CN111609406A - Method for treating domestic garbage - Google Patents

Method for treating domestic garbage Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111609406A
CN111609406A CN202010539980.8A CN202010539980A CN111609406A CN 111609406 A CN111609406 A CN 111609406A CN 202010539980 A CN202010539980 A CN 202010539980A CN 111609406 A CN111609406 A CN 111609406A
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China
Prior art keywords
gas
flue gas
temperature
fly ash
treatment
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Inventor
李建辉
易丹
易双
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Family Firm More Technical Service Hunan Co ltd
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Family Firm More Technical Service Hunan Co ltd
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Priority to CN202010539980.8A priority Critical patent/CN111609406A/en
Publication of CN111609406A publication Critical patent/CN111609406A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/027Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D50/00Combinations of methods or devices for separating particles from gases or vapours
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/48Sulfur compounds
    • B01D53/50Sulfur oxides
    • B01D53/501Sulfur oxides by treating the gases with a solution or a suspension of an alkali or earth-alkali or ammonium compound
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/48Sulfur compounds
    • B01D53/52Hydrogen sulfide
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/54Nitrogen compounds
    • B01D53/56Nitrogen oxides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/62Carbon oxides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/74General processes for purification of waste gases; Apparatus or devices specially adapted therefor
    • B01D53/77Liquid phase processes
    • B01D53/78Liquid phase processes with gas-liquid contact
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/033Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment comminuting or crushing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/04Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment drying
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/08Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having supplementary heating
    • F23G5/085High-temperature heating means, e.g. plasma, for partly melting the waste
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/44Details; Accessories
    • F23G5/46Recuperation of heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G7/00Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, e.g. chemicals
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/02Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/02Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material
    • F23J15/022Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material for removing solid particulate material from the gasflow
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/02Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material
    • F23J15/022Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material for removing solid particulate material from the gasflow
    • F23J15/025Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material for removing solid particulate material from the gasflow using filters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/02Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material
    • F23J15/04Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material using washing fluids
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2251/00Reactants
    • B01D2251/20Reductants
    • B01D2251/206Ammonium compounds
    • B01D2251/2067Urea
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2257/00Components to be removed
    • B01D2257/50Carbon oxides
    • B01D2257/504Carbon dioxide
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2258/00Sources of waste gases
    • B01D2258/02Other waste gases
    • B01D2258/0283Flue gases
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/10Drying by heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/30Pyrolysing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/30Pyrolysing
    • F23G2201/303Burning pyrogases
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/30Pyrolysing
    • F23G2201/304Burning pyrosolids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/60Separating
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/80Shredding
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2204/00Supplementary heating arrangements
    • F23G2204/20Supplementary heating arrangements using electric energy
    • F23G2204/201Plasma
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2206/00Waste heat recuperation
    • F23G2206/20Waste heat recuperation using the heat in association with another installation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2215/00Preventing emissions
    • F23J2215/10Nitrogen; Compounds thereof
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2215/00Preventing emissions
    • F23J2215/50Carbon dioxide
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2217/00Intercepting solids
    • F23J2217/10Intercepting solids by filters
    • F23J2217/101Baghouse type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2219/00Treatment devices
    • F23J2219/30Sorption devices using carbon, e.g. coke
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2700/00Ash removal, handling and treatment means; Ash and slag handling in pulverulent fuel furnaces; Ash removal means for incinerators
    • F23J2700/003Ash removal means for incinerators
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/32Direct CO2 mitigation

Abstract

The invention provides a method for treating household garbage, and belongs to the technical field of garbage treatment. The method provided by the invention comprises the following steps: step A), pyrolyzing and gasifying the household garbage to generate combustible gas, and performing secondary combustion on the combustible gas to generate fly ash and high-temperature flue gas; step B), discharging the high-temperature flue gas after heat exchange, nitrogen oxide removal, deacidification, adsorption and dust removal; and C), pyrolyzing and gasifying the household garbage to generate slag, and burning the fly ash at high temperature to prepare the fly ash and the slag into a cement raw material. The resources (carbon dioxide and heat) after the domestic garbage treatment are recycled, so that the resource utilization rate is improved; the fly ash obtained after the domestic garbage treatment is subjected to high-temperature combustion, so that the discharge of secondary pollutants is avoided.

Description

Method for treating domestic garbage
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of garbage treatment, in particular to a method for treating household garbage.
Background
At present, urban garbage in various countries in the world is mainly treated by landfill, composting, incineration, pyrolysis gasification and the like. Secondary pollution to soil, underground water and air environment is easily caused by landfill, and the ecological environment is damaged; the compost is similar to a landfill mode, and can generate toxic gas and penetrating fluid and cause secondary pollution; the burning easily causes the appearance of sulfides, dust and even carcinogenic dioxin in the air, and has serious air pollution; pyrolysis gasification is a relatively important treatment mode at present, and a large amount of gas and ash residues are still generated after pyrolysis gasification, so that a new treatment mode is required to be adopted for solving the problem.
Aiming at the situation that the domestic garbage in cities and rural areas of China is not subjected to a classification system vigorously and various garbage are mixed, a treatment method suitable for the national conditions of China is needed to be provided.
CN201610814339.4 discloses a garbage cleaning treatment process, which takes mixed gas of air and water vapor as a gasifying agent and domestic garbage as raw materials, and generates gasification reduction reaction under the condition of high temperature to generate energy-saving and environment-friendly equipment taking alkane gas and hydrogen as main combustible components, so that the organic combination of good oxygen-enriched combustion of the current garbage pyrolysis gasification can be realized, and the requirement of garbage pyrolysis gasification incineration can be met.
