CN111003893B - New rural sewage treatment irrigation system and treatment method - Google Patents

New rural sewage treatment irrigation system and treatment method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111003893B
CN111003893B CN201911364606.2A CN201911364606A CN111003893B CN 111003893 B CN111003893 B CN 111003893B CN 201911364606 A CN201911364606 A CN 201911364606A CN 111003893 B CN111003893 B CN 111003893B
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rural sewage
water
rainwater
plants
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CN111003893A (en
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杨炜雯
陈益成
谢永新
李锐敬
雒怀庆
黄睦凯
曹姝文
刘晓永
许嘉辉
周文栋
徐鑫
许佳敏
郑松浩
陈嘉诚
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GUANGZHOU EP ENVIROMENTAL ENGINEERING Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F9/00Multistage treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/001Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/28Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption
    • C02F1/281Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by sorption using inorganic sorbents
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F2001/007Processes including a sedimentation step
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae

Abstract

The invention discloses a new rural sewage treatment irrigation system and a new rural sewage treatment method. The treatment system provided by the invention skillfully combines the regulation and storage of rainwater with the treatment of domestic sewage, utilizes the unpowered ecological detention pond and the artificial wetland to remove toxic and harmful pollutants in rural sewage, has the highest removal rates of COD, TN, TP and TSS of 65.3%, 85.0%, 88.7% and 35.6%, can be directly used for garden irrigation, realizes the resource utilization of water, has small occupied area and low operation cost, and is very suitable for the treatment of dispersed sewage.

Description

New rural sewage treatment irrigation system and treatment method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of sewage treatment, and particularly relates to a system and a method for treating and irrigating sewage in a new rural area.
Background
The rural domestic sewage refers to sewage discharged by a toilet and kitchen wastewater when people take a bath or wash clothes in the living process. At present, the treatment rate of domestic sewage in rural areas in China is low, most of the domestic sewage can be directly discharged without treatment or can not be discharged and treated in a centralized manner, and the living environment and the body health of vast rural masses are seriously influenced and threatened. The traditional rural sewage treatment method is to directly discharge sewage to receiving water or nearby farmlands after the sewage is treated by a septic tank. The recycling of rural sewage can effectively relieve the problem that part of irrigation water resources are scarce, but ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus and other toxic and harmful substances of the rural sewage often seriously exceed the standard, and the rural sewage has the characteristics of unstable and small water quantity.
On the other hand, rainwater is an important water resource for reuse irrigation, and is often directly discharged due to lack of storage facilities in vast rural areas, so that water resource loss and waste and seasonal water shortage are easily caused. Rainwater is not widely used for reuse irrigation, and an important reason is that initial rainwater is polluted greatly and needs to be treated before being used. However, the independent establishment of the initial rainwater system is not suitable for the development level of rural economic society in China, and inevitably faces the problems of land occupation and cost.
If the sewage treatment system and the rainwater storage and regulation system can be organically combined, the sewage treatment system is utilized to treat rainwater with poor water quality, particularly rainwater with large initial pollution, so that the rainwater can reach the standard and be discharged; meanwhile, the rainwater storage and regulation system is fully utilized, the problem of shortage of rural irrigation water resources is solved, a multifunctional water resource treatment and utilization system and method are formed, and the method is an approach for effectively solving the technical problems.
Disclosure of Invention
Based on the above, the present invention aims to provide a new rural sewage treatment irrigation system and method.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme: the utility model provides a new rural sewage treatment system, the system includes sewage collection unit, rainwater collection unit, sand setting unit, ecological pond unit and constructed wetland unit that detains that loops through the pipe connection, wherein:
the ecological detention pond unit comprises a soil pond substrate and aquatic plants growing on the soil substrate; the aquatic plants are Equisetum rotundus, Foliumet sidum, Argasta crenata and Festuca arundinacea;
the artificial wetland unit is an up-flow vertical subsurface flow artificial wetland and sequentially comprises a water distribution area, a crushed stone layer, a zeolite layer, a coarse sand matrix layer, a soil matrix layer and aquatic plants from bottom to top. The up-flow vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland mainly strengthens the removal effect on TN and COD, a gravel layer is laid at the bottom, and the resistance of the water body flowing upwards is reduced by utilizing larger gaps among the gravels, so that the water flow is prevented from being short-circuited, and the water flow can form a canal flow; meanwhile, the larger specific surface area of the macadam substrate is beneficial to microorganisms to be attached to the macadam substrate, and the attached microorganisms have good removal effect on COD; the zeolite layer is laid on the crushed stone layer, so that the adsorption effect on TN can be enhanced. The coarse sand matrix has a filtering effect and can effectively prevent the wetland from being blocked.
