CN212746480U - System for treating household garbage - Google Patents

System for treating household garbage Download PDF

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CN212746480U
CN212746480U CN202021091157.7U CN202021091157U CN212746480U CN 212746480 U CN212746480 U CN 212746480U CN 202021091157 U CN202021091157 U CN 202021091157U CN 212746480 U CN212746480 U CN 212746480U
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gas
microalgae
tower body
liquid
garbage
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李建辉
易丹
易双
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Family Firm More Technical Service Hunan Co ltd
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Family Firm More Technical Service Hunan Co ltd
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Abstract

The utility model provides a system for handle domestic waste belongs to refuse treatment device technical field. The system provided by the utility model comprises a garbage pyrolysis part, a gas treatment part, a fly ash treatment part and an energy recycling part; the garbage pyrolysis part comprises a gasification furnace; the gas treatment part comprises a secondary combustion chamber, a waste heat steam boiler, a waste heat hot water boiler, a urea absorption tower, a deacidification tower, an active carbon adsorption tower, a bag-type dust remover, a draught fan, a wet electric dust remover, a gas collection box and a chimney; the fly ash treatment part comprises a plasma jet gun, a high-temperature combustion chamber, a gas-gas heat exchanger, an electrostatic dust collector and a dust collector. The resources after the domestic garbage treatment are repeatedly utilized by each part, so that the resource utilization rate is improved; the obtained fly ash is burnt at high temperature, so that the discharge of secondary pollutants is avoided.

Description

System for treating household garbage
Technical Field
The utility model relates to a refuse treatment technical field, concretely relates to system for handle domestic waste.
Background
At present, urban garbage in various countries in the world is mainly treated by landfill, composting, incineration, pyrolysis gasification and the like. Secondary pollution to soil, underground water and air environment is easily caused by landfill, and the ecological environment is damaged; the compost is similar to a landfill mode, and can generate toxic gas and penetrating fluid and cause secondary pollution; the burning easily causes the appearance of sulfides, dust and even carcinogenic dioxin in the air, and has serious air pollution; pyrolysis gasification is a relatively important treatment mode at present, and a large amount of gas and ash residues are still generated after pyrolysis gasification, so that a new treatment mode is required to be adopted for solving the problem.
Aiming at the situation that the domestic garbage in cities and rural areas of China is not subjected to a classification system vigorously and various garbage are mixed, a treatment method suitable for the national conditions of China is needed to be provided.
CN201610814339.4 discloses a garbage cleaning treatment process, which takes mixed gas of air and water vapor as a gasifying agent and domestic garbage as raw materials, and generates gasification reduction reaction under the condition of high temperature to generate energy-saving and environment-friendly equipment taking alkane gas and hydrogen as main combustible components, so that the organic combination of good oxygen-enriched combustion of the current garbage pyrolysis gasification can be realized, and the requirement of garbage pyrolysis gasification incineration can be met.
CN201710814793.4 discloses a large-scale domestic garbage pyrolysis gasification process, which comprises the following steps: after the household garbage is conveyed to the garbage pit, the household garbage is grabbed to the top of the pyrolysis gasification furnace by the grab bucket, the household garbage is loaded into a pyrolysis gasification tank in the pyrolysis gasification furnace through the loading device, the household garbage is pyrolyzed and gasified in the tank, and ash residues after pyrolysis gasification are loaded into the ash tank through the discharging device and then are transported outwards. The heat required by the pyrolysis gasification tank is transferred from a combustion chamber in the pyrolysis gasification furnace through a partition wall, and the high-temperature flue gas in the combustion chamber is discharged into the atmosphere after passing through devices such as waste heat utilization and purification.
Disclosure of Invention
The utility model provides a system for handle domestic waste, through tail gas and the flying dust processing system after optimizing pyrolysis gasification, realize the improvement to domestic waste pyrolysis gasification treatment efficiency, control secondary pollution and the emission of tail gas, carry out cyclic utilization to the heat of processing procedure, reduce fortune and treatment cost, realize the innoxious and minimizing treatment with domestic waste.