CN201710814793.4 discloses a large-scale domestic garbage pyrolysis gasification process, which comprises the following steps: after the household garbage is conveyed to the garbage pit, the household garbage is grabbed to the top of the pyrolysis gasification furnace by the grab bucket, the household garbage is loaded into a pyrolysis gasification tank in the pyrolysis gasification furnace through the loading device, the household garbage is pyrolyzed and gasified in the tank, and ash residues after pyrolysis gasification are loaded into the ash tank through the discharging device and then are transported outwards. The heat required by the pyrolysis gasification tank is transferred from a combustion chamber in the pyrolysis gasification furnace through a partition wall, and the high-temperature flue gas in the combustion chamber is discharged into the atmosphere after passing through devices such as waste heat utilization and purification.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides a method for treating domestic garbage, which improves the treatment efficiency of the pyrolysis and gasification of the domestic garbage, controls the emission of secondary pollution and tail gas, recycles the heat in the treatment process, reduces the transportation and treatment cost and realizes the harmless and quantitative reduction treatment of the domestic garbage by optimizing the tail gas and fly ash treatment process after the pyrolysis and gasification.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
in one aspect, the invention provides a method for treating domestic garbage, which comprises the following steps:
step A), pyrolyzing and gasifying the household garbage to generate combustible gas, and performing secondary combustion on the combustible gas to generate fly ash and high-temperature flue gas;
step B), discharging the high-temperature flue gas after heat exchange, nitrogen oxide removal, deacidification, adsorption and dust removal;
and C), pyrolyzing and gasifying the household garbage to generate slag, and burning the fly ash at high temperature to prepare the fly ash and the slag into a cement raw material.
Further, the pretreatment process in the step A) is as follows:
i) crushing the household garbage, performing magnetic separation pretreatment, and recovering recyclable substances;
ii) drying the crushed household garbage to enable the water content to be lower than 20%.
Further, the pyrolysis temperature in the step A) is 500-900 ℃; the pyrolysis gasification is subjected to anoxic pyrolysis and oxygen-enriched combustion processes. For the specific pyrolysis gasification process, reference is made to the prior art.
Further, the temperature of secondary combustion in the step A) is 850-1100 ℃, and the temperature of the high-temperature flue gas is 800-1100 ℃.
Further, the heat exchange process in the step B) is as follows: sending the high-temperature flue gas into a waste heat steam boiler for primary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 400 ℃ within 2-5 s; and the high-temperature flue gas is sent into a waste heat hot water boiler for secondary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 200 ℃ within 2-5 s.
Further, the nitrogen oxide removal process in the step B) is as follows: and (3) carrying out reverse alternating current reaction on the flue gas flow and the urea aqueous solution in a first wire mesh capture bed device of the urea absorption tower to realize removal of nitrogen oxides. The flue gas enters the first screen capture device after being cooled, the moving track and the moving state of the flue gas are forcibly changed by the screen, and the flue gas reacts with the urea aqueous solution atomized into small drops to form nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water, and the removal rate reaches over 75 percent.
Further, the deacidification process in the step B) is as follows: and the flue gas subjected to nitrogen oxide removal and the alkali liquor are subjected to reverse exchange reaction in a second wire mesh capture bed device of the deacidification tower to remove the acid gas. The flue gas enters a second screen capture bed device after being cooled, the running track and running state of the flue gas are forcibly changed by a screen, and the flue gas and the alkali liquor atomized into small liquid drops undergo acid-base neutralization reaction to form a neutral salt solution, and the removal rate reaches over 82%.
Further, the adsorption process in step B) is as follows: the deacidified flue gas is forced to change the running track and running state of the air flow by an active carbon capture bed device, so that the odor is removed by the active carbon adsorption.
Further, the dust removal process in step B) is as follows: the flue gas after adsorption treatment enters a bag-type dust collector and a wet-type electric precipitator to collect fly ash, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 60 ℃, and the dust content is reduced to 4mg/m3The following。
Further, the waste liquid generated in the processes of removing nitric oxide, deacidifying and wet-type electric precipitator is recycled after sewage treatment.
Further, the disposal of the emissions in step B) may be varied: the first method is as follows: directly discharging the flue gas subjected to dust removal treatment; the second method comprises the following steps: discharging the flue gas subjected to dust removal treatment into a carbon dioxide catcher, and discharging the carbon dioxide after catching the carbon dioxide by using a physical or chemical method; the third method comprises the following steps: and directly discharging the flue gas subjected to dust removal treatment into the microalgae cultivating device, performing cleaning treatment again by adopting a photobiological mode, and then directly discharging. Further, the carbon dioxide obtained in the second mode can be directly discharged into the microalgae cultivating device for use.
Further, the fly ash source in step C) is as follows: the method comprises the following steps: step A) fly ash produced by secondary combustion; and (2) source II: fly ash obtained after dust removal treatment; and (3) source III: the fly ash is obtained after the sludge generated by the wet electric dust collector is dried.
Further, the high-temperature combustion in the step C) adopts a plasma jet gun to generate a combustion flame. Further, the temperature of the central point of the combustion flame reaches more than 1600 ℃. Further, the energy and gas of the plasma spray gun come from a high-temperature plasma generator and a microwave generator. And further, cooling the fly ash after high-temperature combustion to obtain a vitreous body, and crushing the vitreous body to prepare the cement raw material.
Further, the flue gas generated in the high-temperature combustion process in the step C) and cold air are subjected to gas-gas heat exchange, and the obtained cold air enters the step A) for recycling; and D) performing electrostatic dust collection on the obtained hot air, and then performing discharge treatment in the step B).
