CN110108207A - Rotary shaft centre of gyration line geometry error calibrating method based on probe - Google Patents

Rotary shaft centre of gyration line geometry error calibrating method based on probe Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110108207A
CN110108207A CN201910405364.0A CN201910405364A CN110108207A CN 110108207 A CN110108207 A CN 110108207A CN 201910405364 A CN201910405364 A CN 201910405364A CN 110108207 A CN110108207 A CN 110108207A
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centre
axis
standard ball
error
measurement
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CN110108207B (en
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史文浩
孟健
于福翔
陈良锋
史军新
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Bozhon Precision Industry Technology Co Ltd
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Bozhon Precision Industry Technology Co Ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/002Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring two or more coordinates
    • G01B11/005Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring two or more coordinates coordinate measuring machines
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/24Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring contours or curvatures

Abstract

A kind of rotary shaft centre of gyration line geometry error calibrating method based on probe, belongs to measurement Error Compensation technical field.The rotary shaft centre of gyration line geometry error calibrating method based on probe, comprising the following steps: step S1, the compensation of linear axis measurement accuracy;Step S2 establishes centre of gyration line error compensation model;Step S3, centre of gyration line geometry calibrate for error.Measurement procedure of the present invention is simple, facilitates measuring machine Developmental Engineer and terminal user rapidly finds out centre of gyration line error, improve measurement accuracy.

Description

Rotary shaft centre of gyration line geometry error calibrating method based on probe
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of technology in error compensation field, in specifically a kind of rotary shaft revolution based on probe Heart line geometry error calibrating method.
Background technique
Five axis non-contact measurement machines, model are multiple as shown in Fig. 2, integrate five-axle linkage and non-contact measurement Miscellaneous curved surface/opposite sex curved surface non-contact measurement demand provides total solution, and this kind of equipment is mainly used for automobile zero The fields such as component, aircraft engine components, mobile phone 3D glass, precision die can provide dimensional measurement, the building of 3D size cloud atlas Equal measurement demands.
Measurement accuracy is the important performance indexes of five axis non-contact measurement organs note, and measuring machine geometric error is in complete machine Accounting is more than 50% in composition error, and in the case where linear axis error compensation has maturation method, the rotary shaft centre of gyration is several What error influences more so, to increase in particular with the size of part to be measured, centre of gyration line geometry error is comprehensive on composition error Closing the accounting in error is in amplification trend.Although there is the scaling method of some rotary shaft centre of gyration geometric errors at present, These methods are based on traditional CNC system more, are not suitable for the five axis non-contact measurement machines with single pendulum head single-turn platform.
Summary of the invention
The present invention In view of the above shortcomings of the prior art, proposes a kind of rotary shaft centre of gyration line based on probe Geometric error scaling method, it is easy to operate, help to rapidly find out centre of gyration line error, improves measurement accuracy.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
The present invention the following steps are included:
Step S1, linear axis measurement accuracy compensation: to 21 geometry of three linear axis in five axis non-contact measurement machines Error is measured and is compensated, until reaching the requirement of linear axis measurement accuracy;
Step S2 establishes centre of gyration line error compensation model: after operating in completing S1, probe being mounted on C axis and is turned Platform or C axis turntable institute in the plane, standard ball are mounted on A axis turntable, does circumference fortune with A axis turntable by examination criteria ball The dynamic center of circle obtains the geometric error of A axis centre of gyration line;Measuring machine is established using the A axis turntable working face center of circle as coordinate origin again Basis coordinates system standard ball is mounted on C axis turntable by probe on the A axis turntable, first demarcate the installation site of probe, The geometric error of probe installation, then the center of circle that examination criteria ball moves in a circle with C axis turntable are obtained, the C axis centre of gyration is obtained The geometric error of line;The centre of gyration is established according to the geometric error of the geometric error of A axis centre of gyration line and C axis centre of gyration line Line error compensation model;
Step S3, centre of gyration line geometry calibrate for error: being turned by probe to C axis is mounted on by the way of five-axle linkage Standard ball on platform does contour detecting and size detection, and input centre of gyration line error compensation model evaluates measurement accuracy;If surveying Accuracy of measurement is unable to satisfy requirement, and then return step S2 re-establishes centre of gyration line error compensation model;If measurement accuracy satisfaction is wanted It asks, white light sensor is installed and demarcates installation site, standard ball is taken turns by white light sensor by the way of five-axle linkage Exterior feature detection and size detection input centre of gyration line error compensation model again and evaluate measurement accuracy, if measurement accuracy satisfaction is wanted It asks, completes centre of gyration line geometry error calibration, continue to do contour detecting to standard ball after otherwise reinstalling white light sensor And size detection, evaluation measurement accuracy is to reaching requirement.