In order to solve the technical problem, the utility model provides a following technical scheme:
on one hand, the utility model provides a system for treating domestic garbage, which comprises a garbage pyrolysis part, a gas treatment part, a fly ash treatment part and an energy recycling part which are mutually communicated;
the garbage pyrolysis part comprises a garbage crusher, a garbage magnetic separator, garbage drying equipment and a gasification furnace which are sequentially communicated;
the gas treatment part comprises a secondary combustion chamber, a waste heat steam boiler, a waste heat hot water boiler, a urea absorption tower, a deacidification tower, an activated carbon adsorption tower, a bag-type dust collector, a draught fan, a wet-type electric dust collector, a gas collecting box and a chimney which are sequentially communicated;
the urea absorption tower comprises a urea absorption tower body, and a first gas distribution and liquid discharge device, a first cold energy exchange device, a first silk screen capture bed device, a first atomized liquid spray device and a first gas-liquid separation device which are sequentially arranged in the urea absorption tower body from bottom to top; a first air inlet and a first liquid outlet are formed in the bottom of the urea absorption tower body; the top of the urea absorption tower body is provided with a first gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a first gas outlet; the first atomized liquid spraying device comprises a first spray head, a first liquid inlet pipe and a urea solution tank;
the fly ash treatment part comprises a plasma jet gun, a high-temperature combustion chamber, a gas-gas heat exchanger, an electrostatic dust collector and a dust collector which are sequentially communicated;
the solid waste discharge port of the wet electric dust collector is connected with a sludge drying kiln; the secondary combustion chamber, the fly ash discharge port of the bag-type dust remover and the discharge port of the sludge drying kiln are connected with the feed inlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber;
the plasma spray gun is connected with the high-temperature plasma generator and the microwave generator;
the vitreous body outlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber and the slag outlet of the gasification furnace are connected with a pulverizer;
the energy recycling part comprises a waste heat steam boiler, a waste heat hot water boiler connected with a heating system of the microalgae cultivation workshop and a gas-gas heat exchanger connected with a gasification furnace.
Further, the deacidification tower comprises a deacidification tower body, and a second gas distribution and liquid discharge device, a second cold energy exchange device, a second wire mesh capturing bed device, a second atomized liquid spray device and a second gas-liquid separation device which are sequentially arranged in the deacidification tower body from bottom to top; the bottom of the deacidification tower body is provided with a second air inlet and a second liquid outlet; the top of the deacidification tower body is provided with a second gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a second gas outlet; the second atomized liquid spraying device comprises a second spray head, a second liquid inlet pipe and an alkaline liquid box.
Further, the activated carbon adsorption tower comprises an activated carbon adsorption tower body, and a gas distribution device, an activated carbon capture bed device and a gas-solid separation device which are sequentially arranged in the activated carbon adsorption tower body from bottom to top; a third air inlet is formed in the bottom of the activated carbon adsorption tower body; and a third gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a third gas outlet are arranged at the top of the activated carbon adsorption tower body.
Further, the gas collection box is respectively communicated with a chimney gas inlet, a carbon dioxide catcher gas inlet and a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool) gas inlet; and the air outlet of the chimney is directly connected with the atmosphere.
Further, the gas outlet of the carbon dioxide catcher is connected with a Roots blower, and the gas outlet of the Roots blower is connected with a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool).
Further, the microalgae cultivating pipe (pond) is sequentially communicated with a microalgae separator, a microalgae dryer and a microalgae packaging machine; the microalgae dryer is communicated with the waste heat steam boiler through a steam condenser, so that the microalgae dryer can be dried by utilizing the heat of the waste heat steam boiler; the microalgae separator, the sewage treatment device, the water softening and purifying device and the microalgae cultivating pipe (pool) form a closed water recycling system.
Further, the first liquid discharge port, the second liquid discharge port and the liquid discharge port of the wet electric dust collector are connected with a sewage treatment device.
The application provides a method for realizing the treatment of household garbage by using the system, which comprises the following steps:
step A), pretreating the household garbage, and then pyrolyzing and gasifying the household garbage to generate combustible gas and furnace slag;
step B), performing secondary combustion on the combustible gas to generate fly ash and high-temperature flue gas;
step C), discharging the high-temperature flue gas after heat exchange, nitrogen oxide removal, deacidification, adsorption and dust removal;
and D) performing high-temperature combustion on the fly ash, and then preparing the fly ash and the slag into a hydrophobic building material.