Further, the energy obtained after the heat exchange in the step B) is used for cultivating microalgae; and C) the energy obtained by heat exchange in the step C) is used for pyrolysis and gasification. Further, the method comprises the following specific steps:
the method comprises the following steps: regarding the pyrolysis gasification of the waste:
1) crushing the household garbage, performing magnetic separation pretreatment, and recovering recyclable substances;
2) drying the crushed household garbage to enable the water content to be lower than 20%;
3) uniformly feeding the household garbage into a gasification furnace for pyrolysis gasification, wherein the adopted pyrolysis temperature is 500-900 ℃, and combustible gas and furnace slag are generated by pyrolysis; crushing the slag to obtain cement material;
step two: regarding the treatment of combustible gas:
4) sending the combustible gas into a secondary combustion chamber for secondary combustion, wherein the temperature of the secondary combustion is 850-1100 ℃;
5) discharging fly ash generated after secondary combustion; sending the high-temperature flue gas with the temperature of 800-; the high-temperature flue gas is sent into a waste heat hot water boiler for secondary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 200 ℃ within 2-5 s; energy generated by the two heat exchange treatments is used for outsourcing;
6) the flue gas after heat exchange reacts with urea to remove nitrogen oxides in the flue gas; in the urea absorption tower, the flue gas flows upwards from a first gas distribution and liquid discharge device inlet at the bottom of the urea absorption tower, and then flows through a first cold energy exchange device for exchange cooling, a first wire mesh capturing bed device for capturing, a first atomized liquid spraying device for atomized spraying, a first gas-liquid separation device for separating gas, the purified flue gas flow and the hydrate accelerant which is atomized and sprayed are reversely communicated, urea and nitrogen oxide react in the first wire mesh capturing bed device, and carbon dioxide and dust are captured; the residual smoke components which are not captured continue to upwards pass through a first gas-liquid separation device at the upper part in the urea absorption tower for separation, liquid is downwards along the inner wall of the urea absorption tower, gas is continuously discharged through a first gas discharge pressure regulating valve at the top of the urea absorption tower, and the continuously discharged gas flow enters the next step;
7) the flue gas from which nitrogen oxides are removed enters a deacidification tower, the flue gas flows upwards from a second gas distribution and liquid discharge device at the bottom of the deacidification tower in the deacidification tower and flows through a second wire bed capturing bed device for capturing, a second atomized liquid spray device for atomized spraying, a second gas-liquid separation device for separating gas, and the purified flue gas flow and alkali liquor atomized and sprayed are reversely sprayedExchange of alkaline and acid gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, SO) in a second wire-mesh trapping bed unit2、H2S, and the like) reaction; the residual smoke components which are not collected continuously upwards pass through a second gas-liquid separation device at the upper part in the deacidification tower for separation, liquid goes downwards along the inner wall of the deacidification tower, gas is continuously discharged through a second gas discharge pressure regulating valve at the top of the deacidification tower, and the continuously discharged gas flow enters the next step; the flue gas enters an activated carbon adsorption tower, flows upwards through an activated carbon capture bed device for capture after being distributed by a gas distribution device at the bottom of the tower, and is adsorbed by CO and other gases through activated carbon, and the residual flue gas components which are not captured continuously upwards are discharged through a pressure regulating valve, and then the next step is carried out;
8) the flue gas after deacidification treatment enters a bag-type dust collector to collect fly ash such as dust, neutral salt powder, activated carbon powder and the like;
9) the flue gas after primary dust removal enters the wet electric dust remover for secondary dust removal under the action of a draught fan, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to be below 60 ℃, and the dust content is reduced to be 4mg/m3Then, the flue gas is clean;
10) the clean flue gas is treated in multiple paths according to the situation: the first path is directly connected with an exhaust outlet of the chimney, and the second path enters the carbon dioxide catcher to catch carbon dioxide therein and then discharge the carbon dioxide; the third path is directly connected into a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool) to lead CO in the flue gas2And most of the SO2、H2S、NOXAfter the gas is absorbed, the flue gas can be further purified and the CO can be greatly reduced2Discharging of (3); the gas obtained after combustion is cleaned, and air pollution is reduced;
11) after the clean flue gas second path is enriched by a carbon dioxide catcher, the caught carbon dioxide enters a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool) under the action of a Roots blower; drying and packaging the microalgae arranged in the microalgae cultivation pipe, and then delivering the microalgae to a factory for sale, wherein the heat in the drying process can come from a waste heat steam boiler; the sewage generated in the microalgae separation process can be recycled after being treated; can be supplemented by tap water; the process of enriching carbon dioxide by a carbon dioxide catcher belongs to the conventional technology, please refer to the prior art;
step three: regarding the treatment of fly ash:
12) mixing fly ash generated by secondary combustion, fly ash collected by a bag-type dust collector and fly ash obtained by drying sludge generated by a wet-type electric precipitator, then carrying out high-temperature combustion, wherein the temperature of the central point of the high-temperature combustion reaches more than 1600 ℃, combustion flame comes from a plasma injection gun, energy and gas of the plasma injection gun come from a high-temperature plasma generator and a microwave generator, the fly ash falls into the bottom of a combustion chamber after being sintered at high temperature, and is cooled to become vitreous bodies, the vitreous bodies are crushed, and crushed materials can be made into cement raw materials;
13) after gas-gas heat exchange is carried out on the flue gas and cold air in the high-temperature combustion process, part of hot gas enters a garbage gasification furnace through blast air, fly ash after the gas-gas heat exchange can be used as a cement raw material after being collected through electrostatic dust collection, and the flue gas after dust collection enters the step 10) for treatment;
step four) utilization of heat
14) Using a heat source obtained by the waste heat steam boiler for drying microalgae; the heat source obtained by the waste heat hot water boiler is used for heating the microalgae workshop; the heat source obtained by gas-gas heat exchange is used for the hot air of the gasification furnace.
In another aspect, the present invention provides a system for treating domestic waste, comprising a waste pyrolysis section, a gas treatment section, a fly ash treatment section and an energy recycling section which are communicated with each other;
the garbage pyrolysis part comprises a garbage crusher, a garbage magnetic separator, garbage drying equipment and a gasification furnace which are sequentially communicated;
the gas treatment part comprises a secondary combustion chamber, a waste heat steam boiler, a waste heat hot water boiler, a urea absorption tower, a deacidification tower, an activated carbon adsorption tower, a bag-type dust collector, a draught fan, a wet-type electric dust collector, a gas collecting box and a chimney which are sequentially communicated;
the urea absorption tower comprises a urea absorption tower body, and a first gas distribution and liquid discharge device, a first cold energy exchange device, a first silk screen capture bed device, a first atomized liquid spray device and a first gas-liquid separation device which are sequentially arranged in the urea absorption tower body from bottom to top; a first air inlet and a first liquid outlet are formed in the bottom of the urea absorption tower body; the top of the urea absorption tower body is provided with a first gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a first gas outlet; the first atomized liquid spraying device comprises a first spray head, a first liquid inlet pipe and a urea solution tank;
the fly ash treatment part comprises a plasma jet gun, a high-temperature combustion chamber, a gas-gas heat exchanger, an electrostatic dust collector and a dust collector which are sequentially communicated;
the solid waste discharge port of the wet electric dust collector is connected with a sludge drying kiln; the secondary combustion chamber, the fly ash discharge port of the bag-type dust remover and the discharge port of the sludge drying kiln are connected with the feed inlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber;
the plasma spray gun is connected with the high-temperature plasma generator and the microwave generator;
the vitreous body outlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber and the slag outlet of the gasification furnace are connected with a pulverizer;
the energy recycling part comprises a waste heat steam boiler, a waste heat hot water boiler connected with a heating system of the microalgae cultivation workshop and a gas-gas heat exchanger connected with a gasification furnace.
