CN111397455A - Combined detonation method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunneling - Google Patents

Combined detonation method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunneling Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111397455A
CN111397455A CN202010295183.XA CN202010295183A CN111397455A CN 111397455 A CN111397455 A CN 111397455A CN 202010295183 A CN202010295183 A CN 202010295183A CN 111397455 A CN111397455 A CN 111397455A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
hole
holes
blast
blasting
smooth surface
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CN202010295183.XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
徐振洋
宁玉滢
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University of Science and Technology Liaoning USTL
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University of Science and Technology Liaoning USTL
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Priority to CN202010295183.XA priority Critical patent/CN111397455A/en
Publication of CN111397455A publication Critical patent/CN111397455A/en
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D47/00Separating dispersed particles from gases, air or vapours by liquid as separating agent
    • B01D47/06Spray cleaning
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/006Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries by making use of blasting methods
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • F42D1/08Tamping methods; Methods for loading boreholes with explosives; Apparatus therefor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • F42D1/08Tamping methods; Methods for loading boreholes with explosives; Apparatus therefor
    • F42D1/18Plugs for boreholes
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D5/00Safety arrangements

Abstract

The invention relates to a combined detonation method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunnel driving, which comprises the following steps: 1) designing the distribution of blast holes, the number of the blast holes and the blasting parameters of the blast holes; 2) drilling a blast hole; 3) filling blast holes, wherein a water bag is respectively arranged at the bottom of each blast hole and at the front section of the explosive; 4) designing the detonation sequence of the digital electronic detonator; 5) the first section of the cut hole is detonated by adopting forward charge, and the rest blast holes except the guide empty hole are detonated by adopting reverse charge; 6) filling the loaded blast hole by using a water-soil filling material with the same diameter as the diameter of the blast hole as stemming; 7) decoding the digital electronic detonator, and then detonating; and (4) compounding. The invention adopts the method of combining the hydraulic blasting and the optimized smooth blasting, has high blasting efficiency, deep single blasting depth, good crushing effect and uniform blasting pile shape distribution after blasting, is favorable for digging and transporting work, can reduce environmental pollution and save blasting cost.

Description

Combined detonation method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunneling
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of engineering blasting and tunnel construction, in particular to a combined blasting method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunnel driving.
Background
At present, the tunnel tunneling blasting generally uses a conventional smooth blasting technology, a millisecond delay detonating tube detonator is often used for detonating, or the millisecond delay detonating tube detonator is combined with a detonating cord for use, so that the initiation time cannot be accurately controlled, and the blasting effect is influenced. Electronic detonators are used in a small part of projects, but the traditional tunnel blasting initiation sequence is still adopted, so that the effects are not obvious in the aspects of improving the blasting effect and reducing the blasting hazard effect. Under the condition, the improvement of the single blasting footage is difficult to realize on the premise of ensuring the blasting effect and controlling the blasting hazard effect.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a combined initiation method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunnel driving, which adopts a method combining water pressure blasting and optimized smooth blasting, has high blasting efficiency, single blasting depth, good crushing effect and uniform blasting pile shape distribution after blasting, is beneficial to excavation and transportation work, can reduce environmental pollution and save blasting cost.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a combined initiation method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunnel driving comprises the following steps:
1) designing the distribution of blast holes, the number of the blast holes and the blasting parameters of the blast holes; wherein the blasting parameters of the blast hole comprise a vibration reduction hole, a cut hole, a peripheral smooth surface hole, an auxiliary hole, a caving hole and a guide empty hole;
2) drilling blast holes on a driving tunnel face of a tunnel to be blasted; the specific process is as follows:
(1) drilling a cut hole; the cut hole is positioned in the center of the tunneling working face and is a wedge-shaped hole; the blasting hole is used for throwing out rocks at the center of the excavation surface during blasting and forming a free surface for the auxiliary hole; the aperture of the cut hole is 38-42 mm; the distance between every two vertically adjacent cut holes is 500-600 mm, and the depth of each cut hole is 4000-5000 mm;