Further, the pretreatment process in the step A) is as follows:
i) crushing the household garbage, performing magnetic separation pretreatment, and recovering recyclable substances;
ii) drying the crushed household garbage to enable the water content to be lower than 20%.
Further, the pyrolysis temperature in the step A) is 500-900 ℃; the pyrolysis gasification is subjected to anoxic pyrolysis and oxygen-enriched combustion processes. For the specific pyrolysis gasification process, reference is made to the prior art.
Further, the temperature of secondary combustion in the step B) is 850-1100 ℃, and the temperature of the high-temperature flue gas is 800-1000 ℃.
Further, the heat exchange process in the step C) is as follows: sending the high-temperature flue gas into a waste heat steam boiler for primary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 400 ℃ within 2-5 s; and the high-temperature flue gas is sent into a waste heat hot water boiler for secondary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 200 ℃ within 2-5 s.
Further, the nitrogen oxide removal process in the step C) is as follows: the flue gas enters the first screen capturing device after being cooled, changes the running track and running state of the flue gas forcibly by the screen, and reacts with the urea aqueous solution atomized into small drops to form nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water, and the removal rate reaches over 75 percent.
Further, the deacidification process in the step C) is as follows: and the flue gas subjected to nitrogen oxide removal and the alkali liquor are subjected to reverse exchange reaction in a second wire mesh capture bed device of the deacidification tower to remove the acid gas. The flue gas enters a second screen capture bed device after being cooled, the running track and running state of the flue gas are forcibly changed by a screen, and the flue gas and the alkali liquor atomized into small liquid drops undergo acid-base neutralization reaction to form a neutral salt solution, and the removal rate reaches over 82%.
Further, the adsorption process in step C) is as follows: the deacidified flue gas is forced to change the running track and running state of the air flow by an active carbon capture bed device, so that the odor is removed by the active carbon adsorption.
Further, the dust removal process in step C) is as follows: the flue gas after adsorption treatment enters a bag-type dust collector and a wet-type electric precipitator to collect fly ash, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 60 ℃, and the dust content is reduced to 4mg/m3The following.
Further, the waste liquid generated in the processes of removing nitric oxide, deacidifying and wet-type electric precipitator is recycled after sewage treatment.
Further, the disposal of the emissions in step C) may be varied: the first method is as follows: directly discharging the flue gas subjected to dust removal treatment; the second method comprises the following steps: discharging the flue gas subjected to dust removal treatment into a carbon dioxide catcher, and discharging the carbon dioxide after catching the carbon dioxide by using a physical or chemical method; the third method comprises the following steps: and directly discharging the flue gas subjected to dust removal treatment into the microalgae cultivating device, performing cleaning treatment again by adopting a photobiological mode, and then directly discharging. Further, the carbon dioxide obtained in the second mode can be directly discharged into the microalgae cultivating device for use.
Further, the fly ash source in step D) is as follows: the method comprises the following steps: step B) fly ash generated by secondary combustion; and (2) source II: fly ash obtained after dust removal treatment; and (3) source III: the fly ash is obtained after the sludge generated by the wet electric dust collector is dried.
Further, the high-temperature combustion in the step D) adopts a plasma jet gun to generate a combustion flame. Further, the temperature of the central point of the combustion flame reaches more than 1600 ℃. Further, the energy and gas of the plasma spray gun come from a high-temperature plasma generator and a microwave generator. And further, cooling the fly ash after high-temperature combustion to obtain a vitreous body, and crushing the vitreous body to prepare the hydrophobic building material.
Further, the flue gas generated in the high-temperature combustion process in the step D) and cold air are subjected to gas-gas heat exchange, and the obtained cold air enters the step A) for recycling; and C) performing discharge treatment in the step C) after the obtained hot air is subjected to electrostatic dust collection and fly ash collection.
Further, the energy obtained after the heat exchange in the step C) is used for cultivating microalgae; and D) the energy obtained by heat exchange in the step D) is used for pyrolysis and gasification.