Further, the deacidification tower comprises a deacidification tower body, and a second gas distribution and liquid discharge device, a second cold energy exchange device, a second wire mesh capturing bed device, a second atomized liquid spray device and a second gas-liquid separation device which are sequentially arranged in the deacidification tower body from bottom to top; the bottom of the deacidification tower body is provided with a second air inlet and a second liquid outlet; the top of the deacidification tower body is provided with a second gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a second gas outlet; the second atomized liquid spraying device comprises a second spray head, a second liquid inlet pipe and an alkaline liquid box.
Further, the activated carbon adsorption tower comprises an activated carbon adsorption tower body, and a gas distribution device, an activated carbon capture bed device and a gas-solid separation device which are sequentially arranged in the activated carbon adsorption tower body from bottom to top; a third air inlet is formed in the bottom of the activated carbon adsorption tower body; and a third gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a third gas outlet are arranged at the top of the activated carbon adsorption tower body.
Further, the gas collection box is respectively communicated with a chimney gas inlet, a carbon dioxide catcher gas inlet and a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool) gas inlet; and the air outlet of the chimney is directly connected with the atmosphere.
Further, the gas outlet of the carbon dioxide catcher is connected with a Roots blower, and the gas outlet of the Roots blower is connected with a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool).
Further, the microalgae cultivating pipe (pond) is sequentially communicated with a microalgae separator, a microalgae dryer and a microalgae packaging machine; the microalgae dryer is communicated with the waste heat steam boiler through a steam condenser, so that the microalgae dryer can be dried by utilizing the heat of the waste heat steam boiler; the microalgae separator, the sewage treatment device, the water softening and purifying device and the microalgae cultivating pipe (pool) form a closed water recycling system.
Further, the first liquid discharge port, the second liquid discharge port and the liquid discharge port of the wet electric dust collector are connected with a sewage treatment device.
Advantageous effects
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
the invention provides a method for treating domestic garbage,
the household garbage is pyrolyzed and gasified to generate combustible gas and furnace slag, and the combustible gas is secondarily combusted to generate fly ash and high-temperature flue gas; high-temperature flue gas can be discharged cleanly after heat exchange, nitrogen oxide removal, deacidification, adsorption and dust removal treatment, so that the pollution to the environment is reduced, and in addition, waste liquid and particles generated in the treatment process can be reasonably recycled and treated; the generated heat energy can be recycled, and the operation and maintenance cost is reduced. The slag and the fly ash can be used as cement raw materials, thereby reducing the waste discharge and the secondary pollution.
The invention can recycle the resources (carbon dioxide and heat) after the domestic garbage treatment, thereby improving the resource utilization rate; the fly ash obtained after the domestic garbage treatment is subjected to high-temperature combustion, so that the discharge of secondary pollutants is avoided.
The method aims at obtaining clean flue gas after a series of treatments of high-temperature flue gas and exchanging the obtained heat energy, can be directly used for cultivating microalgae, reduces the cultivation cost of the microalgae, and improves the resource utilization rate of the garbage treatment process.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a flow structure of a system for treating household garbage;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a urea absorption tower, a deacidification tower and an activated carbon adsorption tower.
In the figure, a urea absorption tower 1, a first gas distribution and liquid discharge device 1A, a first cold energy exchange device 1B, a first silk screen capture bed device 1C, a first atomization liquid spray device 1D, a first gas-liquid separation device 1E, an acid removal tower 2, an activated carbon adsorption tower 3, a gas distribution device 3A, an activated carbon capture bed device 3B, a gas-solid separation device 3C, a urea solution tank 4, a garbage magnetic separator 5, a garbage drying device 6, a gasification furnace 7, a secondary combustion chamber 8, a waste heat steam boiler 9, a waste heat hot water boiler 10, a bag-type dust remover 11, a wet electric dust remover 12, a gas collection tank 13, a microalgae cultivation pipe (tank) 14, a carbon dioxide catcher 15, a microalgae separator 16, a microalgae dryer 17, a microalgae packaging machine 18, a steam condenser 19, a sewage treatment tank 20, a sludge drying kiln 21, a high-temperature plasma generator 22, a microwave generator 23, The device comprises a high-temperature combustion chamber 24, a gas-gas heat exchanger 25, an electrostatic dust collector 26, a dust collector 27, a crusher 28, a plasma jet gun 29, a garbage crusher 30, a microalgae cultivation workshop heating system 31, a chimney 32 and a hydrophobic building material 33.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to specific embodiments, but it should not be construed that the scope of the subject matter of the present invention is limited to the examples.
The process equipment or devices not specifically noted in the following examples are conventional in the art; the related equipment and process modes which are not disclosed by the invention belong to the conventional technology, and all reagents can be obtained from commercial sources.