(2) drilling peripheral smooth surface holes and guide hollow holes; drilling a row of peripheral smooth surface holes at intervals on the tunneling face along the outer contour of the tunneling face, wherein the peripheral smooth surface holes are drilled in parallel; the aperture of the peripheral smooth surface hole is 38-42 mm; the distance between the peripheral smooth surface holes is 500-600 mm; the depth of the peripheral smooth surface holes is 3700-3800 mm; drilling a guide hollow hole every 4 peripheral smooth surface holes at intervals, wherein the aperture of the guide hollow hole is the same as that of the peripheral smooth surface holes, and the depth of the guide hollow hole is more than 200mm greater than that of the peripheral smooth surface holes;
(3) drilling an auxiliary hole; at least 2 rows of auxiliary holes are respectively drilled between the peripheral smooth holes and the cut holes corresponding to the top surface and two sides of the tunnel, and the distance between every two adjacent 2 rows of auxiliary holes is 500-550 mm; the aperture of the auxiliary hole is 40-50 mm; the distance between every two adjacent auxiliary holes in the same row is 700-850 mm; the depth of the auxiliary hole is 3700-3900 mm;
(4) drilling a vibration reduction hole; a circle of vibration reduction holes are arranged between the peripheral smooth hole and the auxiliary hole, and the aperture of each vibration reduction hole is the same as that of the peripheral smooth hole; the diameter of the vibration reduction holes is 120-140 mm, and the distance between the vibration reduction holes is 100-150 mm;
(5) drilling a collapse hole; at least 1 row of collapse holes are arranged between the vibration reduction holes and the auxiliary holes, and the depth of each collapse hole is more than 200mm greater than that of the peripheral smooth surface hole;
3) except the guide empty hole and the auxiliary hole, charging is carried out in other blast holes, and a water bag is respectively arranged at the bottom of each blast hole and at the front section of the explosive; when charging, the digital electronic detonator is inserted into a cartridge and placed at the bottom of the blast hole, and a blast rod is adopted to charge and compact the explosives in each blast hole; the priming detonator adopts a digital electronic detonator;
4) designing the detonation sequence of the digital electronic detonator; the initiation sequence is cut hole → damping hole → collapse hole → peripheral smooth surface hole; wherein the detonation sequence of the caving holes is as follows: symmetrically taking the central vertical line of the tunnel face, and detonating 2 blast holes corresponding to two sides of the caving hole from bottom to top; the shock absorption holes are detonated simultaneously in a group of every 2 blast holes from bottom to top;
5) the first section of the cut hole is detonated by adopting forward charge, and the rest blast holes except the guide empty hole are detonated by adopting reverse charge; firing the network by using a booster detonator;
6) filling the loaded blast hole by using a water-soil filling material with the same diameter as the diameter of the blast hole as stemming;
7) decoding the digital electronic detonator, and then detonating; and (4) compounding.
In the step 3), the charging mode adopts non-coupling continuous charging.
The water bag is made of plastic and is processed and manufactured by adopting an automatic water injection sealing machine of the blast hole water bag.
The water bag is cylindrical, the diameter of the water bag is 35-38 mm, the length of the water bag is 0.18-0.22 m, and the thickness of the water bag is 0.6-1.0 mm.
In the step 4), instantaneous non-combined electric detonators are used as the booster detonators, and network connection is sequentially carried out from the cut holes to the periphery.
In the step 5), the gun rod is made of a wood stick and a rubber head, one end of the wood stick is used for holding, the other end of the wood stick is provided with the rubber head, and the diameter of the rubber head is smaller than the diameter of the gun hole by 8-12 mm.
The booster detonator adopts an electric detonator and an initiator as a power supply.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
1) the single blasting depth of advance, the crushing effect is good, and the blasting pile shape after blasting is uniformly distributed, thus being beneficial to the digging and transporting work;
2) the number of blast holes detonated simultaneously is reduced, blasting vibration and blasting shock waves are reduced, and impact on surrounding rocks is reduced;
3) the blast hole is blocked by using water-soil composite, so that the action time of stress waves is prolonged, the rock crushing effect is favorably improved, and the explosive shock waves and dust are reduced;
4) the invention adopts a method combining water pressure blasting and smooth blasting, and adopts a method of hole guiding to optimize the smooth blasting, namely, the hole is used for controlling the expansion track of the blasting crack; the hydraulic blasting is beneficial to surrounding rock crushing, and the large block rate generated by blasting is reduced; the atomizing effect of the blocked water bag can absorb and reduce the dust concentration, reduce the environmental pollution and further improve the blasting efficiency;
5) the invention can adopt different cut blasting methods and hole depth designs of apertures according to different surrounding rocks and field conditions, and finally achieves the purposes of improving the blasting efficiency, reducing the vibration speed and saving the cost.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the blast hole design of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic illustration of the stemming of a borehole according to the invention.