Advantageous effects
Compared with the prior art, the utility model, following beneficial effect has:
the utility model provides a system for treating domestic garbage, which is characterized in that the domestic garbage is pyrolyzed and gasified to generate combustible gas and slag, and the combustible gas is secondarily combusted to generate fly ash and high-temperature flue gas; high-temperature flue gas can be discharged cleanly after heat exchange, nitrogen oxide removal, deacidification, adsorption and dust removal treatment, so that the pollution to the environment is reduced, and in addition, waste liquid and particles generated in the treatment process can be reasonably recycled and treated; the generated heat energy can be recycled, and the operation and maintenance cost is reduced. The slag and the fly ash can be used as hydrophobic building materials, thereby reducing the waste discharge and reducing the secondary pollution.
The utility model can repeatedly utilize the resources (carbon dioxide and heat) after the domestic garbage is treated, thereby improving the resource utilization rate; the fly ash obtained after the domestic garbage treatment is subjected to high-temperature combustion, so that the discharge of secondary pollutants is avoided.
The utility model discloses the system obtains clean flue gas and exchange gained heat energy after a series of processings to the high temperature flue gas, can directly be used for little algae cultivation, reduces the cost that little algae was cultivated, improves refuse treatment process's resource utilization rate.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a flow structure of a system for treating household garbage;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a urea absorption tower, a deacidification tower and an activated carbon adsorption tower.
In the figure, a urea absorption tower 1, a first gas distribution and liquid discharge device 1A, a first cold energy exchange device 1B, a first silk screen capture bed device 1C, a first atomization liquid spray device 1D, a first gas-liquid separation device 1E, an acid removal tower 2, an activated carbon adsorption tower 3, a gas distribution device 3A, an activated carbon capture bed device 3B, a gas-solid separation device 3C, a urea solution tank 4, a garbage magnetic separator 5, a garbage drying device 6, a gasification furnace 7, a secondary combustion chamber 8, a waste heat steam boiler 9, a waste heat hot water boiler 10, a bag-type dust remover 11, a wet electric dust remover 12, a gas collection tank 13, a microalgae cultivation pipe (tank) 14, a carbon dioxide catcher 15, a microalgae separator 16, a microalgae dryer 17, a microalgae packaging machine 18, a steam condenser 19, a sewage treatment tank 20, a sludge drying kiln 21, a high-temperature plasma generator 22, a microwave generator 23, The device comprises a high-temperature combustion chamber 24, a gas-gas heat exchanger 25, an electrostatic dust collector 26, a dust collector 27, a crusher 28, a plasma jet gun 29, a garbage crusher 30, a microalgae cultivation workshop heating system 31, a chimney 32 and a hydrophobic building material 33.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to specific embodiments, but it should not be construed that the scope of the subject matter of the present invention is limited to the following examples.
The process equipment or devices not specifically noted in the following examples are conventional in the art; the related devices and the process mode which are not disclosed in the utility model belong to the conventional technology, and all reagents can be purchased from commercial sources.
Example 1
The utility model provides a system for treating domestic garbage, which comprises a garbage pyrolysis part, a gas treatment part, a fly ash treatment part and an energy recycling part which are mutually communicated;
the garbage pyrolysis part comprises a garbage crusher 30, a garbage magnetic separator 5, a garbage drying device 6 and a gasification furnace 7 which are sequentially communicated; each device of the garbage pyrolysis part is used for crushing the household garbage at one time, performing magnetic separation to recover recyclable substances, drying the household garbage, and pyrolyzing and gasifying the dried garbage to obtain furnace slag and combustible gas;
the gas treatment part comprises a secondary combustion chamber 8, a waste heat steam boiler 9, a waste heat hot water boiler 10, a urea absorption tower 1, a deacidification tower 2, an activated carbon adsorption tower 3, a bag-type dust collector 11, an induced draft fan, a wet electric dust collector 12, a gas collection box 13 and a chimney which are sequentially communicated; the combustible gas is subjected to secondary combustion in the gas treatment part to obtain high-temperature flue gas and fly ash; after heat recovery twice, the high-temperature flue gas is subjected to urea denitrification oxidation, deacidification and adsorption, and then is dedusted to obtain clean flue gas;