Technical effect
Compared with prior art, the present invention has the advantage that
1) two rotary shafts are demarcated by installation operation twice respectively, demarcate 6 position and attitude errors altogether;This method installation process Simply, demarcation flow is clear, facilitates measuring machine Developmental Engineer and terminal user rapidly finds out centre of gyration line error, for height Element task is carried out in precision measure;
2) contact type measurement is used before carrying out non-contact measurement, it is contactless compared to directly being carried out with white light sensor Measurement calibration does not need calibration installation site, avoids introducing installation error.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the method flow diagram of embodiment 1;
Fig. 2 is five axis non-contact measurement machine schematic diagrames in embodiment 1;
Fig. 3 is ideal measurement tendency chart between standard ball a and standard ball b compensated in embodiment 1.
Specific embodiment
With reference to the accompanying drawing and specific embodiment the present invention will be described in detail.
Embodiment 1
As shown in Figure 1, the present embodiment the following steps are included:
Step S1, linear axis measurement accuracy compensation: to 21 geometry of three linear axis in five axis non-contact measurement machines Error is measured and is compensated;And linear axis error compensation result is verified using body diagonal method, guarantee that synthesis precision is small In 2 μm;
Step S2 establishes centre of gyration line error compensation model: after operating in completing step S1, probe being mounted on C On axis turntable or Y-axis, standard ball is mounted on A axis turntable, the center of circle to be moved in a circle by examination criteria ball with A axis turntable Obtain the geometric error of A axis centre of gyration line;The basis coordinates of measuring machine are established using the A axis turntable working face center of circle as coordinate origin again Standard ball is mounted on C axis turntable by system by probe on A axis, first demarcates the installation site of probe, obtains probe installation Geometric error four, then the center of circle that examination criteria ball moves in a circle with C axis turntable obtains the geometry of C axis centre of gyration line Error;Centre of gyration line error is established according to the geometric error of the geometric error of A axis centre of gyration line and C axis centre of gyration line to mend Repay model;
Centre of gyration line geometry error calibration: step S3 is first carried out contact type measurement, is passed through by the way of five-axle linkage Probe does contour detecting and size detection to the standard ball being mounted on C axis turntable, inputs centre of gyration line error compensation model Evaluate measurement accuracy;Return step S2 re-establishes centre of gyration line error compensation mould if measurement accuracy is unable to satisfy requirement Type;Non-contact measurement is carried out if measurement accuracy is met the requirements, white light sensor is installed and demarcates installation site, using five axis The mode of linkage does contour detecting and size detection to standard ball by white light sensor, inputs centre of gyration line error again and mends Model evaluation measurement accuracy is repaid, centre of gyration line geometry error calibration is completed if measurement accuracy is met the requirements, is otherwise pacified again Continue to do standard ball contour detecting and size detection after dress white light sensor, evaluates measurement accuracy to requirement is reached, with precision The white light sensor mounting location met the requirements is canonical measure position.
Measurement accuracy requires to be not more than 5 μm in step S3.