In the figure: 1. peripheral smooth surface holes 2, guide holes 3, vibration reduction holes 4, auxiliary holes 5, cut holes 6, collapse holes 7, central holes 8, water bag 9, explosive 10, stemming 11 and detonating cord
Detailed Description
The following further describes embodiments of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings:
the invention relates to a combined initiation method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunneling,
a combined initiation method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunnel driving comprises the following steps:
1) designing the distribution of blast holes, the number of the blast holes and the blasting parameters of the blast holes; as shown in fig. 1, the blasting parameters of the blast hole include a damping hole 3, a cut hole 5, a peripheral smooth surface hole 1, an auxiliary hole 4, a caving hole 6 and a pilot hole 2;
2) drilling blast holes on a driving tunnel face of a tunnel to be blasted; the specific process is as follows:
(1) drilling a cut hole 5; the cut hole 5 is positioned in the center of the tunneling tunnel face and is a wedge-shaped hole; the blasting device is used for throwing out rocks in the center of an excavation surface during blasting to form a free surface for the auxiliary hole 4; the aperture of the cut hole 5 is 38-42 mm; the distance between every two vertically adjacent cut holes 5 is 500-600 mm, and the depth of each cut hole 5 is 4000-5000 mm;
(2) drilling a peripheral smooth surface hole 1 and a guide hollow hole 2; drilling a row of peripheral smooth surface holes 1 on the tunneling face at intervals along the outer contour of the tunneling face, wherein the peripheral smooth surface holes 1 are drilled in parallel; the aperture of the peripheral smooth surface hole 1 is 38-42 mm; the distance between the peripheral smooth surface holes 1 is 500-600 mm; the depth of the peripheral smooth surface holes 1 is 3700-3800 mm; drilling a guide empty hole 2 every 4 peripheral smooth surface holes 1 at intervals, wherein the aperture of the guide empty hole 2 is the same as that of the peripheral smooth surface hole 1, and the depth of the guide empty hole 2 is more than 200mm greater than that of the peripheral smooth surface hole 1;
(3) drilling an auxiliary hole 4; at least 2 rows of auxiliary holes 4 are respectively drilled between the peripheral smooth holes 1 and the cut holes 5 corresponding to the top surface and two sides of the tunnel, and the distance between every two adjacent 2 rows of auxiliary holes 4 is 500-550 mm; the aperture of the auxiliary hole 4 is 40-50 mm; the distance between every two adjacent auxiliary holes 4 in the same row is 700-850 mm; the depth of the auxiliary hole 4 is 3700-3900 mm;
(4) drilling a damping hole 3; a circle of damping holes 3 are arranged between the peripheral smooth hole 1 and the auxiliary holes 4, and the aperture of each damping hole 3 is the same as that of the peripheral smooth hole 1; the diameter of the vibration reduction holes 3 is 120-140 mm, and the distance between the vibration reduction holes 3 is 100-150 mm;
(5) drilling a breakout hole 6; at least 1 row of the collapse holes 6 are arranged between the vibration reduction holes 3 and the auxiliary holes 4, and the hole depth of each collapse hole 6 is more than 200mm greater than the depth of the peripheral smooth surface holes 1;
3) except for the guide hollow hole 2 and the auxiliary hole 4, charging is carried out in other blast holes, and a water bag 8 (shown in figure 2) is respectively arranged at the bottom of each blast hole and at the front section of the explosive 9; when charging, the digital electronic detonator is inserted into a cartridge and placed at the bottom of the blast hole, and a blast rod is adopted to charge and compact the explosives in each blast hole; the priming detonator adopts a digital electronic detonator;
4) designing the detonation sequence of the digital electronic detonator; the initiation sequence is cut hole 5 → damping hole 3 → collapse hole 6 → peripheral smooth surface hole 1; the detonation sequence of the caving hole 6 is as follows: 2 blast holes corresponding to two sides of the caving hole 6 are detonated simultaneously according to the sequence from bottom to top by symmetrical about the central vertical line of the tunnel face; the damping holes 3 are detonated simultaneously in a group of every 2 blast holes from bottom to top;
5) the first section of the cut hole 5 is detonated by adopting forward charge, and the rest blast holes except the guide hollow hole 2 are detonated by adopting reverse charge; firing the network by using a booster detonator;
6) using a water-soil filling material with the same diameter as the diameter of the blast hole as the stemming 10 to fill the blast hole after charging;
7) decoding the digital electronic detonator, and then detonating; and (4) compounding.