the urea absorption tower 1 comprises a urea absorption tower body, and a first gas distribution and liquid discharge device 1A, a first cold energy exchange device 1B, a first silk screen capturing bed device 1C, a first atomized liquid spray device 1D and a first gas-liquid separation device 1E which are sequentially arranged in the urea absorption tower body from bottom to top; a first air inlet and a first liquid outlet are formed in the bottom of the urea absorption tower body; the top of the urea absorption tower body is provided with a first gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a first gas outlet; the first atomized liquid spraying device 1D comprises a first spray head, a first liquid inlet pipe and a urea solution tank 4;
the deacidification tower 2 comprises a deacidification tower body, and a second gas distribution and liquid discharge device, a second cold energy exchange device, a second wire mesh capturing bed device, a second atomized liquid spray device and a second gas-liquid separation device which are sequentially arranged in the deacidification tower body from bottom to top; the bottom of the deacidification tower body is provided with a second air inlet and a second liquid outlet; the top of the deacidification tower body is provided with a second gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a second gas outlet; the second atomized liquid spraying device comprises a second spray head, a second liquid inlet pipe and an alkaline liquid box;
the activated carbon adsorption tower 3 comprises an activated carbon adsorption tower body, and a gas distribution device 3A, an activated carbon capture bed device 3B and a gas-solid separation device 3C which are sequentially arranged in the activated carbon adsorption tower body from bottom to top; a third air inlet is formed in the bottom of the activated carbon adsorption tower body; the top of the activated carbon adsorption tower body is provided with a third gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a third gas outlet;
the gas collection box 13 is respectively communicated with a chimney gas inlet, a carbon dioxide catcher gas inlet and a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool) gas inlet; the air outlet of the chimney is directly connected with the atmosphere; the clean flue gas is collected in the gas collection box and then has various treatment modes, namely, the clean flue gas is directly discharged, carbon dioxide is recovered and enriched and then is used for cultivating microalgae, and the clean flue gas is directly used for cultivating the microalgae;
the gas outlet of the carbon dioxide catcher 15 is connected with a Roots blower, and the gas outlet of the Roots blower is connected with a microalgae cultivation pipe (pond) 14; the microalgae cultivating pipe (pond) 14 is communicated with a microalgae separator 16, a microalgae dryer 17 and a microalgae packaging machine 18 in sequence; the microalgae dryer 17 is communicated with the waste heat steam boiler 9 through a steam condenser 19, so that the heat of the waste heat steam boiler 9 is utilized for drying; the microalgae separator 16, a sewage treatment device, a water softening and purifying device and a microalgae cultivating pipe (pool) 14 form a closed water recycling system;
the fly ash treatment part comprises a plasma jet gun 29, a high-temperature combustion chamber 24, a gas-gas heat exchanger 25, an electrostatic dust collector 26 and a dust collector 27 which are communicated in sequence; the fly ash and the obtained dust are subjected to high-temperature combustion by adopting a plasma technology, and particles which are not pyrolyzed and gasified are treated, so that the emission of pollution sources is reduced;
the solid waste discharge port of the wet electric dust collector is connected with a sludge drying kiln; the secondary combustion chamber, the fly ash discharge port of the bag-type dust remover and the discharge port of the sludge drying kiln are connected with the feed inlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber;
the plasma spray gun 29 is connected with the high-temperature plasma generator 22 and the microwave generator 23; through the action of the microwave generator 23 and the high-temperature plasma generator, the plasma jet gun jets high-temperature flame and a high-temperature combustion chamber to realize plasma technical combustion;
the vitreous body outlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber 24 and the slag outlet of the gasification furnace 7 are both connected with a pulverizer 28;
the energy recycling part comprises a waste heat steam boiler 9, a waste heat hot water boiler 10 connected with a heating system of the microalgae cultivation workshop and a gas-gas heat exchanger 25 connected with the gasification furnace 7. The energy recycling part fully utilizes the energy in the domestic garbage treatment process, and the waste of resources is avoided.
