CN109972003A - High-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof suitable for gravitational casting - Google Patents

High-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof suitable for gravitational casting Download PDF

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CN109972003A
CN109972003A CN201910267998.4A CN201910267998A CN109972003A CN 109972003 A CN109972003 A CN 109972003A CN 201910267998 A CN201910267998 A CN 201910267998A CN 109972003 A CN109972003 A CN 109972003A
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alloy
aluminium alloy
gravitational casting
elongation
heat
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CN109972003B (en
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叶兵
张澍
蒋海燕
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/026Alloys based on aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/03Making alloys by melting using master alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/06Making alloys with the use of special agents for refining or deoxidising
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/02Alloys based on aluminium with silicon as the next major constituent

Abstract

The high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof that the present invention provides a kind of suitable for gravitational casting, following element including percentage: 9.0-12.0%Si, 0.05-0.4%Cu, 0.02-0.05%Mg, 0.05-0.1%Sc, 0.6-0.8%M, surplus is Al and inevitable Fe impurity, wherein M is Ti, at least two element in Zr, V.High-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting of the invention is after gravitational casting, the room-temperature yield strength of cast alloy can reach 143-152MPa, elongation percentage can reach 8.0%-12.0%, 200 DEG C of Testing Tensile Strength at Elevated Temperature can reach 158-170MPa, high temperature elongation percentage can reach 10.0%-20.0%, room temperature and Good Heat-resistance, and auto parts can be applied to without solution heat treatment, meet the needs of automotive light weight technology development.

Description

High-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof suitable for gravitational casting
Technical field
The high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof that the present invention relates to a kind of suitable for gravitational casting, belongs to industrial Aluminium alloy and manufacturing field.
Background technique
Aluminium alloy is with density is small, specific strength and specific stiffness are higher, corrosion resistance is good and electrical and thermal conductivity is excellent, recycling is held Easily, the features such as low temperature performance well, it is widely used in the fields such as communications and transportation, aerospace, electronic apparatus.Gravitational casting refers to gold Belong to casting method, including sand casting, model casting, permanent mold casting etc. that liquid injects casting mold under terrestrial gravitation effect.With The alloy die cast technique generallyd use at present compares, and the cost of investment of gravitational casting is greatly lowered, and is that production geometry is multiple The main method of miscellaneous casting.Al-Si alloy is typical cast aluminium alloy gold, has good fluidity, casting densification, is not likely to produce The excellent casting character such as casting crack, etch resistant properties and medium machinability, it has also become most paid attention in manufacturing industry One of structural material, be widely used for production engine cylinder body and the parts such as cylinder cap and wheel hub.Al-Si system cast aluminium alloy gold The typical trade mark includes domestic YL102 (AlSi12), YL112 (AlSi8.5Cu3.5), YL113 (AlSi811Cu3), Japanese A380 (AlSi8.5Cu3.5) of ADC12 (AlSi11Cu3), ADC10 (AlSi8.5Cu3.5) and the U.S. etc., these alloys are strong Degree and hardness are general, and plasticity and toughness are relatively low, limit its application.
A380 aluminium alloy is most widely used Al-Si alloy, and Si content is up to 7.5wt%~9.5wt%, is had good Good casting character, and high Cu content (3.0wt%~4.0wt%) can get high intensity and good machinability, it is existing It has been widely used in the every field such as traffic transport industry (industry such as automobile, motorcycle), space flight and aviation, electronic/electrical device.Together When, also because Cu content is high in A380, the standard electrode potential of the rich Cu phase of generation is high, is easy in moist or liquid environment Corrosion.A360 aluminium alloy is also using relatively broad Al-Si alloy, and comparing most significant difference with A380 is Cu content Low, maximum value 0.6%, the copper-rich phase ratio A380 of formation is few very much, and corrosion resistance is also slightly better than A380 alloy, but due to it Melting welding and brazing performance are poor, limit application in the industrial production, are typically used as cover board and tool housing.Casting obtains Al- Si system alloy A380 and A360 alloy, non-heat treated state yield strength generally only have 120MPa, and elongation percentage only has 1% or so, no It is able to satisfy actual demand, needs to be heat-treated and just can be further improved intensity.And the heat resistance of A380 and A360 aluminium alloy is poor, Tensile strength at 200 DEG C only has 120MPa.