The ecological retention pond has the effects that pollutants in a particle state or adsorbed by particles are removed through sedimentation of tiny suspended particles (TSS), the pollutants in the particle state are prevented from entering the artificial wetland, and soluble organic matters (COD), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) in a water body are removed through the absorption of aquatic plants.
The surfaces of the aquatic plants can be used as growth media of microorganisms, the flow state of water flow in a detention pond can be changed, meanwhile, the morphological structure of the aquatic plants and the combination of the aquatic plants and other aquatic plants have great influence on the microenvironment of a water body, the influence can influence the removal effect of integral COD (chemical oxygen demand), micro suspended particulate matters (TSS) and the like to a certain extent, and in addition, the mutual influence among the plants is usually ignored in the existing research.
Through a large amount of experiments and screening, the interaction between different aquatic plants is researched according to the configuration and parameters of the ecological detention pond, and the most suitable aquatic plant combination is obtained. When the hydraulic retention time is 4d, the aquatic plant combination can achieve 65.3% of removal rate of COD, 85.0% of removal rate of TN, 88.7% of removal rate of TP and 35.6% of removal rate of TSS.
Meanwhile, due to the fact that the oxygen yield of the Gastrodia elata is high, oxygen can be provided for the growth of aquatic plants in the ecological retention pond, the plants still have high oxygen transmission and photosynthetic oxygen release rates in the dormancy stage, the problem that the removal rate of substances such as COD (chemical oxygen demand), suspended particulate matters (TSS) and the like of a system is reduced due to the dormancy stage of the plants can be solved to a certain extent, and the operation stability of the ecological retention pond is improved.
Further, the rainwater collecting unit and the sewage collecting unit are arranged in parallel; the system adopts a semi-buried or buried mode, so that rural sewage can flow into the system in an unpowered mode; meanwhile, rainwater can be collected in a rainwater collecting mode on the roof. The rainwater collecting unit is provided with a water quality monitor, a first water inlet, an overflow port, a first water outlet and a second water outlet; the sewage collecting unit is provided with a second water inlet and a third water outlet, and a grid is arranged in front of the third water outlet
The overflow port, the first water outlet and the second water outlet are respectively located at the upper part, the middle part and the lower part of the rainwater collecting unit, meanwhile, an adjustable valve is arranged in front of the second water outlet, and when the water quality monitor detects that the water quality condition in the rainwater collecting unit is poor, the adjustable valve enables rainwater to be purified to flow into the sand settling unit in advance.
When the rainwater in the rainwater collection unit is over full, the overflow port above the rainwater collection unit can flow into the storage unit, and when the water amount in the rainwater collection unit is half of the capacity, the rainwater can be discharged to the next treatment unit through the first water outlet, so that excessive water storage overflow or untimely allocation caused by excessive rainfall can be avoided.
Inside the inlet outlet of sewage collection unit extended to the cell body, the grid was equipped with before the delivery port of sewage collection unit, prevented that the floater of great granule or fixed from causing the jam to the system.
Furthermore, the rainwater collection unit is a rainwater collection tank, the sewage collection unit is a sewage collection tank, and the volume of the rainwater collection tank is larger than that of the sewage collection tank, preferably larger than three times that of the sewage collection tank.
Further, the depth of the ecological retention pond is 0.8-1.5 m, and the hydraulic load is 0.30-0.65 m3/(m2D), the hydraulic retention time is 1-5 d. HRT (hydraulic retention time) is an important parameter for designing a retention pond, theoretically, the longer the HRT, the more the sedimentation time, and on the premise that the volume of the retention pond is fixed, the slower the average flow speed of river water, the smaller the turbulence degree, and the favorable for sedimentation of suspended particles, but the too high HRT has difficulty in implementation, and does not have too great promotion effect on improving the removal rate of the suspended particles within a range; whereas an excessively low HRT is detrimental to an effective settling of the suspended particles. The HRT (hydraulic retention time) design needs to consider the configuration design of the retention pond, the aquatic plant species and other factors, but in the retention pond environment defined by the invention, the hydraulic retention time is 1-5 d, so that the effect is better, and further, the effect is more ideal when the hydraulic retention time is 1.5-4 d.