The utility model provides a system for handle domestic waste is to domestic waste treatment process, including following step:
the method comprises the following steps: regarding the pyrolysis gasification of the waste:
1) crushing the household garbage, performing magnetic separation pretreatment, and recovering recyclable substances;
2) drying the crushed household garbage to enable the water content to be lower than 20%;
3) the domestic garbage is sent into a gasification furnace to be subjected to anoxic pyrolysis and oxygen-enriched combustionThe burning process is carried out for pyrolysis and gasification, the adopted pyrolysis temperature is 500-900 ℃, and organic matters in the garbage are cracked into carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH)4) Hydrogen (H)2) After the combustible gas and residual carbon (mainly carbon) in the oxide layer are combusted by oxygen enrichment, a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO) is released2) And heat, the carbon dioxide reacts with carbon in the reduction layer to generate carbon monoxide (CO), and the released heat is absorbed by organic matters and is cracked; discharging the slag after pyrolysis and gasification from the furnace bottom, and crushing the slag to be used as a hydrophobic building material;
step two: regarding the treatment of combustible gas:
4) sending combustible gas and water vapor discharged from the upper part of the gasification furnace into a secondary combustion chamber for secondary combustion, wherein the temperature of the secondary combustion is 850-1100 ℃, the combustible gas is fully combusted in the secondary combustion chamber to release a large amount of carbon dioxide gas, and meanwhile, dioxin gas in flue gas is cracked into carbon dioxide, water and hydrogen chloride gas in the secondary combustion chamber;
5) discharging fly ash generated after secondary combustion; 800-plus-1000 ℃ high-temperature flue gas generated after secondary combustion (the flue gas contains carbon dioxide (CO)2About 6% by volume), nitrogen (N)2) Oxygen (O)2Content about 8%), carbon monoxide (CO, 20 mg/m)3Below), sulfur dioxide (SO 2, 200mg/m3About), nitrogen oxides (NOx, 220 mg/m)3Left and right) and the like, and also contains a very small amount of toxic and harmful gas (H)2S, HC1, dioxin, etc.). ) Feeding the waste heat into a waste heat steam boiler for primary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 400 ℃ within 2-5 s; the high-temperature flue gas is sent into a waste heat hot water boiler for secondary heat exchange treatment, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 200 ℃ within 2-5 s; energy generated by the two heat exchange treatments is used for outsourcing; for example: using a heat source obtained by the waste heat steam boiler for drying microalgae; the heat source obtained by the waste heat hot water boiler is used for heating microalgae workshops and heating workshops, office buildings, dormitory buildings and the like;
6) the flue gas after heat exchange reacts with urea to remove nitrogen oxides in the flue gas; in the urea absorption tower 1, flue gas flows upwards from an inlet of a first gas distribution and liquid discharge device 1A at the bottom of the urea absorption tower 1 and flows through a first cold energy exchange device 1B for exchange cooling, a first wire mesh capturing bed device 1C for capturing, a first atomized liquid spray device 1D for atomized spraying, and a first gas-liquid separation device 1E for gas separation, the flue gas flow and hydrate accelerant which is atomized sprayed are reversely communicated, urea and nitrogen oxide NOx react in the first wire mesh capturing bed device 1C (the removal rate is over 75 percent), and carbon dioxide and dust are captured; the residual smoke components which are not captured continue to upwards pass through a first gas-liquid separation device 1E at the upper part in the urea absorption tower for separation, liquid is downwards along the inner wall of the first absorption tower, gas is continuously discharged through a first gas discharge pressure regulating valve at the top of the absorption tower, and the continuously discharged gas flow enters the next step;
7) the flue gas from which nitrogen oxides are removed enters a deacidification tower, the flue gas flows upwards from an inlet of a second gas distribution and drainage device at the bottom of the deacidification tower 2 in the deacidification tower and flows through a second wire bed capturing bed device for capturing, a second atomization liquid spraying device for atomization and spraying, a second gas-liquid separation device for separating gas, the purified flue gas flow is in reverse communication with alkali liquor (calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)) sprayed by atomization and flows in the second wire bed capturing bed device, and the alkali liquor (Ca (OH)) in the second wire bed capturing bed device is used for purifying the flue gas2) Or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3), etc.) with an acid gas (e.g., carbon dioxide, SO2、H2S, HC1, etc.) to remove SO2、H2S, HC1, dioxin, and other toxic and harmful gases; the residual smoke components which are not collected continuously upwards pass through a second gas-liquid separation device at the upper part in the deacidification tower to be separated, liquid goes downwards along the inner wall of the deacidification tower, gas is continuously discharged through a gas discharge pressure regulating valve at the top of the deacidification tower, and the continuously discharged gas flow enters the next step; the flue gas enters an activated carbon adsorption tower 3, the flue gas is distributed by a gas distribution device 3A at the bottom of the tower and then flows upwards through an activated carbon capture bed device 3B for capture, the CO, dioxin and other toxic and harmful substances in the flue gas are adsorbed by the activated carbon, and the residual flue gas components which are not captured are continuously discharged upwards through a pressure regulating valve and enter the next step;