In the step 3), the charging mode adopts non-coupling continuous charging.
The water bag 8 is made of plastic and is processed and manufactured by an automatic water injection sealing machine of a blast hole water bag.
The water bag 8 is cylindrical, the diameter of the water bag 8 is 35-38 mm, the length of the water bag 8 is 0.18-0.22 m, and the thickness of the water bag 8 is 0.6-1.0 mm.
In the step 4), instantaneous non-combined electric detonators are used as the booster detonators, and network connection is sequentially carried out from the slotted hole 5 to the periphery.
In the step 5), the gun rod is made of a wood stick and a rubber head, one end of the wood stick is used for holding, the other end of the wood stick is provided with the rubber head, and the diameter of the rubber head is smaller than the diameter of the gun hole by 8-12 mm.
The booster detonator adopts an electric detonator and an initiator as a power supply.
The invention adopts a guide hole to optimize the smooth blasting technology, and the hole guide means that when peripheral blast holes are arranged in tunnel blasting construction, holes are arranged near the original cracks of surrounding rocks, at positions with relatively strong rock anti-explosion performance and at positions of arch shoulders, namely, the expansion tracks of the blasting cracks are controlled by the holes, so that the aim of controlling the overbreak is fulfilled. And drilling the guide holes and the peripheral smooth holes by using a down-the-hole drill, wherein the number of the guide holes is designed and adjusted according to the field condition. The peripheral smooth holes need to be filled with small explosive cartridges with low power and low detonation velocity, and the detonation time between the peripheral smooth holes is strictly controlled.
The following examples are carried out on the premise of the technical scheme of the invention, and detailed embodiments and specific operation processes are given, but the scope of the invention is not limited to the following examples. The methods used in the following examples are conventional methods unless otherwise specified.
[ example 1 ]
As shown in fig. 1, in this embodiment, the tunnel surrounding rock belongs to class II to class III surrounding rocks, the crack is medium in development, the total length is 203m, the tunnel is located on a curve with a radius R of 3400m and a longitudinal slope of 5.2 ‰, the tunnel is a single-line tunnel, and is a semicircular arch with a section position bottom width of 5m, a wall height of 4m, and an arch radius of 2.5 m.
In this embodiment, the adopted combined initiation method specifically includes the following steps:
(1) a central hollow hole 7 is formed in the central part of the tunnel, the diameter of the central hollow hole 7 is 98mm, and the hole depth is 3.5 m; 4 cut holes 5 are arranged at a position 25cm away from the periphery of the central hollow hole 7 according to a rhombus, the aperture of each cut hole 5 is 42mm, and the hole depth is 3 m.
(2) A circle of peripheral smooth surface holes 1 are arranged along the side wall and the vault of the tunnel, the aperture of each peripheral smooth surface hole 1 is 42mm, the hole depth is 3m, and the hole distance is 50 cm.
(3) 2 rows of auxiliary holes 4 are respectively drilled between the peripheral smooth holes 1 and the cut holes 5 corresponding to the top and two sides of the tunnel, and the distance between the 2 rows of auxiliary holes 4 is 500 mm.
(4) Every 4 peripheral smooth surface holes 1 are provided with a guide hollow hole 2, and the depth of the guide hollow hole 2 is 3.2 m.
(5) A row of damping holes 3 are arranged between the peripheral smooth hole 1 and the auxiliary holes 4 corresponding to the top and two sides of the tunnel, and 3 rows of damping holes 3 are symmetrically arranged on the left side and the right side of the inner side of the peripheral smooth hole 1 corresponding to the bottom of the tunnel.
(6) 1 row of collapse holes 6 are arranged between the vibration damping holes 3 and the auxiliary holes 4 corresponding to the top and two sides of the tunnel, the aperture of each collapse hole 6 is 42mm, and the hole depth is 3.2 m.
(7) Inserting the instantaneous electronic detonator into a cartridge and placing the cartridge at the bottom of the blast hole, using the blast rod to load and compress the explosive 9, wherein the diameter of the rubber end of the blast rod is less than 10mm of the diameter of the blast hole, and the central hole 7, the guide hole 2 and the auxiliary hole 4 are not loaded with the explosive. The cut hole 5 adopts forward continuous non-coupling charging, the caving hole 6 adopts reverse continuous non-coupling charging, the peripheral smooth hole 1 adopts discontinuous non-coupling charging, and the detonating fuse 11 is excited by an electric detonator. A water bag 8 is respectively arranged at the bottom of each blast hole and at the front section of the explosive 9.
