and move backwards in the kiln by means of the inclination of the kiln cylinder and the rotation of the kiln. The rotary kiln is provided with an air supply port at the kiln head, so that in the falling process of wastes, the materials are fully mixed with oxygen in the air, and the materials are promoted to be stirred and mixed in the kiln by means of the rotation of the kiln, so that the materials are fully contacted with combustion-supporting air in the combustion process, and the whole process of drying, combustion and burnout is completed. The rotary kiln adopts negative pressure combustion, the burning temperature is controlled at 850-950 ℃, and the generation of nitrogen oxides is reduced. The waste ash stays in the kiln for 30-120 minutes, and the thermal ignition loss of the slag is ensured to be less than 5%. The flue gas generated by the rotary kiln and hot air are mixed and enter a secondary combustion chamber for secondary combustion. The secondary combustion air (secondary air) forms an imaginary circle at the center of the secondary combustion chamber, the smoke forms spiral rising under the driving of the secondary air, the flowing stroke of the smoke is lengthened, the hearth space of the secondary combustion chamber is fully utilized, and the retention time of the smoke in the secondary combustion chamber is prolonged. The designed combustion temperature of the secondary combustion chamber is more than or equal to 1100 ℃, the retention time is more than or equal to 2 seconds, the oxygen content of the flue gas is 6-10%, the odor and polychlorinated compounds are fully decomposed, and the generation of dioxin is inhibited. The device receives waste which is subjected to incineration treatment and has a chlorine content of less than 5%, and a waste heat boiler is arranged for recovering heat from high-temperature flue gas discharged from the secondary combustion chamber. The temperature section for recovering and utilizing the waste heat is 1100-550 ℃. The flue gas from the waste heat boiler enters the cyclone dust collector and rotates from top to bottom along the outer wall, and when most of the rotating airflow reachesAfter the bottom of the cone rotates upwards to rotate along the axis, and finally the air is discharged through the exhaust pipe. The flue gas temperature after being treated by the cyclone dust collector is 550 ℃, the flue gas enters the quenching tower from the upper part, cooling water is sprayed into the quenching tower from bottom to top to perform countercurrent heat exchange with the flue gas, and as the process is direct spray cooling, the flue gas temperature is very high, water is immediately (instantly) evaporated, so that the flue gas is quenched from 550 ℃ to below 200 ℃, a temperature section for synthesizing dioxin can be avoided, and the aim of inhibiting the regeneration of the dioxin is fulfilled. And the flue gas out of the quenching tower enters an alkaline washing tower for deacidification. The alkali liquor pump with variable frequency regulation sprays atomized 10% (mass fraction) NaOH solution through a double-flow spray head, and the spraying amount is automatically controlled according to an outlet flue gas temperature monitoring system. SO in alkali liquor and flue gas2And acid gases such as HCl to form Na2SO3NaCl and the like, and the temperature of the flue gas is reduced from 200 ℃ to 80 ℃. And due to the further reduction of the temperature of the flue gas, the moisture in the flue gas is condensed and discharged from the bottom of the alkaline washing tower and sent to a sewage treatment station for treatment. And demisting the flue gas discharged from the alkaline tower by a demister, adsorbing by an activated carbon adsorber, conveying to a bag-type dust remover for dust removal, and finally discharging through a chimney with the height of 35 m.
Before dangerous waste is fed, waste matching is needed to ensure that an incineration system stably runs up to the standard, an operator firstly matches the waste according to a compatibility principle, components and heat values of dangerous waste, and if necessary, a combustion improver can be introduced into the rotary kiln to achieve a stable combustion state, so that the heat value of the incinerated dangerous waste reaches a relatively stable state (the average heat value is about 3500 Kcal/Kg). After proportioning, the mixture is introduced into a rotary kiln for incineration.
By adopting the process, the combustion efficiency of the hazardous waste is more than or equal to 99.9 percent, the system resistance is less than 1800Pa, and the deacidification efficiency is more than 99.9 percent.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention and is not intended to limit the present invention, and various modifications and changes may be made by those skilled in the art. Any modification, equivalent replacement, or improvement made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. A hazardous waste treatment system is characterized in that the hazardous waste treatment system is obliquely provided with a rotary kiln incinerator, and a flue gas outlet of the rotary kiln incinerator is provided with a secondary combustion chamber, a waste heat boiler, a cyclone dust collector, a quench tower, an alkali wash tower and a bag-type dust collector in sequence in the flow direction of flue gas;