In the present embodiment when detecting the geometric error of A axis centre of gyration line, probe is mounted on C axis, standard ball installation On A axis turntable, C axis does not rotate, XYZA four axes motion, so that measurement obtains the sky that standard ball is rotated around A axis centre of gyration line Between track, the geometric error of A axis centre of gyration line is calculated by space tracking;Because of A axis centre of gyration line in the Y direction, the side Z To offset can be ignored in such a way that equipment zero point is set, therefore the geometric error of A axis centre of gyration line be A axis revolution in The spatial attitude error of heart line, including A axis and Y-axis, the error of perpendicularity of Z axis.
In step s 2, detailed process is as follows for detection A axis centre of gyration line geometry error:
Step S21, the calibration of the standard ball centre of sphere:
Probe is installed on C axis turntable or Y-axis, each one of standard ball a and b is installed on A axis turntable, and (standard ball a and b is straight Diameter is different, is mounted on the different rotary tracks of A axis turntable and there are differences in height between the centre of sphere), C axis does not rotate, tetra- axis of XYZA Movement is rotated and reverse, and is carried out 5 points of measurement fittings to standard ball a and b respectively during rotating and reverse and is obtained standard The ball centre of sphere;Layout type of five measuring points in standard ball is a Z-direction highest point, two in X-direction in 5 points of measurements Two extreme points on extreme point and Y direction, four extreme points are circumferentially uniformly arranged on the perspective plane X0Y;Five measuring points Coordinate is praw(i,k,n)∈R3, n=1,2 ... 5 be measuring point serial number, i=1,2 ... 14, wherein rotate forward 7 times, invert 7 times, k table Show standard ball a, b;Spatial value amendment is carried out to this five measuring points, modified purpose is 21 errors of compensating line kinematic pair The deviation of caused space coordinate, the coordinate of five measuring points is p after amendmentcal(i,k,n)∈R3
According to the coordinate of five measuring points and the radius R of standard ballk, minimum fit object is reached with departure h, using most Small square law is fitted sphere centre coordinate p (i, k) ∈ R3,
Spacing after digital simulation between the two standard ball centre ofs sphere(i a) is standard to p The sphere centre coordinate of ball a, p (i, b) are the sphere centre coordinate of standard ball b, are measured after being compensated according to the variation tendency decision errors of D (i) Whether precision meets the requirements, and meets the requirements, and carries out step S22;Otherwise step S21 is repeated;As shown in figure 3, standard ball after compensation A and the variation of standard ball b centre of sphere spacing (remove peak and minimum) within the scope of 0.003mm, meet the requirements;
Step S22, standard ball turn round center of circle calibration:
A axis turntable is rotated in the forward direction, sequence rotation i/2 times obtains i/2 angle position as measurement position, i/2 measurement Position includes at least 720 ° of rotation angle ranges from initial position, is equally spaced, every standard of rotation one-shot measurement The centre of sphere of ball;A axis turntable is reversely rotated again, and sequence rotation i/2 times obtains i/2 angle position as measurement position, and i/2 is a Measurement position includes at least 720 ° of rotation angle ranges from initial position, the equidistant cloth of the measurement position that rotating Vortex obtains It sets;Preferably, i/2=7, overall measurement number i=14,7 measurement positions rotated in the forward direction and 7 measurement positions reversely rotated Staggeredly;
So standard ball a and b detects 14 positions, 14 measurement positions of standard ball a and 14 surveys of standard ball b respectively It is different to measure position, obtains standard ball a sphere centre coordinate p (i, a) ∈ R3, standard ball b sphere centre coordinate p (i, b) ∈ R3;It is respectively adopted most Small square law calculates revolution center of circle oa∈R3CoordinateWith revolution center of circle ob∈R3Coordinate
Step S23 calculates A axis centre of gyration line:
A axis centre of gyration line is calculated in the principle that a straight line is determined according to two o'clockIts In, M, N, P indicate the constant of centre of gyration line equation;Further determine that A axis centre of gyration line geometry error;By calculating A axis The centre of gyration line of turntable obtains A axis with the angle of basis coordinates system XYZ and the error of perpendicularity of Z axis and A axis are vertical with Y-axis Error is spent, and A axis centre of gyration line can be neglected in Y direction, the offset of Z-direction by way of equipment zero point is arranged Slightly, therefore A axis geometric error two is obtained.