Limit solid solubility of the magnesium Mg in Al is that 14.9wt%, Mg and Si react the Mg generated2Si phase, when having typical Precipitation strength effect is imitated, is alloy element important in Al-Si system cast aluminium alloy gold.Due to Mg2Si phase is at 180-200 DEG C There is obvious overaging, nanometer precipitated phase is roughened rapidly, and high-temperature behavior significantly reduces.Simultaneously with the increase of Mg content, close Yield strength, the tensile strength of gold are obviously improved, but elongation percentage significantly reduces.Simultaneously because 180 DEG C or more Mg2Si phases Significant roughening, causes the high temperature resistance of 200 DEG C of Al-Si-Mg system alloy poor, is mainly used for that being on active service under room temperature, shape is multiple Miscellaneous thin-section casting.Cu is intensified element important in Al-Si alloy, significantly improves the room temperature and elevated temperature strength of alloy.Due to Solid solubility of the Cu at 525 DEG C is up to 4.6%, there was only 0.2% under room temperature, the Al-Si alloy containing Cu can pass through heat treatment To improve intensity.(the strontium compound microalloyed high rigidity corrosion resistant with magnesium alloy chemical of zirconium of Chinese invention patent 201710640233.1 Lose Al-Si-Cu-based cast aluminium alloy gold and preparation method) patent disclose a kind of Zr, Sr combined microalloying and Mg alloying High-hardness corrosion-resistant Al-Si-Cu system's cast aluminium alloy gold and preparation method, the component and its mass percent invented are as follows: 7.88 ~8.02%Si, 2.04~2.08%Cu, 0.406~0.421%Mg, 0.179~0.182%Zr, 0.0066~0.0069% Sr, surplus are aluminium and a small amount of impurity element.The inventive technique there are still following problems: the Cu content of the alloy is more than 1% to lead It causes the freezing range of alloy to increase, is also easy to produce casting flaw, reduce mechanical property;Mg too high levels reduce elongation percentage and high temperature Performance, elongation percentage is lower than 6% in the invention.
Sc is a kind of efficient fining agent in Al alloy, and crystal grain can significantly be refined by adding micro Sc, while improve material Intensity and toughness.Sc is added in Al alloy will form a large amount of Al3Sc particles, and the lattice constant of Al3Sc is 0.4103nm, with The mismatch of Al matrix is only 1.32%, is complete coherence with matrix, can effectively refine crystal grain and improve the intensity of alloy. Chinese invention patent 201210584709.1 (producing vehicle radiating fin aluminium-manganese-zinc-scandium-aluminum alloy foil with continuous casting and rolling method) Patent discloses a kind of continuous casting and rolling method production vehicle radiating fin aluminium-manganese-zinc-scandium-aluminum alloy foil method, is invented Vehicle radiating fin aluminium-manganese-zinc-scandium-aluminum alloy foil, specific chemical analysis mass percent are as follows: 0.06%Sc, 0.44%Si, 0.46%Fe, 0.11%Cu, 1.06%Mn, 0.05%Mg, 1.47%Zn, Cr≤0.017%, Ni≤0.014%, Ti≤ 0.012%, Zr≤0.026%, surplus Al.The inventive technique there are still following problems: Si content only has in the invention 0.44%, Zn content 1.47% is wrought aluminium alloy, needs complicated continuous casting and rolling and heat treatment process, is different from Al-Si system Cast aluminium alloy gold.In addition Zn content 1.47% is unfavorable for 150 DEG C or more of high temperature since the fusing point of Zn is low and diffusion rate is fast Performance is easy to cause aluminium alloy aging.A kind of Chinese invention patent 201810801603.X (Al-Si-Mg-Zr-Ti-Sc alloy Aging technique) patent disclose a kind of aging technique of Al-Si-Mg-Zr-Ti-Sc alloy, the Al-Si-Mg- of the invention The ingredient of Zr-Ti-Sc alloy constitutes as follows by mass percentage: Si6.5%, Mg0.35%, Ti0.2%, Zr0.25, Sc0.01%, surplus are aluminium.The aging technique of invention Al-Si-Mg-Zr-Ti-Sc alloy, it is abundant by two sections of ageing treatments Alloy potentiality are excavated, to improve the mechanical property of aluminium alloy.Invention aging technique step: solid solution treatment process are as follows: 540 DEG C solid Molten heat preservation 310min, quenching of coming out of the stove come out of the stove into water time control in 15s, and cooling time is 3~5min in water.At timeliness Science and engineering skill are as follows: 125 DEG C of timeliness keep the temperature 150min, and then keep the temperature 100~200min in 155 DEG C of timeliness, come out of the stove air-cooled.The invention There are still following problems for technology: silicone content is too low, is unfavorable for high-temperature behavior.Also, the invention needs at solid solution and secondary time effect Reason is easy to cause cast member in heat treatment process to deform, and is unsuitable for the casting such as Bao Bi, and complicated heat treatment operation causes Production cost increases, and is difficult industrially to be applied on a large scale.