(8) An instantaneous electronic detonator is adopted for transfer detonation, the detonation sequence is cut hole 5 → damping hole 3 → breakout hole 6 → peripheral smooth surface hole 1, and 2 blast holes corresponding to two sides of breakout hole 6 are detonated simultaneously from bottom to top; the shock-absorbing holes 3 are detonated in the sequence that every 2 holes are detonated simultaneously from bottom to top.
(9) The charged blast hole is stuffed with a water-soil stemming material having the same diameter as the diameter of the blast hole as the stemming 10.
(10) Decoding the electronic detonator, and then detonating; and (4) compounding.
The implementation effect is as follows:
(1) the engineering efficiency is improved, the average circulating footage is 2.92m, the monthly progress is over 160m, the tunneling speed is greatly improved, the utilization rate of blast holes is 95.5 percent, and the blasting vibration speed is 6cm/s after the stabilization.
(2) The explosive shock wave and the dust are less, the explosive pile after blasting is uniformly distributed, the lumpiness is small, and the scraper is favorable for carrying.
(3) The influence on side walls and vault is small, the explosion vibration is small, and the light explosion effect is good.
(4) The phenomenon of over-excavation and under-excavation is effectively controlled.
[ example 2 ]
In the embodiment, the tunnel surrounding rock belongs to I-II grade surrounding rock, the crack is medium-sized, the total length is 980m, the tunnel is positioned on a straight line of 4.5 per mill of a longitudinal slope, the tunnel is a one-way double-lane tunnel, and the tunnel is a semicircular arch tunnel with the section position of 12m wide at the bottom, 6m high at the wall and 6m of arch radius.
In this embodiment, the adopted combined initiation method specifically includes the following steps:
(1) a central hollow hole is formed in the central part of the tunnel, the diameter of the central hollow hole is 98mm, and the hole depth is 3.5 m; 4 cut holes are spirally arranged at a position 25cm away from the periphery of the central hollow hole, the aperture of each cut hole is 42mm, and the hole depth is 3 m; 6 expanded holes are arranged 35cm away from the periphery of the cut hole, the aperture of each expanded hole is 42mm, and the hole depth is 3 m.
(2) And a circle of peripheral smooth surface holes are arranged along the side wall and the vault of the tunnel, the aperture of each peripheral smooth surface hole is 42mm, the depth of each hole is 3m, and the pitch of the holes is 50 cm.
(3) 2 rows of auxiliary holes are drilled between the peripheral smooth holes and the cut holes, and the distance between every two adjacent 2 rows of auxiliary holes is 500 mm.
(4) And arranging a guide hollow hole every 4 peripheral smooth holes, wherein the depth of each guide hollow hole is 3.2 m.
(5) A ring of vibration reduction holes are arranged between the peripheral smooth hole and the auxiliary holes.
(6) 3 circles of the caving holes are arranged between the vibration damping holes and the auxiliary holes, the aperture of each caving hole is 42mm, and the hole depth is 3.2 m.
(7) Inserting an instantaneous electronic detonator into a cartridge and placing the cartridge at the bottom of each blast hole, respectively filling a water bag at the bottom of each blast hole and at the front section of each explosive, filling and compressing the explosive by using a blast rod, wherein the diameter of the rubber end of the blast rod is 10mm smaller than that of each blast hole, and the central hole, the guide hole and the auxiliary hole are not filled with the explosive. The cut hole adopts forward continuous non-coupling charging, the caving hole adopts reverse continuous non-coupling charging, the peripheral smooth hole adopts discontinuous non-coupling charging, and an electric detonator is used for exciting a detonating fuse.
(8) The transfer explosion adopts an instantaneous electronic detonator, and the initiation sequence is slotted hole → damping hole → breakout hole → peripheral smooth surface hole.
(9) And (3) filling the filled blast hole by using a water-soil filling material with the same diameter as the diameter of the blast hole.
(10) Decoding the electronic detonator, and then detonating; and (4) compounding.