Example 1
The invention provides a system for treating household garbage, which comprises a garbage pyrolysis part, a gas treatment part, a fly ash treatment part and an energy recycling part, wherein the garbage pyrolysis part, the gas treatment part, the fly ash treatment part and the energy recycling part are communicated with each other;
the garbage pyrolysis part comprises a garbage crusher 30, a garbage magnetic separator 5, a garbage drying device 6 and a gasification furnace 7 which are sequentially communicated; each device of the garbage pyrolysis part is used for crushing the household garbage at one time, performing magnetic separation to recover recyclable substances, drying the household garbage, and pyrolyzing and gasifying the dried garbage to obtain furnace slag and combustible gas;
the gas treatment part comprises a secondary combustion chamber 8, a waste heat steam boiler 9, a waste heat hot water boiler 10, a urea absorption tower 1, a deacidification tower 2, an activated carbon adsorption tower 3, a bag-type dust collector 11, an induced draft fan, a wet electric dust collector 12, a gas collection box 13 and a chimney which are sequentially communicated; the combustible gas is subjected to secondary combustion in the gas treatment part to obtain high-temperature flue gas and fly ash; after heat recovery twice, the high-temperature flue gas is subjected to urea denitrification oxidation, deacidification and adsorption, and then is dedusted to obtain clean flue gas;
the urea absorption tower 1 comprises a urea absorption tower body, and a first gas distribution and liquid discharge device 1A, a first cold energy exchange device 1B, a first silk screen capturing bed device 1C, a first atomized liquid spray device 1D and a first gas-liquid separation device 1E which are sequentially arranged in the urea absorption tower body from bottom to top; a first air inlet and a first liquid outlet are formed in the bottom of the urea absorption tower body; the top of the urea absorption tower body is provided with a first gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a first gas outlet; the first atomized liquid spraying device 1D comprises a first spray head, a first liquid inlet pipe and a urea solution tank 4;
the deacidification tower 2 comprises a deacidification tower body, and a second gas distribution and liquid discharge device, a second cold energy exchange device, a second wire mesh capturing bed device, a second atomized liquid spray device and a second gas-liquid separation device which are sequentially arranged in the deacidification tower body from bottom to top; the bottom of the deacidification tower body is provided with a second air inlet and a second liquid outlet; the top of the deacidification tower body is provided with a second gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a second gas outlet; the second atomized liquid spraying device comprises a second spray head, a second liquid inlet pipe and an alkaline liquid box;
the activated carbon adsorption tower 3 comprises an activated carbon adsorption tower body, and a gas distribution device 3A, an activated carbon capture bed device 3B and a gas-solid separation device 3C which are sequentially arranged in the activated carbon adsorption tower body from bottom to top; a third air inlet is formed in the bottom of the activated carbon adsorption tower body; the top of the activated carbon adsorption tower body is provided with a third gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a third gas outlet;
the gas collection box 13 is respectively communicated with a chimney gas inlet, a carbon dioxide catcher gas inlet and a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool) gas inlet; the air outlet of the chimney is directly connected with the atmosphere; the clean flue gas is collected in the gas collection box and then has various treatment modes, namely, the clean flue gas is directly discharged, carbon dioxide is recovered and enriched and then is used for cultivating microalgae, and the clean flue gas is directly used for cultivating the microalgae;
the gas outlet of the carbon dioxide catcher 15 is connected with a Roots blower, and the gas outlet of the Roots blower is connected with a microalgae cultivation pipe (pond) 14; the microalgae cultivating pipe (pond) 14 is communicated with a microalgae separator 16, a microalgae dryer 17 and a microalgae packaging machine 18 in sequence; the microalgae dryer 17 is communicated with the waste heat steam boiler 9 through a steam condenser 19, so that the heat of the waste heat steam boiler 9 is utilized for drying; the microalgae separator 16, a sewage treatment device, a water softening and purifying device and a microalgae cultivating pipe (pool) 14 form a closed water recycling system;
the fly ash treatment part comprises a plasma jet gun 29, a high-temperature combustion chamber 24, a gas-gas heat exchanger 25, an electrostatic dust collector 26 and a dust collector 27 which are communicated in sequence; the fly ash and the obtained dust are subjected to high-temperature combustion by adopting a plasma technology, and particles which are not pyrolyzed and gasified are treated, so that the emission of pollution sources is reduced;
the solid waste discharge port of the wet electric dust collector is connected with a sludge drying kiln; the secondary combustion chamber, the fly ash discharge port of the bag-type dust remover and the discharge port of the sludge drying kiln are connected with the feed inlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber;
the plasma spray gun 29 is connected with the high-temperature plasma generator 22 and the microwave generator 23; through the action of the microwave generator 23 and the high-temperature plasma generator, the plasma jet gun jets high-temperature flame and a high-temperature combustion chamber to realize plasma technical combustion;
the vitreous body outlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber 24 and the slag outlet of the gasification furnace 7 are both connected with a pulverizer 28;
the energy recycling part comprises a waste heat steam boiler 9, a waste heat hot water boiler 10 connected with a heating system of the microalgae cultivation workshop and a gas-gas heat exchanger 25 connected with the gasification furnace 7. The energy recycling part fully utilizes the energy in the domestic garbage treatment process, and the waste of resources is avoided.
The invention provides a method for treating household garbage, which comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: regarding the pyrolysis gasification of the waste:
1) crushing the household garbage, performing magnetic separation pretreatment, and recovering recyclable substances;
2) drying the crushed household garbage to enable the water content to be lower than 20%;
3) the household garbage is fed into a gasification furnace to be pyrolyzed and gasified through the processes of anoxic pyrolysis and oxygen-enriched combustion, the adopted pyrolysis temperature is 500-900 ℃, and organic matters in the garbage are cracked into carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH)4) Hydrogen (H)2) After the combustible gas and residual carbon (mainly carbon) in the oxide layer are combusted by oxygen enrichment, a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO) is released2) And heat, the carbon dioxide reacts with carbon in the reduction layer to generate carbon monoxide (CO), and the released heat is absorbed by organic matters and is cracked; discharging the slag after pyrolysis gasification from the furnace bottom, and crushing the slag to be used as a cement raw material;
step two: regarding the treatment of combustible gas:
4) sending combustible gas and water vapor discharged from the upper part of the gasification furnace into a secondary combustion chamber for secondary combustion, wherein the temperature of the secondary combustion is 850-1100 ℃, the combustible gas is fully combusted in the secondary combustion chamber to release a large amount of carbon dioxide gas, and meanwhile, dioxin gas in flue gas is cracked into carbon dioxide, water and hydrogen chloride gas in the secondary combustion chamber;