In addition, a kind of (the graphene rare earth scandium collaboration REINFORCED Al-Si-Mg casting of Chinese invention patent 201811331020.1 Aluminium alloy and preparation method thereof) in disclose a kind of element composition of aluminium alloy are as follows: Si6.00~8.00%, Mg0.20~ 0.45%, graphene 0.003~0.007%, Sc0.50~0.60%, Li≤0.05%, Be≤0.05%, B≤0.05%, Na ≤ 0.05%, P≤0.05%, Ti≤0.10%, V≤0.10%, Cr≤0.05%, Mn≤0.10%, Fe≤0.10%, Ni≤ 0.05%, Cu≤0.10%, Zn≤0.10%, Zr≤0.05%, Sn≤0.05%, Pb≤0.10%, surplus Al.The patent Technology there are still following problems: Sc content is too high, causes cost too high, is unfavorable for industrial large-scale application;In addition should The alloy system of invention is complicated, and many alloying elements react, and causes function that cannot play.Such as Na and the P member of addition Element can go bad to Si output effect, but addition causes Na to react with P to form Na3P and lead to deterioration failure simultaneously;In another example The graphene and aluminum melt of addition react to form Al4C3, the 4Al+3C=Al4C3 of easy hydrolysis, cannot play graphene The effect of, and causing alloy unstable, the alloy yield strength of acquisition is only 142-144MPa, while the extension under the intensity Rate is only 9%.The elements such as Ti, V, Zn and the Sn in addition added cause aluminum substrate lattice to be distorted in the solid solubility of aluminium alloy, It is horizontal lower than conventional aluminium alloy 6061 to which the conductivity that the patent of invention obtains is greatly lowered.
Therefore, it is necessary to develop novel casting aluminum alloy, especially raising elongation percentage and high-temperature behavior, acquisition is high tough Cast aluminium alloy material and its casting technique realize casting and forging, break through the application limitation of cast aluminium alloy gold.
Summary of the invention
The present invention causes it to answer to solve the cast aluminium alloy golds such as existing A380 because of elongation percentage, the insufficient defect of heat resistance With the professional problem being extremely restricted, a kind of cast aluminium alloy gold and preparation method thereof that high-elongation is heat-resisting is provided, with solution The certainly above problem.The alloy is after gravitational casting, and the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting of the invention is through gravity After casting, the room-temperature yield strength of cast alloy can reach 143-152MPa, and elongation percentage can reach 8.0%-12.0%, and 200 DEG C Testing Tensile Strength at Elevated Temperature can reach 158-170MPa, and high temperature elongation percentage can reach 10.0%-20.0%.
In order to solve the above-mentioned technical problem, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
In a first aspect, a kind of high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting of the present invention, including by weight The following element of percentage meter: 9.0-12.0%Si, 0.05-0.4%Cu, 0.02-0.05%Mg, 0.05-0.1%Sc, 0.6- 0.8%M, surplus are Al and inevitable impurity F e, wherein the mass fraction of Al is to contain Ti, Zr and V not less than 87%, M In at least two elements composite component.
Preferably, the inevitable impurity F e content is no more than 0.2%.
Preferably, in the composite component M, based on all elements total amount in alloy, the mass fraction of Ti is The mass fraction of 0-0.3%, Zr are that the mass fraction of 0-0.3%, V are 0-0.3%, and two of them element is not 0 simultaneously.
Compared with prior art, the innovation of the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy provided by the invention suitable for gravitational casting Thought are as follows:
In the present invention, cardinal principle is alloying component for gravitational casting Al-Si alloy, in invention by Cu Constituent content is controlled in 0.05-0.4%, so that the freezing range of alloy be promoted to be contracted to 35 DEG C by 80 DEG C of A380, is reduced The formation probability of defect in casting is conducive to inhibit the roughening in aluminium grain and the process of setting of Eutectic Silicon in Al-Si Cast Alloys, promotes crystal grain refinement And it is rotten, in order to further refine crystal grain and Eutectic Silicon in Al-Si Cast Alloys, the elements such as a small amount of Zr, Ti, V are added, are formed and aluminum substrate coherence High-temperature stable phase effectively refines crystal grain and improves the intensity of alloy.Adding the elements such as micro Sc and Zr, Ti, V simultaneously can be with Al3Scx (Zr, Ti, V) 1-x compound particle of coherence, while fine degenerate Al crystal grain and Al-Si eutectic are formed, is given full play to thin Crystalline substance is strengthened and Eutectic Silicon in Al-Si Cast Alloys is strengthened, and obtains better crystal grain refinement and strengthening effect.Sc is also beneficial to eliminate having for Fe impurity element Evil influences, and increases substantially elongation percentage.In addition the elements such as a small amount of Cu and Mg are added in Al-Si alloy, it can be mild with forming chamber The hardening constituent Q phase Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 of high-temperature stable, in addition 200 DEG C when Cu solid solubility be up to 0.1%, part Al2Cu dissolution, Form solution strengthening, it is suppressed that Al2The roughening of Cu;And the Cu being dissolved when room temperature is precipitated, and forms more Al2Cu hardening constituent plays Precipitation strength effect, in short, by adding the elements such as a small amount of Cu and Mg in system of the invention, while playing the solid solution and analysis of Cu Strengthening effect out improves room temperature and elevated temperature strength.Zn is eliminated simultaneously in the present invention, the natrual ageing aging of alloy is prevented, mentions High high-temperature stability, in addition eliminates Mn element, it is suppressed that the high-temperature crushing of the α phase containing Fe, Mn element, to improve height Temperature stability.