The implementation effect is as follows:
(1) the engineering efficiency is improved, the average circulation footage is 2.99m, the monthly progress is more than 170m, the utilization rate of blast holes is 96.3 percent, the maximum blasting vibration speed of the first three times is 12cm/s, the blasting vibration speed is reduced to 7cm/s after the blasting parameters and the positions and the sequence of the damping holes are modified, and the tunneling efficiency is improved to the maximum extent under the condition of meeting the safety standard of the blasting vibration of the tunnel.
(2) The explosive shock wave and the dust are less, the explosive pile after blasting is uniformly distributed, the lumpiness is small, and the scraper is favorable for carrying.
(3) The influence on side walls and vault is small, the explosion vibration is small, and the light explosion effect is good.
(4) The phenomenon of over-excavation and under-excavation is effectively controlled.
[ example 3 ]
In this embodiment, the tunnel surrounding rock belongs to class II to III surrounding rock, the crack is medium-sized, the total length is 570m, the tunnel is located on a curve with a radius R of 3000m and a longitudinal slope of 3.5 ‰, the tunnel is a single-line tunnel, and is a semicircular arch tunnel with a section position of 7m wide at the bottom, a wall height of 4m, and an arch radius of 3.5 m.
In this embodiment, the adopted combined initiation method specifically includes the following steps:
(1) a central hollow hole is formed in the central part of the tunnel, the diameter of the central hollow hole is 98mm, and the hole depth is 3.5 m; 4 cut holes are arranged in a diamond shape at a position 25cm away from the periphery of the central hollow hole, the aperture of each cut hole is 42mm, and the hole depth is 3 m; 4 expanded holes are arranged at the position 35cm away from the periphery of the cut hole, the aperture of each expanded hole is 42mm, and the hole depth is 3 m.
(2) And a circle of peripheral smooth surface holes are arranged along the side wall and the vault of the tunnel, the aperture of each peripheral smooth surface hole is 42mm, the depth of each hole is 3m, and the pitch of the holes is 50 cm.
(3) 2 rows of auxiliary holes are drilled between the peripheral smooth holes and the cut holes, and the distance between every two adjacent 2 rows of auxiliary holes is 500 mm.
(4) And arranging a guide hollow hole every 4 peripheral smooth holes, wherein the depth of each guide hollow hole is 3.2 m.
(5) A ring of vibration reduction holes are arranged between the peripheral smooth hole and the auxiliary holes.
(6) 3 circles of the caving holes are arranged between the vibration damping holes and the auxiliary holes, the aperture of each caving hole is 42mm, and the hole depth is 3.2 m.
(7) Inserting an instantaneous electronic detonator into a cartridge and placing the cartridge at the bottom of each blast hole, respectively filling a water bag at the bottom of each blast hole and at the front section of each explosive, filling and compressing the explosive by using a blast rod, wherein the diameter of the rubber end on the blast rod is less than 10mm of the diameter of each blast hole, and the center hole, the guide hole and the auxiliary hole are not filled with the explosive. The cut hole adopts forward continuous non-coupling charging, the caving hole adopts reverse continuous non-coupling charging, the peripheral smooth hole adopts discontinuous non-coupling charging, and an electric detonator is used for exciting a detonating fuse.
(8) The transfer explosion adopts an instantaneous electronic detonator, and the initiation sequence is slotted hole → damping hole → breakout hole → peripheral smooth surface hole.
(9) And (3) filling the filled blast hole by using a water-soil filling material with the same diameter as the diameter of the blast hole.
(10) Decoding the electronic detonator, and then detonating; and (4) compounding.
The implementation effect is as follows:
(1) the engineering efficiency is improved, the average circulating footage is 2.66m, the monthly progress is over 160m, the utilization rate of blast holes is 95.5 percent, and the blasting vibration speed is 6cm/s after the stability.
(2) The explosive shock wave and the dust are less, the explosive pile after blasting is uniformly distributed, the lumpiness is small, and the scraper is favorable for carrying.
(3) The influence on side walls and vault is small, the explosion vibration is small, and the light explosion effect is good.
(4) The phenomenon of over-excavation and under-excavation is effectively controlled.
[ example 4 ]
In this embodiment, the tunnel surrounding rock belongs to class II to III surrounding rock, the crack is medium-sized, the total length is 860m, the tunnel is located on a curve with a radius R equal to 2400m and a longitudinal slope of 2.7 ‰, the tunnel is a single-line tunnel, and is a semicircular arch tunnel with a section position of 8m bottom width, a wall height of 5m, and an arch radius of 4 m.