the inlet end of the rotary kiln incinerator is higher than the outlet end of the rotary kiln incinerator, the furnace wall of the rotary kiln incinerator is provided with a fire grate, the fire grate is formed by arranging and staggering a plurality of inclined rod-shaped structures, the bottom of the kiln head at the inlet of the rotary kiln is provided with two combustors, the two combustors are provided with a pressure pump and an air supply device, and the combustors are connected with a gas source;
a water spraying layer is arranged in the quenching tower and is connected with a water pump;
and an atomizing spray head is arranged in the alkaline tower and is connected with an alkaline pump.
2. The hazardous waste treatment system of claim 1, wherein the quench tower is provided with a gas inlet on the lower side wall and a gas outlet on the top.
3. The hazardous waste treatment system according to claim 1, wherein a demister is installed between the caustic tower and the bag-type dust collector;
or an active carbon absorption device is arranged between the alkaline washing tower and the bag-type dust collector;
or a demister and an active carbon absorption device are sequentially arranged between the alkaline tower and the bag-type dust collector.
4. The hazardous waste treatment system according to claim 1, wherein an alkaline solution tank is arranged at the bottom of the alkaline washing tower, a pH meter is arranged in the alkaline solution tank, an inlet of an alkaline solution pump is connected with the alkaline solution tank, and an outlet of the alkaline solution pump is connected with the atomizing spray head.
5. A hazardous waste treatment process is characterized in that a hazardous waste treatment system according to any one of claims 1 to 4 is provided, solid hazardous waste, semi-solid hazardous waste and/or liquid hazardous waste are/is added into a rotary kiln incinerator, in the process that the solid hazardous waste, the semi-solid hazardous waste and/or the liquid hazardous waste fall into the rotary kiln incinerator, the hazardous waste is fully mixed with oxygen in air, the hazardous waste is dried, combusted and burned in the rotary kiln incinerator to complete the whole process of drying, combustion and burning, flue gas generated after combustion in the rotary kiln incinerator is mixed with hot air and enters a secondary combustion chamber for secondary combustion, flue gas generated after secondary combustion enters a waste heat boiler for waste heat recovery, the flue gas generated after waste heat recovery is subjected to solid particle removal through a cyclone dust collector and then enters a quench tower for quench cooling, the flue gas subjected to quench cooling is subjected to semi-dry deacidification and wet acid absorption in an alkaline tower to remove acid gas in the, then the dust is removed by a bag-type dust remover.
6. The hazardous waste treatment process as claimed in claim 5, wherein the rotary kiln incinerator adopts negative pressure combustion, and the combustion temperature is 850-950 ℃;
or the retention time of the ash in the kiln is 30-20 min.
7. The hazardous waste treatment process according to claim 5, wherein the combustion temperature in the secondary chamber is not lower than 1100 ℃, the retention time is not lower than 2s, and the oxygen content is 6-10%.
8. The hazardous waste treatment process as claimed in claim 5, wherein the flue gas temperature at the flue gas inlet of the waste heat boiler is not lower than 1100 ℃, and the flue gas temperature at the flue gas outlet of the waste heat boiler is 550 +/-10 ℃;
or the temperature of the flue gas at the gas phase outlet of the quenching tower is 190-200 ℃.
9. The hazardous waste treatment process according to claim 5, wherein the acid gas removal process in the caustic tower comprises: and atomizing the alkali liquor, contacting the atomized alkali liquor with the flue gas, and simultaneously cooling the flue gas to 75-85 ℃ for discharge.
10. The hazardous waste treatment process according to claim 5, wherein after removing the acid gas in the flue gas, a bag-type dust remover is used for removing dust after demisting and/or activated carbon adsorption.
CN202010915556.9A 2020-09-03 2020-09-03 Hazardous waste treatment system and process Pending CN112128769A (en)

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CN107676796A (en) * 2017-09-21 2018-02-09 北京汉能清源科技有限公司 A kind of oxygen-enriched burning of dewatered sludge and cement kiln synergic processing device of sludge and method
CN107954565A (en) * 2016-10-17 2018-04-24 宁波华清环保技术有限公司 A kind of chemical-industrial emissions total system

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CN102410543A (en) * 2011-03-18 2012-04-11 江苏宏图洁环保工程设备有限公司 Incinerator special for organosilicon waste residue slurry
CN103363531A (en) * 2013-07-08 2013-10-23 上海灿州环境工程有限公司 Whole-set hazardous waste incinerator device
CN104315521A (en) * 2014-10-14 2015-01-28 史惠元 Horizontal rotary gasification furnace with wheel encircling grate
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN114110622A (en) * 2021-11-06 2022-03-01 江苏百纳环保设备有限公司 Collaborative incineration method for drying salt-containing water

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