8) the flue gas after deacidification and adsorption treatment enters a bag-type dust collector to collect fly ash such as dust, neutral salt powder, activated carbon powder and the like;
9) preliminary dust removalThe flue gas enters the wet electric dust collector for secondary dust removal under the action of a draught fan, so that the temperature of the flue gas is reduced to below 60 ℃, and the dust content is reduced to 4mg/m3Then, the flue gas is clean; the wet electric dust collector reduces the smoke temperature and deeply removes dust by spraying cooling water, and the spraying water and the waste liquid of the urea absorption tower and the deacidification tower are recycled after being treated and precipitated by a sewage tank;
10) the clean flue gas is treated in multiple paths according to the situation: the first path is directly connected with an exhaust outlet of the chimney, and the second path enters the carbon dioxide catcher to catch carbon dioxide therein and then discharge the carbon dioxide; the third path is directly connected into a microalgae cultivation pipe (pond), and the micro-irrigation bacteria can absorb most of carbon dioxide (CO) in the flue gas2Absorption rate of more than 95 percent) and sulfur dioxide (SO)2The absorption rate reaches more than 80 percent) and nitrogen oxide (NOx, the absorption rate reaches more than 85 percent), and the rest nitrogen and oxygen are discharged from the cultivation pipe (pond) and discharged through a chimney; the gas obtained after combustion is cleaned, and air pollution is reduced;
11) after the clean flue gas second path is enriched by a carbon dioxide catcher, the caught carbon dioxide enters a microalgae cultivation pipe (pool) under the action of a Roots blower; after the cultivation of the microalgae is finished, the microalgae is guided out to a microalgae separator for solid-liquid separation, and solid substances are conveyed to a microalgae dryer for drying, so that dry algae powder is obtained. And packaging the microalgae powder by using a packaging machine, and selling. Liquid substances separated by the microalgae separator are led into a sewage treatment device for treatment, then are sent to a water softening and purifying device, and the softened and purified water is pumped into a microalgae cultivating pipe (pool) for cultivating microalgae so as to realize the recycling of water. During the cultivation of microalgae, part of water is consumed and can be supplemented by tap water. The micro-irrigation dryer is used for drying by using steam (1.2 MP) generated by a waste heat steam boiler, condensing the steam discharged by the drying device by using a steam condenser, and conveying condensed hot water to the steam boiler for reheating.
Step three: regarding the treatment of fly ash:
12) produced by secondary combustionMixing fly ash, fly ash collected by a bag-type dust collector and fly ash (harmful substances such as dioxin, heavy metal and the like can be adhered to the surfaces of particles) obtained by drying sludge generated by a wet-type electric precipitator, then burning at high temperature, wherein the temperature of the central point of high-temperature burning reaches more than 1600 ℃, burning flame comes from a plasma jet gun, energy and gas of the plasma jet gun come from a high-temperature plasma generator and a microwave generator, and the fly ash is sintered at high temperature, so that the dioxin adhered to the surfaces of the fly ash particles is cracked into carbon dioxide (CO)2) Water (H)2O) and hydrogen chloride (HC 1), heavy metals in the fly ash are coated in the inner core of the fly ash, the fly ash falling to the bottom of the combustion chamber is cooled to become a vitreous body, the vitreous body is crushed, and the crushed material can be made into a hydrophobic building material;
13) after gas-gas heat exchange is carried out on the flue gas and cold air in the high-temperature combustion process, part of hot gas enters a garbage gasification furnace through blast air, fly ash after the gas-gas heat exchange can be used as a hydrophobic building material after being collected through electrostatic dust collection, and the flue gas after dust collection enters the step 10) for treatment;
step four) utilization of heat
14) Using a heat source obtained by the waste heat steam boiler for drying microalgae; the heat source obtained by the waste heat hot water boiler is used for heating the microalgae workshop; the heat source obtained by gas-gas heat exchange is used for the hot air of the gasification furnace.
It is to be understood that the above embodiments are merely exemplary embodiments that have been employed to illustrate the principles of the present invention, and that the present invention is not limited thereto. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and improvements can be made without departing from the spirit and substance of the invention, and these modifications and improvements are also considered to be included in the scope of the invention.