In this embodiment, the adopted combined initiation method specifically includes the following steps:
(1) a central hollow hole is formed in the central part of the tunnel, the diameter of the central hollow hole is 98mm, and the hole depth is 3.5 m; 4 cut holes are arranged in a rhombic shape at a position 25cm away from the periphery of the central hollow hole, the aperture of each cut hole is 42mm, and the hole depth is 3 m.
(2) And a circle of peripheral smooth surface holes are arranged along the side wall and the vault of the tunnel, the aperture of each peripheral smooth surface hole is 42mm, the depth of each hole is 3m, and the pitch of the holes is 50 cm.
(3) 2 rows of auxiliary holes are drilled between the peripheral smooth holes and the cut holes, and the distance between every two adjacent 2 rows of auxiliary holes is 500 mm.
(4) And arranging a guide hollow hole every 4 peripheral smooth holes, wherein the depth of each guide hollow hole is 3.2 m.
(5) A ring of vibration reduction holes are arranged between the peripheral smooth hole and the auxiliary holes.
(6) 3 circles of the caving holes are arranged between the vibration damping holes and the auxiliary holes, the aperture of each caving hole is 42mm, and the hole depth is 3.2 m.
(7) The instantaneous electronic detonator is inserted into a cartridge and placed at the bottom of each blast hole, and a water bag is respectively arranged at the bottom of each blast hole and at the front section of the explosive. And (3) filling and compressing explosives by using a gun rod, wherein the diameter of the rubber coating end of the gun rod is less than 10mm of the diameter of the gun hole, and the explosive is not filled in the central hole, the guide hole and the auxiliary hole. The cut hole adopts forward continuous non-coupling charging, the caving hole adopts reverse continuous non-coupling charging, the peripheral smooth hole adopts discontinuous non-coupling charging, and an electric detonator is used for exciting a detonating fuse.
(8) The transfer explosion adopts an instantaneous electronic detonator, and the initiation sequence is slotted hole → damping hole → breakout hole → peripheral smooth surface hole.
(9) And (3) filling the filled blast hole by using a water-soil filling material with the same diameter as the diameter of the blast hole.
(10) Decoding the electronic detonator, and then detonating; and (4) compounding.
The implementation effect is as follows:
(1) the engineering efficiency is improved, the average circulating footage is 2.86m, the monthly progress is more than 170m, the utilization rate of blast holes is 96.0 percent, and the blasting vibration speed is 5cm/s after the stability.
(2) The explosive shock wave and the dust are less, the explosive pile after blasting is uniformly distributed, the lumpiness is small, and the scraper is favorable for carrying.
(3) The influence on side walls and vault is small, the explosion vibration is small, and the light explosion effect is good.
(4) The phenomenon of over-excavation and under-excavation is effectively controlled.
The above description is only for the preferred embodiment of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any person skilled in the art should be considered to be within the technical scope of the present invention, and the technical solutions and the inventive concepts thereof according to the present invention should be equivalent or changed within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. A combined initiation method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunneling is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) designing the distribution of blast holes, the number of the blast holes and the blasting parameters of the blast holes; wherein the blasting parameters of the blast hole comprise a vibration reduction hole, a cut hole, a peripheral smooth surface hole, an auxiliary hole, a caving hole and a guide empty hole;
2) drilling blast holes on a driving tunnel face of a tunnel to be blasted; the specific process is as follows:
(1) drilling a cut hole; the cut hole is positioned in the center of the tunneling working face and is a wedge-shaped hole; the blasting hole is used for throwing out rocks at the center of the excavation surface during blasting and forming a free surface for the auxiliary hole; the aperture of the cut hole is 38-42 mm; the distance between every two vertically adjacent cut holes is 500-600 mm, and the depth of each cut hole is 4000-5000 mm;
(2) drilling peripheral smooth surface holes and guide hollow holes; drilling a row of peripheral smooth surface holes at intervals on the tunneling face along the outer contour of the tunneling face, wherein the peripheral smooth surface holes are drilled in parallel; the aperture of the peripheral smooth surface hole is 38-42 mm; the distance between the peripheral smooth surface holes is 500-600 mm; the depth of the peripheral smooth surface holes is 3700-3800 mm; drilling a guide hollow hole every 4 peripheral smooth surface holes at intervals, wherein the aperture of the guide hollow hole is the same as that of the peripheral smooth surface holes, and the depth of the guide hollow hole is more than 200mm greater than that of the peripheral smooth surface holes;