5) fly generated after secondary combustionDischarging ash; high-temperature flue gas (the flue gas contains carbon dioxide (CO)) at 800-1000 ℃ generated after secondary combustion2About 6% by volume), nitrogen (N)2) Oxygen (O)2Content about 8%), carbon monoxide (CO, 20 mg/m)3Below), sulfur dioxide (SO)2,200mg/m3About), nitrogen oxides (NOx, 220 mg/m)3Left and right) and the like, and also contains a very small amount of toxic and harmful gas (H)2S, HC1, dioxin, etc.). ) Feeding the waste heat into a waste heat steam boiler for primary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 400 ℃ within 2-5 s; the high-temperature flue gas is sent into a waste heat hot water boiler for secondary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 200 ℃ within 2-5 s; energy generated by the two heat exchange treatments is used for outsourcing; for example: using a heat source obtained by the waste heat steam boiler for drying microalgae; the heat source obtained by the waste heat hot water boiler is used for heating microalgae workshops and heating workshops, office buildings, dormitory buildings and the like;
6) the flue gas after heat exchange reacts with urea to remove nitrogen oxides in the flue gas; in the urea absorption tower 1, flue gas flows upwards from an inlet of a first gas distribution and liquid discharge device 1A at the bottom of the urea absorption tower 1 and flows through a first cold energy exchange device 1B for exchange cooling, a first wire mesh capturing bed device 1C for capturing, a first atomized liquid spray device 1D for atomized spraying, and a first gas-liquid separation device 1E for gas separation, the flue gas flow and hydrate accelerant which is atomized sprayed are reversely communicated, urea and nitrogen oxide NOx react in the first wire mesh capturing bed device 1C (the removal rate is over 70 percent), and carbon dioxide and dust are captured; the residual smoke components which are not captured continue to upwards pass through a first gas-liquid separation device 1E at the upper part in the urea absorption tower for separation, liquid is downwards along the inner wall of the first absorption tower, gas is continuously discharged through a first gas discharge pressure regulating valve at the top of the absorption tower, and the continuously discharged gas flow enters the next step; nitrogen oxides can be fully absorbed and captured through gas-liquid communication;
7) the flue gas for removing nitrogen oxides enters a deacidification tower, flows upwards from a second gas distribution and liquid discharge device at the bottom of the deacidification tower 2 in the deacidification tower and flows through a second wire bed capturing bed device for capturing, and a second atomization liquid spray device atomizes and sprays liquidSpraying, separating gas with a second gas-liquid separation device, and passing the purified flue gas stream in reverse direction to the atomized alkali solution (calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)) in a second wire mesh trapping bed device2) Or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO)3) Etc.) with acid gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, SO2、H2S, HC1, etc.) to remove SO2、H2S, HC1, dioxin, and other toxic and harmful gases; the residual smoke components which are not collected continuously upwards are separated by a second gas-liquid separation device at the upper part in the deacidification tower, liquid is downwards along the inner wall of the deacidification tower, gas is continuously discharged through a gas discharge pressure regulating valve at the top of the deacidification tower, and the continuously discharged gas flow enters the next step; the flue gas enters an activated carbon adsorption tower 3, the flue gas is distributed by a gas distribution device 3A at the bottom of the tower and then flows upwards through an activated carbon capture bed device 3B for capture, the CO, dioxin and other toxic and harmful substances in the flue gas are adsorbed by the activated carbon, and the residual flue gas components which are not captured are continuously discharged upwards through a pressure regulating valve and enter the next step;
8) the flue gas after deacidification and adsorption treatment enters a bag-type dust collector to collect fly ash such as dust, neutral salt powder, activated carbon powder and the like;
9) the flue gas after primary dust removal enters the wet electric dust remover for secondary dust removal under the action of a draught fan, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to be below 60 ℃, and the dust content is reduced to be 4mg/m3Then, the flue gas is clean; the wet electric dust collector reduces the smoke temperature and deeply removes dust by spraying cooling water, and the spraying water and the waste liquid of the urea absorption tower and the deacidification tower are recycled after being treated and precipitated by a sewage tank;
10) the clean flue gas is treated in multiple paths according to the situation: the first path is directly connected with an exhaust outlet of the chimney, and the second path enters the carbon dioxide catcher to catch carbon dioxide therein and then discharge the carbon dioxide; the third path is directly connected into a microalgae cultivation pipe (pond), and the micro-irrigation bacteria can absorb most of carbon dioxide (CO) in the flue gas2Absorption rate of more than 95 percent) and sulfur dioxide (SO)2The absorption rate reaches more than 20 percent) and nitrogen oxide (NOx, the absorption rate reaches more than 85 percent), and the rest nitrogen and oxygen are discharged from the cultivation pipe (pond) and discharged through a chimney; fruit of Chinese wolfberryThe gas obtained after combustion is cleaned, so that air pollution is reduced;
11) after the clean flue gas second path is enriched by a carbon dioxide catcher, the caught carbon dioxide enters a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool) under the action of a Roots blower; after the cultivation of the microalgae is finished, the microalgae is guided out to a microalgae separator for solid-liquid separation, and solid substances are conveyed to a microalgae dryer for drying, so that dry algae powder is obtained. And packaging the microalgae powder by using a packaging machine, and selling. Liquid substances separated by the microalgae separator are led into a sewage treatment device for treatment, then are sent to a water softening and purifying device, and the softened and purified water is pumped into a microalgae cultivating pipe (pool) for cultivating microalgae so as to realize the recycling of water. During the cultivation of microalgae, part of water is consumed and can be supplemented by tap water. The micro-irrigation dryer is used for drying by using steam (1.2 MP) generated by a waste heat steam boiler, condensing the steam discharged by the drying device by using a steam condenser, and conveying condensed hot water to the steam boiler for reheating.
Step three: regarding the treatment of fly ash:
12) mixing fly ash generated by secondary combustion, fly ash collected by a bag-type dust collector and fly ash (harmful substances such as dioxin, heavy metal and the like can be adhered to the surfaces of particles) obtained by drying sludge generated by a wet-type electric precipitator, then carrying out high-temperature combustion, wherein the temperature of the central point of the high-temperature combustion reaches more than 1600 ℃, combustion flame comes from a plasma injection gun, energy and gas of the plasma injection gun come from a high-temperature plasma generator and a microwave generator, and after the fly ash is sintered at high temperature, the dioxin adhered to the surfaces of the fly ash particles is cracked into carbon dioxide (CO)2) Water (H)2O) and hydrogen chloride (HC 1), heavy metals in the fly ash are coated in the inner core of the fly ash, the fly ash falling to the bottom of the combustion chamber is cooled to become a vitreous body, the vitreous body is crushed, and the crushed material can be made into a cement raw material;
13) after gas-gas heat exchange is carried out on the flue gas and cold air in the high-temperature combustion process, part of hot gas enters a garbage gasification furnace through blast air, fly ash after the gas-gas heat exchange can be used as a cement raw material after being collected through electrostatic dust collection, and the flue gas after dust collection enters the step 10) for treatment;
step four) utilization of heat
14) Using a heat source obtained by the waste heat steam boiler for drying microalgae; the heat source obtained by the waste heat hot water boiler is used for heating the microalgae workshop; the heat source obtained by gas-gas heat exchange is used for the hot air of the gasification furnace.