Further, the planting density of the burclover in the ecological detention pond unit is 25-35 plants/m2The planting density of the watermifoil, the large arrowhead algae and the tall fescue is 10-20 plants/m2
Further, the planting density of the burclover in the ecological retention pond unit is 25 plants/m2The planting density of the foxtail algae, the large arrowhead algae and the tall fescue is 12 plants/m2. At this planting density, the plants can be well grownLong and has the best purifying effect.
Furthermore, the particle size of the crushed stone is 20-60 mm.
Furthermore, the aquatic plants in the artificial wetland unit are at least one of emergent aquatic plants, submerged plants and algae.
Further, the aquatic plant in the artificial wetland unit is at least one of canna, calamus, allium mongolicum regel, pinocembr grass, hornworts, thalictrum sinense and iris germanica.
Further, the system also comprises a storage unit, and water treated by the artificial wetland unit enters the storage unit through a pipeline for irrigation. The storage unit is provided with two water inlets, the first water inlet collects the effluent after passing through the artificial wet place, and the second water inlet collects the rainwater which directly flows out due to the full flow of the rainwater collecting tank. The upper water outlet is arranged at the upper part and the lower part, and overflows after the clean water tank reaches the water capacity and is directly discharged to a nearby storage water body; the water outlet below is provided with a valve and is connected with a water outlet pipe, and the stored water can be used for irrigation.
The invention also provides a new rural sewage treatment method, which comprises the following steps:
A) collecting rainwater and rural sewage;
B) introducing collected rainwater and rural sewage into a sand setting unit for sand setting to remove large-particle suspended matters;
C) introducing the rainwater and the rural sewage subjected to the sand setting treatment into an ecological detention pond through a pipeline for treatment;
D) and introducing the artificial wetland unit for treatment, and delivering the treated water to a storage unit for irrigation.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1) the treatment system provided by the invention skillfully combines the regulation and storage of rainwater with the treatment of domestic sewage, the unpowered stabilization pond is combined with the artificial wetland to remove toxic and harmful pollutants in rural sewage, the treated water can be directly used for garden irrigation, the resource utilization of water is realized, the system has small floor area and low operation cost, and the treatment system is very suitable for the treatment of dispersed sewage.
2) According to the invention, by optimizing the types of aquatic plants in the ecological retention pond, the optimal hydraulic retention time is designed, the removal of COD, TSS, TN and TP by the system is improved, when the hydraulic retention time is 4d, the removal rate of COD can reach 65.3%, the removal rate of TN is 85.0%, the removal rate of TP is 88.7%, and the removal rate of TSS is 35.6%, and compared with the prior art, the ecological retention pond has higher operation stability.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the treatment system of the present invention, with arrows indicating the direction of water flow;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the rainwater collecting tank of the treatment system of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a process flow diagram for wastewater treatment using the treatment system of the present invention.
Wherein, the rainwater collecting tank 1; a first water inlet 101; an overflow port 102; a first water outlet 103; a second water outlet 104; a sewage collecting tank 2; a grit chamber 3; an ecological retention pond 4; 5, artificial wetland treatment; a reservoir unit 6.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail below with reference to specific embodiments of examples. It should not be understood that the scope of the above-described subject matter of the present invention is limited to the following examples.
In the examples, the experimental methods used were all conventional methods unless otherwise specified, and the materials, reagents and the like used were commercially available without otherwise specified.
Embodiment I, New rural sewage treatment system
The structural schematic diagram of the new rural sewage treatment system of the embodiment is shown in fig. 1, and the system comprises a sewage collection unit, a rainwater collection unit, a sand settling unit, an ecological retention pond unit and an artificial wetland unit which are sequentially connected through pipelines, wherein:
a sewage collection unit: in the embodiment, the sewage collecting unit is a sewage collecting tank 2, the sewage collecting unit is provided with a second water inlet and a third water outlet, and the water inlet and the water outlet extend into the tank body; and a grating is arranged in front of the third water outlet, so that larger-particle floating objects or larger-particle floating objects are prevented from being fixed to block the system.
A rainwater collection unit: as shown in fig. 2, the rainwater collecting unit and the sewage collecting unit are arranged in parallel; in this embodiment, the rainwater collection unit is a rainwater collecting tank 1, and the volume of the rainwater collecting tank is three times of that of the sewage collecting tank. A water quality monitor 105, a first water inlet 101, an overflow port 102, a first water outlet 103 and a second water outlet 104 are arranged in the rainwater collecting tank; the overflow port, the first water outlet and the second water outlet are respectively positioned at the upper part, the middle part and the lower part of the rainwater collecting unit, meanwhile, an adjustable valve is arranged in front of the second water outlet, and when the water quality monitor detects that the water quality condition in the rainwater collecting tank is poor, the adjustable valve enables rainwater to be purified to flow into the sand settling unit in advance.