Claims (7)

1. A system for treating household garbage is characterized by comprising a garbage pyrolysis part, a gas treatment part, a fly ash treatment part and an energy recycling part which are communicated with each other;
the garbage pyrolysis part comprises a garbage crusher, a garbage magnetic separator, garbage drying equipment and a gasification furnace which are sequentially communicated;
the gas treatment part comprises a secondary combustion chamber, a waste heat steam boiler, a waste heat hot water boiler, a urea absorption tower, a deacidification tower, an activated carbon adsorption tower, a bag-type dust collector, a draught fan, a wet-type electric dust collector, a gas collecting box and a chimney which are sequentially communicated;
the urea absorption tower comprises a urea absorption tower body, and a first gas distribution and liquid discharge device, a first cold energy exchange device, a first silk screen capture bed device, a first atomized liquid spray device and a first gas-liquid separation device which are sequentially arranged in the urea absorption tower body from bottom to top; a first air inlet and a first liquid outlet are formed in the bottom of the urea absorption tower body; the top of the urea absorption tower body is provided with a first gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a first gas outlet; the first atomized liquid spraying device comprises a first spray head, a first liquid inlet pipe and a urea solution tank;
the fly ash treatment part comprises a plasma jet gun, a high-temperature combustion chamber, a gas-gas heat exchanger, an electrostatic dust collector and a dust collector which are sequentially communicated;
the solid waste discharge port of the wet electric dust collector is connected with a sludge drying kiln; the secondary combustion chamber, the fly ash discharge port of the bag-type dust remover and the discharge port of the sludge drying kiln are connected with the feed inlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber;
the plasma spray gun is connected with the high-temperature plasma generator and the microwave generator;
the vitreous body outlet of the high-temperature combustion chamber and the slag outlet of the gasification furnace are connected with a pulverizer;
the energy recycling part comprises a waste heat steam boiler, a waste heat hot water boiler connected with a heating system of the microalgae cultivation workshop and a gas-gas heat exchanger connected with a gasification furnace.
2. The system for treating the household garbage according to claim 1, wherein the deacidification tower comprises a deacidification tower body, a second gas distribution and drainage device, a second cold energy exchange device, a second wire mesh capturing bed device, a second atomized liquid spraying device and a second gas-liquid separation device which are arranged in the deacidification tower body from bottom to top in sequence; the bottom of the deacidification tower body is provided with a second air inlet and a second liquid outlet; the top of the deacidification tower body is provided with a second gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a second gas outlet; the second atomized liquid spraying device comprises a second spray head, a second liquid inlet pipe and an alkaline liquid box.
3. The system for treating household garbage according to claim 1, wherein the activated carbon adsorption tower comprises an activated carbon adsorption tower body, and a gas distribution device, an activated carbon capture bed device and a gas-solid separation device which are sequentially arranged in the activated carbon adsorption tower body from bottom to top; a third air inlet is formed in the bottom of the activated carbon adsorption tower body; and a third gas discharge pressure regulating valve and a third gas outlet are arranged at the top of the activated carbon adsorption tower body.
4. The system for treating household garbage according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the gas collection box is respectively communicated with a chimney gas inlet, a carbon dioxide catcher gas inlet and a microalgae cultivation pipe gas inlet; and the air outlet of the chimney is directly connected with the atmosphere.
5. The system for treating household garbage according to claim 4, wherein the gas outlet of the carbon dioxide catcher is connected with a Roots blower, and the gas outlet of the Roots blower is connected with the microalgae cultivation pipe.
6. The system for treating household garbage according to claim 5, wherein the microalgae cultivating pipe is sequentially communicated with the microalgae separator, the microalgae dryer and the microalgae packing machine; the microalgae dryer is communicated with the waste heat steam boiler through a steam condenser, so that the microalgae dryer can be dried by utilizing the heat of the waste heat steam boiler; the microalgae separator, the sewage treatment device, the water softening and purifying device and the microalgae cultivation pipe form a closed water recycling system.
7. The system for treating household garbage according to claim 6, wherein the first liquid discharge port, the second liquid discharge port and the liquid discharge port of the wet electric precipitator are all connected with a sewage treatment device.
CN202021091157.7U 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 System for treating household garbage Active CN212746480U (en)

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