It will be understood that the above embodiments are merely exemplary embodiments taken to illustrate the principles of the present invention, which is not limited thereto. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, and these changes and modifications are also considered to be included in the scope of the invention.

Claims (10)

1. A method for treating household garbage is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step A), pyrolyzing and gasifying the household garbage to generate combustible gas, and performing secondary combustion on the combustible gas to generate fly ash and high-temperature flue gas;
step B), discharging the high-temperature flue gas after heat exchange, nitrogen oxide removal, deacidification, adsorption and dust removal;
and C), pyrolyzing and gasifying the household garbage to generate slag, and burning the fly ash at high temperature to prepare the fly ash and the slag into a cement raw material.
2. The method for treating household garbage according to claim 1, wherein the household garbage in the step A) needs to be pretreated before pyrolysis, and the pretreatment process comprises the following steps:
i) crushing the household garbage, performing magnetic separation pretreatment, and recovering recyclable substances;
ii) drying the crushed domestic garbage to enable the water content to be lower than 20%;
the pyrolysis temperature in the step A) is 500-900 ℃; the temperature of the secondary combustion is 850-1100 ℃, and the temperature of the high-temperature flue gas is 800-1000 ℃.
3. The method for treating domestic waste according to claim 1,
the process for removing the nitrogen oxides in the step B) is as follows: and (3) carrying out reverse alternating current reaction on the flue gas flow and the urea aqueous solution in a first wire mesh capture bed device of the urea absorption tower to realize removal of nitrogen oxides.
4. The method for treating household garbage according to claim 1, wherein the deacidification process in the step B) is as follows: and the flue gas subjected to nitrogen oxide removal and the alkali liquor are subjected to reverse exchange reaction in a second wire mesh capture bed device of the deacidification tower to remove the acid gas.
5. The method for treating domestic waste according to claim 1, wherein said adsorption in step B) is as follows: the deacidified flue gas is forced to change the running track and running state of the air flow by an active carbon capture bed device, so that the odor is removed by the active carbon adsorption.
6. The method for treating household garbage according to claim 1, wherein the heat exchange process in the step B) is as follows: sending the high-temperature flue gas into a waste heat steam boiler for primary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 400 ℃ within 2-5 s; the high-temperature flue gas is sent into a waste heat hot water boiler for secondary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 200 ℃ within 2-5 s; the dust removal process is as follows: the flue gas after adsorption treatment enters a bag-type dust collector and a wet-type electric precipitator to collect fly ash, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 60 ℃, and the dust content is reduced to 4mg/m3The following.
7. The method for treating domestic waste according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein said discharging in step B) is carried out in a plurality of ways: the first method is as follows: directly discharging the flue gas subjected to dust removal treatment; the second method comprises the following steps: discharging the flue gas subjected to dust removal treatment into a carbon dioxide catcher, and discharging the carbon dioxide after catching the carbon dioxide by using a physical or chemical method; the third method comprises the following steps: and directly discharging the flue gas subjected to dust removal treatment into the microalgae cultivating device, performing cleaning treatment again by adopting a photobiological mode, and then directly discharging.
8. The method for treating household garbage according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the fly ash in step C) is derived by: the method comprises the following steps: step B) fly ash generated by secondary combustion; and (2) source II: fly ash obtained after dust removal treatment; and (3) source III: drying sludge generated by the wet electric precipitator to obtain fly ash;
d) generating combustion flame by using a plasma jet gun in the high-temperature combustion;
d) carrying out gas-gas heat exchange on the flue gas generated in the high-temperature combustion process and cold air, and recycling the obtained cold air in the step A); and D) performing electrostatic dust collection on the obtained hot air, and then performing discharge treatment in the step B).
9. The method for treating household garbage according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following specific steps:
1) crushing the household garbage, performing magnetic separation pretreatment, and recovering recyclable substances;
2) drying the crushed household garbage to enable the water content to be lower than 20%;
3) uniformly feeding the household garbage into a gasification furnace for pyrolysis gasification, wherein the adopted pyrolysis temperature is 500-900 ℃, and combustible gas and furnace slag are generated by pyrolysis; crushing the slag to obtain cement material;
4) sending the combustible gas into a secondary combustion chamber for secondary combustion, wherein the temperature of the secondary combustion is 850-1100 ℃;
5) discharging fly ash generated after secondary combustion; sending the high-temperature flue gas with the temperature of 800-1000 ℃ generated after secondary combustion into a waste heat steam boiler for primary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 400 ℃ within 2-5 s; the high-temperature flue gas is sent into a waste heat hot water boiler for secondary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 200 ℃ within 2-5 s; energy generated by the two heat exchange treatments is used for outsourcing;
6) the flue gas after heat exchange reacts with urea to remove nitrogen oxides in the flue gas; in the urea absorption tower, the flue gas flows upwards from a first gas distribution and liquid discharge device inlet at the bottom of the urea absorption tower, and then flows through a first cold energy exchange device for exchange cooling, a first wire mesh capturing bed device for capturing, a first atomized liquid spraying device for atomized spraying, a first gas-liquid separation device for separating gas, the purified flue gas flow and the hydrate accelerant which is atomized and sprayed are reversely communicated, urea and nitrogen oxide react in the first wire mesh capturing bed device, and carbon dioxide and dust are captured; the residual smoke components which are not captured continue to upwards pass through a first gas-liquid separation device at the upper part in the urea absorption tower for separation, liquid is downwards along the inner wall of the urea absorption tower, gas is continuously discharged through a first gas discharge pressure regulating valve at the top of the absorption tower, and the continuously discharged gas flow enters the next step;