When the rainwater in the rainwater collecting tank is over-full, the overflow port above the rainwater collecting tank can flow into the storage unit, and when the water volume in the rainwater collecting tank rises to half of the capacity, the rainwater can be discharged into the sand settling unit through the first water outlet, so that excessive water storage overflow or untimely allocation caused by excessive rainfall can be avoided.
A sand setting unit: the sand setting unit is a sand setting tank 3 which is provided with three water inlets and one water outlet. The rainwater collecting tank has two water inlets leading to the sand settling unit, and the sewage collecting tank has one water inlet leading to the sand settling unit.
Ecological retention pond unit 4: comprises a soil pond substrate and aquatic plants growing on the soil substrate; the aquatic plants are Equisetum rotundus, Foliumet sidum, Argasta crenata and Festuca arundinacea; the planting density of the burclover is 25 plants/m2The planting density of the foxtail algae, the large arrowhead algae and the tall fescue is 12 plants/m2. At this planting density, the plants grow well and the cleaning effect is the best. The depth of the ecological retention pond is 1.5m, and the hydraulic load is 0.40m3/(m2D), the hydraulic retention time is 4 d.
The artificial wetland unit 5: is an up-flow vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland which sequentially comprises a water distribution area, a rubble layer, a water distribution pipe, a pipe,zeolite layer, coarse sand matrix layer, soil matrix layer and aquatic plant. The aquatic plants in the artificial wetland unit are canna, calamus and hornworts. The planting density of canna and calamus is 25 plants/m2The planting density of the golden carp algae is 50 strains/m2. Wherein the particle size of the crushed stone is 20mm, and the particle size of the zeolite is 5 mm; the particle size of the coarse sand is 2 mm.
Further, the system also comprises a storage unit 6, and the water treated by the artificial wetland unit enters the storage unit through a pipeline for irrigation. The storage unit is provided with two water inlets, the first water inlet collects the effluent after passing through the artificial wet place, and the second water inlet collects the rainwater which directly flows out due to the full flow of the rainwater collecting tank. The upper water outlet is arranged at the upper part and the lower part, and overflows after the clean water tank reaches the water capacity and is directly discharged to a nearby storage water body; the water outlet below is provided with a valve and is connected with a water outlet pipe, and the stored water can be used for irrigation.
Example II New rural sewage treatment system
The difference between the second embodiment and the first embodiment is that the planting density of the burclover is 30 plants/m2The planting density of the foxtail algae, the large arrowhead algae and the tall fescue is 10 plants/m2The remaining parameters are the same as in the first embodiment.
Embodiment III, New rural sewage treatment system
The difference between the third embodiment and the first embodiment is that the planting density of the burclover is 35 plants/m2The planting density of the foxtail algae, the large arrowhead algae and the tall fescue is 20 plants/m2The remaining parameters are the same as in the first embodiment.
Example four, new rural sewage treatment system
The difference between the example four and the example one is that the hydraulic retention time of the ecological retention pond is 6d, and the rest parameters are the same as the example one.
Example five, new rural sewage treatment system
The difference between the fifth embodiment and the first embodiment is that the hydraulic retention time of the ecological retention pond is 3d, and the rest parameters are the same as the first embodiment.
Comparative example I, New rural sewage treatment system
The difference between the first comparative example and the first example is that the Arthropoda rotundifolia is replaced by the hydrilla verticillata, and the rest parameters are the same as those of the first example.
Comparative example II, new rural sewage treatment system
The difference between the comparative example II and the example I is that the gulfweed is replaced by the goldfish algae, and the rest parameters are the same as the example I.
Comparative example III, New rural sewage treatment system
The difference between the third comparative example and the first example is that the euglena gracilis is used instead of the daetzia zeylanica, and the rest parameters are the same as those in the first example.
Comparative example four, new rural sewage treatment system
The fourth comparative example is different from the first example in that the aquatic plants in the ecological retention pond are removed of the macroalgae, and the rest parameters are the same as the first example.
Comparative example five, new rural sewage treatment system
The difference between the fifth comparative example and the first example is that rhizoma acori graminei is used to replace the festuca arundinacea, and the rest parameters are the same as those in the first example.