A axis geometric error item number is few, therefore to the C axis centre of gyration line geometry on the basis of demarcating A axis centre of gyration line Error, which carries out detection, can improve whole detection precision;The detection of C axis centre of gyration line geometry error is used and is detected in the revolution of A axis The identical method of heart line geometry error obtains;In C axis centre of gyration line geometry error-detecting, probe is mounted on A axis turntable, Standard ball a and b are mounted on C axis turntable, and A axis turntable is motionless, and XYZC axis is dynamic;And the geometric error of C axis centre of gyration line in addition to It further include the offset error of C axis centre of gyration line in the x direction and the y direction, the centre of gyration of C axis turntable outside spatial attitude error The intersection point of line and C axis turntable horizontal plane is the offset error of C axis centre of gyration line in the x direction and the y direction, to obtain space Attitude error four.
It is emphasized that: the above is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, not make in any form to the present invention Limitation, any simple modification, equivalent change and modification to the above embodiments according to the technical essence of the invention, All of which are still within the scope of the technical scheme of the invention.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of rotary shaft centre of gyration line geometry error calibrating method based on probe, which comprises the following steps:
Step S1, linear axis measurement accuracy compensation: to 21 geometric errors of three linear axis in five axis non-contact measurement machines It measures and compensates, until reaching the requirement of linear axis measurement accuracy;
Step S2 establishes centre of gyration line error compensation model: after operating in completing step S2, probe being mounted on C axis and is turned Platform or C axis turntable institute in the plane, standard ball are mounted on A axis turntable, does circumference fortune with A axis turntable by examination criteria ball The dynamic center of circle obtains the geometric error of A axis centre of gyration line;Measuring machine is established using the A axis turntable working face center of circle as coordinate origin again Basis coordinates system standard ball is mounted on C axis turntable by probe on the A axis turntable, first demarcate the installation site of probe, The geometric error of probe installation, then the center of circle that examination criteria ball moves in a circle with C axis turntable are obtained, the C axis centre of gyration is obtained The geometric error of line;The centre of gyration is established according to the geometric error of the geometric error of A axis centre of gyration line and C axis centre of gyration line Line error compensation model;
Step S3, centre of gyration line geometry calibrate for error: by probe to being mounted on C axis turntable by the way of five-axle linkage Standard ball do contour detecting and size detection, input centre of gyration line error compensation model evaluates measurement accuracy;If measurement essence Degree is unable to satisfy requirement, and then return step S2 re-establishes centre of gyration line error compensation model;If measurement accuracy is met the requirements Installation white light sensor simultaneously demarcates installation site, does profile inspection to standard ball by white light sensor by the way of five-axle linkage Survey and size detection input centre of gyration line error compensation model and evaluate measurement accuracy, again if measurement accuracy is met the requirements Centre of gyration line geometry error calibration is completed, continues to do contour detecting and ruler to standard ball after otherwise reinstalling white light sensor Very little detection, evaluation measurement accuracy is to reaching requirement;Finally surveyed using the white light sensor mounting location that precision is met the requirements as standard Measure position.