7) the flue gas from which the nitrogen oxides are removed enters a deacidification tower, the flue gas flows upwards from a second gas distribution and liquid discharge device at the bottom of the deacidification tower in the deacidification tower and flows through a second wire bed capturing bed device for capturing, a second atomized liquid spraying device for atomized spraying and a second gas-liquid separation device for separating gas, and purified flue gas flow and atomized and sprayed alkali liquor are reversely communicated and react with acid gas in the second wire bed capturing bed device; the residual smoke components which are not collected continuously upwards are separated by a second gas-liquid separation device at the upper part in the deacidification tower, liquid is downwards along the inner wall of the deacidification tower, gas is continuously discharged through a gas discharge pressure regulating valve at the top of the deacidification tower, and the continuously discharged gas flow enters the next step; the flue gas enters an activated carbon adsorption tower, flows upwards through an activated carbon capture bed device for capture after being distributed by a gas distribution device at the bottom of the tower, and is adsorbed by CO and other gases through activated carbon, and the residual flue gas components which are not captured continuously upwards are discharged through a pressure regulating valve, and then the next step is carried out;
8) the flue gas after deacidification treatment enters a bag-type dust collector to collect fly ash such as dust, neutral salt powder, activated carbon powder and the like;
9) the flue gas after primary dust removal enters the wet electric dust remover for secondary dust removal under the action of a draught fan, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to be below 60 ℃, and the dust content is reduced to be 4mg/m3The flue gas is clean at this timeCleaning the flue gas;
10) the clean flue gas is treated in multiple paths according to the situation: the first path is directly connected with an exhaust outlet of the chimney, and the second path enters the carbon dioxide catcher to catch carbon dioxide therein and then discharge the carbon dioxide; the third path is directly connected into a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool) to further purify the flue gas and greatly reduce CO2Discharging of (3);
11) after the clean flue gas second path is enriched by a carbon dioxide catcher, the caught carbon dioxide enters a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool) under the action of a Roots blower; drying and packaging the microalgae arranged in the microalgae cultivation pipe, and then delivering the microalgae to a factory for sale, wherein the heat in the drying process can come from a waste heat steam boiler; the sewage generated in the microalgae separation process can be recycled after being treated; can be supplemented by tap water;
12) mixing fly ash generated by secondary combustion, fly ash collected by a bag-type dust collector and fly ash obtained by drying sludge generated by a wet-type electric precipitator, then carrying out high-temperature combustion, wherein the temperature of the central point of the high-temperature combustion reaches more than 1600 ℃, combustion flame comes from a plasma injection gun, energy and gas of the plasma injection gun come from a high-temperature plasma generator and a microwave generator, the fly ash falls into the bottom of a combustion chamber after being sintered at high temperature, and is cooled to become vitreous bodies, the vitreous bodies are crushed, and crushed materials can be made into cement raw materials;
13) after gas-gas heat exchange is carried out on the flue gas and cold air in the high-temperature combustion process, part of hot gas enters a garbage gasification furnace through blast air, fly ash after the gas-gas heat exchange can be used as a cement raw material after being collected through electrostatic dust collection, and the flue gas after dust collection enters the step 10) for treatment;
14) using a heat source obtained by the waste heat steam boiler for drying microalgae; the heat source obtained by the waste heat hot water boiler is used for heating the microalgae workshop; the heat source obtained by gas-gas heat exchange is used for the hot air of the gasification furnace.
10. A system for realizing the treatment of household garbage according to any one of claims 1 to 9, comprising a garbage pyrolysis part, a gas treatment part, a fly ash treatment part and an energy recycling part which are communicated with each other;
the garbage pyrolysis part comprises a garbage crusher, a garbage magnetic separator, garbage drying equipment and a gasification furnace which are sequentially communicated;
the gas treatment part comprises a secondary combustion chamber, a waste heat steam boiler, a waste heat hot water boiler, a urea absorption tower, a deacidification tower, an activated carbon adsorption tower, a bag-type dust remover, a wet electric dust remover, a gas collection box and a chimney which are sequentially communicated;
the fly ash treatment part comprises a plasma jet gun, a high-temperature combustion chamber, a gas-gas heat exchanger, an electrostatic dust collector and a dust collector which are sequentially communicated;
the solid waste discharge port of the wet electric dust collector is connected with a sludge drying kiln; the secondary combustion chamber, the fly ash discharge port of the bag-type dust remover and the discharge port of the sludge drying kiln are connected with the feed inlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber;
the plasma spray gun is connected with the high-temperature plasma generator and the microwave generator;
the vitreous body outlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber and the slag outlet of the gasification furnace are connected with a pulverizer;
the energy recycling part comprises a waste heat steam boiler, a waste heat hot water boiler connected with a heating system of the microalgae cultivation workshop and a gas-gas heat exchanger connected with a gasification furnace.
CN202010539980.8A 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 Method for treating domestic garbage Pending CN111609406A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112619349A (en) * 2020-11-30 2021-04-09 西安西热控制技术有限公司 Carbon emission reduction system of thermal power plant
CN112779057A (en) * 2020-12-31 2021-05-11 上海电气集团股份有限公司 Comprehensive oil sludge treatment system and comprehensive oil sludge treatment method
CN113074372A (en) * 2021-05-06 2021-07-06 湖南克林艾博环境科技有限公司 Comprehensive treatment method and process for pyrolysis and gasification of household garbage
CN113522943A (en) * 2021-09-16 2021-10-22 国能龙源环保有限公司 Resourceful coupling treatment system for multiple types of organic solid wastes and use method thereof
CN113684040A (en) * 2021-09-18 2021-11-23 辽宁恒润农业有限公司 Carbonization furnace for producing biomass carbon-based fertilizer

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112619349A (en) * 2020-11-30 2021-04-09 西安西热控制技术有限公司 Carbon emission reduction system of thermal power plant
CN112779057A (en) * 2020-12-31 2021-05-11 上海电气集团股份有限公司 Comprehensive oil sludge treatment system and comprehensive oil sludge treatment method
CN113074372A (en) * 2021-05-06 2021-07-06 湖南克林艾博环境科技有限公司 Comprehensive treatment method and process for pyrolysis and gasification of household garbage
CN113522943A (en) * 2021-09-16 2021-10-22 国能龙源环保有限公司 Resourceful coupling treatment system for multiple types of organic solid wastes and use method thereof
CN113522943B (en) * 2021-09-16 2022-01-28 国能龙源环保有限公司 Resourceful coupling treatment system for multiple types of organic solid wastes and use method thereof
CN113684040A (en) * 2021-09-18 2021-11-23 辽宁恒润农业有限公司 Carbonization furnace for producing biomass carbon-based fertilizer

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