Application test example and Sewage treatment Effect
The treatment system of the first to fifth embodiments and the first to fifth comparative examples is adopted to treat the sewage according to the process of figure 3, and the quality of the sewage is characterized in that: the COD concentration is 80.3mg/L, the TN concentration is 13.45mg/L, TP concentration is 1.34mg/L, the water quality characteristics after being processed by each system are detected, and the detection results are shown in the following table 1.
TABLE 1 effect of sewage treatment
Figure BDA0002336357790000081
As can be seen from the above table, the hydraulic retention time and the type of the aquatic plants affect the purifying effect of the treatment system, and the change of the planting density may cause the purifying effect to change, which is based on the aboveThe test result shows that the most suitable aquatic plant combination for the ecological retention pond is the burclover, the armpit algae, the arrowroot algae and the tall fescue, and when the planting density of the burclover is 25 plants/m2The planting density of the foxtail algae, the large arrowhead algae and the tall fescue is 12 plants/m2The comprehensive purification effect is optimal.
In addition, if any plant is changed, the purification can be changed to a certain extent, and if the common leafflower herb with the same oxygen production function is adopted to replace the dadi algae, the result shows that the overall purification effect is reduced compared with that of the first embodiment, which indicates that the dadi algae is more suitable for the ecological retention pond system of the invention; if another evergreen aquatic plant is replaced for the festuca arundinacea, the purification effect is also changed.
The foregoing embodiments are merely illustrative of the principles and utilities of the present invention and are not intended to limit the invention. Any person skilled in the art can modify or change the above-mentioned embodiments without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. Accordingly, it is intended that all equivalent modifications or changes which can be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and technical spirit of the present invention be covered by the claims of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. The utility model provides a new rural sewage treatment system, its characterized in that, the system includes sewage collection unit, rainwater collection unit, sand setting unit, ecological pond unit and constructed wetland unit of detaining that loop through the pipe connection, wherein:
the ecological detention pond unit comprises a soil substrate and aquatic plants growing on the soil substrate; the aquatic plants are Equisetum rotundus, Foliumet sidum, Argasta crenata and Festuca arundinacea; the depth of water in the ecological retention pond is 0.8-1.5 m, and the hydraulic load is 0.30-0.65 m3/(m2D) a hydraulic retention time of 4 d; the planting density of the burclover in the ecological detention pond unit is 25-35 plants/m2The planting density of the watermifoil, the large arrowhead algae and the tall fescue is 10-20 plants/m2
The artificial wetland unit is an up-flow vertical subsurface flow artificial wetland and sequentially comprises a water distribution area, a crushed stone layer, a zeolite layer, a coarse sand matrix layer, a soil matrix layer and aquatic plants from bottom to top.
2. The new rural sewage treatment system of claim 1, wherein the rainwater collection unit and the sewage collection unit are arranged in parallel; the rainwater collecting unit is provided with a water quality monitor, a first water inlet, an overflow port, a first water outlet and a second water outlet; the sewage collecting unit is provided with a second water inlet and a third water outlet, and a grid is arranged in front of the third water outlet.
3. The new rural sewage treatment system of claim 1, wherein the planting density of the burclover in the ecological retention pond unit is 25 plants/m2The planting density of the foxtail algae, the large arrowhead algae and the tall fescue is 12 plants/m2
4. The new rural sewage treatment system of claim 1, wherein the particle size of the crushed stone is 20-60 mm; the particle size of the zeolite is 1-10 mm; the particle size of the coarse sand is 1-5 mm.
5. The new rural sewage treatment system of claim 1, wherein the aquatic plants in the artificial wetland unit are at least one of emergent aquatic plants, submerged plants and algae.
6. The new rural sewage treatment system of claim 5 wherein the aquatic plant in the artificial wetland unit is at least one of canna, calamus, allium mongolicum regel, pinnay bluegrass, hornworts, reshizus flowers and iris germanica.
7. The new rural sewage treatment system of claim 1, further comprising a storage unit, wherein the water treated by the artificial wetland unit enters the storage unit through a pipeline for irrigation.
8. A new rural sewage treatment method, which is characterized in that the treatment method adopts the new rural sewage treatment system as claimed in claim 1 to carry out treatment, and comprises the following steps:
A) collecting rainwater and rural sewage;
B) introducing collected rainwater and rural sewage into a sand setting unit for sand setting to remove large-particle suspended matters;
C) introducing the rainwater and the rural sewage subjected to the sand setting treatment into an ecological detention pond through a pipeline for treatment;
D) and introducing the artificial wetland unit for treatment, and delivering the treated water to a storage unit for irrigation.
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