(3) drilling an auxiliary hole; at least 2 rows of auxiliary holes are respectively drilled between the peripheral smooth holes and the cut holes corresponding to the top surface and two sides of the tunnel, and the distance between every two adjacent 2 rows of auxiliary holes is 500-550 mm; the aperture of the auxiliary hole is 40-50 mm; the distance between every two adjacent auxiliary holes in the same row is 700-850 mm; the depth of the auxiliary hole is 3700-3900 mm;
(4) drilling a vibration reduction hole; a circle of vibration reduction holes are arranged between the peripheral smooth hole and the auxiliary hole, and the aperture of each vibration reduction hole is the same as that of the peripheral smooth hole; the diameter of the vibration reduction holes is 120-140 mm, and the distance between the vibration reduction holes is 100-150 mm;
(5) drilling a collapse hole; at least 1 row of collapse holes are arranged between the vibration reduction holes and the auxiliary holes, and the depth of each collapse hole is more than 200mm greater than that of the peripheral smooth surface hole;
3) except the guide empty hole and the auxiliary hole, charging is carried out in other blast holes, and a water bag is respectively arranged at the bottom of each blast hole and at the front section of the explosive; when charging, the digital electronic detonator is inserted into a cartridge and placed at the bottom of the blast hole, and a blast rod is adopted to charge and compact the explosives in each blast hole; the priming detonator adopts a digital electronic detonator;
4) designing the detonation sequence of the digital electronic detonator; the initiation sequence is cut hole → damping hole → collapse hole → peripheral smooth surface hole; wherein the detonation sequence of the caving holes is as follows: symmetrically taking the central vertical line of the tunnel face, and detonating 2 blast holes corresponding to two sides of the caving hole from bottom to top; the shock absorption holes are detonated simultaneously in a group of every 2 blast holes from bottom to top;
5) the first section of the cut hole is detonated by adopting forward charge, and the rest blast holes except the guide empty hole are detonated by adopting reverse charge; firing the network by using a booster detonator;
6) filling the loaded blast hole by using a water-soil filling material with the same diameter as the diameter of the blast hole as stemming;
7) decoding the digital electronic detonator, and then detonating; and (4) compounding.
2. The combined initiation method for accurately controlling the blasting effect in tunneling according to claim 1, wherein in the step 3), the charging mode adopts uncoupled continuous charging.
3. The combined initiation method for accurately controlling the blasting effect in tunneling according to claim 1, wherein the water bag is made of plastic and is processed and manufactured by an automatic water injection sealer for a blast hole water bag.
4. The combined blasting method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunneling according to claim 3, wherein said water bag is cylindrical, has a diameter of 35 to 38mm, a length of 0.18 to 0.22m and a thickness of 0.6 to 1.0 mm.
5. The combined blasting method for accurately controlling the blasting effect in tunneling according to claim 1, wherein in the step 4), instantaneous non-combined electric detonators are used as the booster detonators, and the network connection is performed sequentially from the undercut hole to the periphery.
6. The combined initiation method for accurately controlling the blasting effect in tunneling according to claim 1, wherein in the step 5), the gun barrel is made of a wood stick and a rubber head, one end of the wood stick is used for holding by hand, the other end of the wood stick is provided with the rubber head, and the diameter of the rubber head is smaller than the diameter of the blast hole by 8-12 mm.
7. The combined initiation method for accurately controlling the blasting effect in tunneling according to claim 1, characterized in that the booster detonator adopts an electric detonator and an initiator is used as a power supply.
CN202010295183.XA 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 Combined detonation method for accurately controlling blasting effect in tunneling Pending CN111397455A (en)

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CN112964143A (en) * 2021-03-24 2021-06-15 山东科技大学 Three-time blasting method for hollow hole straight-hole cut

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CN111895870A (en) * 2020-07-26 2020-11-06 中国水利水电第七工程局有限公司 Inclined shaft blasting particle size control method
CN111895870B (en) * 2020-07-26 2022-07-05 中国水利水电第七工程局有限公司 Inclined shaft blasting particle size control method
CN112964143A (en) * 2021-03-24 2021-06-15 山东科技大学 Three-time blasting method for hollow hole straight-hole cut
CN112964143B (en) * 2021-03-24 2021-09-21 山东科技大学 Three-time blasting method for hollow hole straight-hole cut

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