2. the rotary shaft centre of gyration line geometry error calibrating method based on probe according to claim 1, characterized in that In step S2, detailed process is as follows for the geometric error of detection one of A axis turntable and C axis turntable centre of gyration line:
Step S21, the calibration of the standard ball centre of sphere:
There is height between upper installation standard ball a and b each one of one of A axis turntable or C axis turntable, standard ball a and the b centre of sphere It is poor to spend, and standard ball a and b diameter is different and is mounted on the different rotary tracks of turntable, platform peace where another turntable or turntable Fill probe;Platform or turntable do not rotate where probe, remaining four axes motion is rotated and reverse, during rotating and reverse 5 points of measurement fittings are carried out to standard ball a and b respectively and obtain the standard ball centre of sphere;Five measuring points are in standard ball in 5 points of measurements Layout type is four reference axis poles in a revolving-turret axial direction highest point and the axially vertical standard ball great circle of revolving-turret Value point;The coordinate of five measuring points is praw(i,k,n)∈R3, n expression measuring point serial number, i expression standard ball rotating forward pendulous frequency i/2 Secondary and reversion the sum of pendulous frequency i/2 time, i are even number, k expression standard ball a or b;This five measuring points are carried out based on step S1 Spatial value is corrected, the deviation of space coordinate caused by 21 errors of compensating line kinematic pair, the seat of five measuring points after amendment Mark is pcal(i,k,n)∈R3
According to the coordinate of five measuring points and the radius R of standard ballk, minimum fit object is reached with departure h, using minimum two Multiplication is fitted sphere centre coordinate p (i, k) ∈ R3,
Step S22, standard ball turn round center of circle calibration:
Turntable where rotating in the forward direction standard ball, sequence rotation i/2 times obtain i/2 angle position as measurement position, and i/2 is a Measurement position includes at least 720 ° of rotation angle ranges from initial position, the ball of every rotation standard ball of one-shot measurement The heart;Turntable where reversely rotating standard ball again, sequence rotation i times obtain i/2 angle position as measurement position, i/2 survey Measuring position includes at least 720 ° of rotation angle ranges from initial position, the centre of sphere of every rotation standard ball of one-shot measurement;
Standard ball a and b detect i position respectively, and the i measurement position of standard ball a and the i measurement position of standard ball b are different, Obtain standard ball a sphere centre coordinate p (i, a) ∈ R3, standard ball b sphere centre coordinate p (i, b) ∈ R3;Least square method calculating is respectively adopted Standard ball a turns round center of circle oa∈R3CoordinateCenter of circle o is turned round with standard ball bb∈R3Seat Mark
Step S23 calculates rotation of rotary table center line where standard ball:
Rotation of rotary table center line where standard ball is calculated in the principle that a straight line is determined according to two o'clockWherein, M, N, P indicate constant;Pass through the centre of gyration line and base of turntable where calculating standard ball The error of perpendicularity of turret axis and Z axis, Y-axis where the angle of coordinate system XYZ obtains standard ball.
3. the rotary shaft centre of gyration line geometry error calibrating method based on probe according to claim 2, characterized in that Spacing in step S21 after digital simulation between the two standard ball centre ofs sphere(i is a) mark to p The sphere centre coordinate of quasi- ball a, p (i, b) are the sphere centre coordinate of standard ball b, are surveyed after being compensated according to the variation tendency decision errors of D (i) Whether accuracy of measurement meets the requirements, and meets the requirements, and carries out step S22;Otherwise step S21 is repeated.
4. the rotary shaft centre of gyration line geometry error calibrating method based on probe according to claim 3, characterized in that institute It states in standard ball a and standard ball b and is placed on turntable compared with bead close to turntable working face the center point, it is low compared with the placing height of bead In the placing height of larger ball.
5. the rotary shaft centre of gyration line geometry error calibrating method based on probe according to claim 2, characterized in that institute Measurement position i=14 is stated, 7 rotated in the forward direction measurement position is equally spaced, 7 equidistant cloth of measurement position of reverse rotation It sets, 7 rotated in the forward direction measurement position and 7 measurement positions reversely rotated are staggered.
6. the rotary shaft centre of gyration line geometry error calibrating method based on probe according to claim 1, characterized in that In step S1 after the compensation of linear axis measurement accuracy, linear axis error compensation result is verified by body diagonal method, guarantees to mend Rear measurement accuracy error is repaid less than 2 μm.
CN201910405364.0A 2019-05-16 2019-05-16 Method for calibrating geometric error of rotation center line of rotating shaft based on probe Active CN110108207B (en)

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CN110645935A (en) * 2019-10-31 2020-01-03 大连理工大学 Accurate calibration method for installation offset of integrated displacement sensor of numerical control rotating shaft
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CN111906817A (en) * 2020-07-31 2020-11-10 浙江工贸职业技术学院 Six-degree-of-freedom industrial machine error detection system

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