Second aspect, the present invention also provides a kind of as the aforementioned suitable for the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy of gravitational casting Gravitational casting preparation method comprising following steps:
Technical pure aluminium ingot, technical pure magnesium ingot and Al-Si intermediate alloy are removed removing oxide layer and dried to be preheated to 200 by S1 ℃;By the ingredient and stoichiometric ratio of alloy, the dosage of raw material needed for calculating;
After the technical pure aluminium ingot for accounting for crucible height 25% is fused into molten bath at 710~720 DEG C by S2, residual Al is added Ingot;
S3 is warming up to 720~730 DEG C after aluminium ingot all fusing, by 2~4 additions of Al-Si intermediate alloy point, and protects It is constant at 710~720 DEG C to hold temperature;
S4 is warming up to 770~780 DEG C, sequentially adds in Al-Cu, Al-M after the Al-Si intermediate alloy all fusing Between alloy, Al-Sc intermediate alloy, after being all added to all intermediate alloys 770-780 DEG C keep the temperature 15~20 minutes;
S5 waits for that all intermediate alloys all melt and finishes, and melt temperature is down to 695~705 DEG C of addition technical pure magnesium ingots, to After the magnesium ingot is completely melt, refining agent is added at 715~725 DEG C and is refined, stands 10~20 minutes after refining, skims Surface scum obtains aluminium alloy melt;
The aluminium alloy melt is cooled between 715~725 DEG C by S6, skims surface scum, and gravity-assist pouring is to being preheated to In 180~220 DEG C of metal type dies, natural cooling, it is resistance to obtain the high-elongation suitable for gravitational casting in air Hot aluminium alloy.
Preferably, the Al-Si intermediate alloy is AlSi23 or AlSi28, and the Al-Cu intermediate alloy is AlCu50, the Al-Sc intermediate alloy be AlSc2 intermediate alloy, the Al-Ti intermediate alloy be AlTi5, AlTi10 or AlTi5B1, the Al-Zr intermediate alloy are AlZr4, the Al-V intermediate alloy AlV5.
Preferably, alloy is containing in Al-Ti intermediate alloy, Al-Zr intermediate alloy, Al-V in the Al-M Between at least two intermediate alloys in alloy combination.
Preferably, the additive amount of the refining agent is the 0.5~1.5% of raw material gross weight.
Preferably, the refining agent is grouped as by following group of percentage: calcium carbonate be 50~ 70%, sodium chloride is 10~30%, and potassium chloride is 10~30%.
Preferably, 720~730 DEG C of the temperature of the refining, 5~10min of mixing time of refining treatment.
The advantages of preparation method provided by the invention suitable for the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy of gravitational casting, is: (1) It is warming up to 770~780 DEG C during alloy melting, intermediate alloy is added and keeps the temperature 15~20 minutes, 770~780 DEG C of high temperature are true All intermediate alloys all fusing dissolution and homogenization are protected, overcomes intermediate alloy residual particles to the adverse effect of elongation percentage. (2) present invention by gravitational casting in process of production, do not need huge process equipment, can pour into complex-shaped Part saves metal, reduces cost and reduce work hours, improves the market competitiveness of alloy of the present invention, be suitble to be generalized to In scale industrial production.
Compared with prior art, the present invention have it is following the utility model has the advantages that
(1) alloy raw material is pure metal and intermediate alloy, and from a wealth of sources, whole preparation process free from admixture element penetrates into, The aluminium alloy impurity content of preparation is extremely low;
(2) use of refining agent can effectively remove impurity in molten aluminium alloy in casting process, effectively improve aluminium alloy Mechanical performance and corrosion resistance;
(3) transition metal such as suitable Sc and Zr, Ti, V can effectively improve the performance of existing high strength alumin ium alloy.Use transition Metal processing, has refined aluminium grain and Eutectic Silicon in Al-Si Cast Alloys, improves the significantly promotion of yield strength and elongation percentage and elevated temperature strength.
(4) transition metal such as suitable Sc and Zr, Ti, V eliminate the adverse effect of Fe element, significantly promote elongation percentage, The recovery utilization rate of this alloy can be improved in the Fe of trace simultaneously, and reduction is mingled with requirement to the intermediate alloys such as Al-Si Fe, thus Reduce intermediate alloy cost.
(5) room-temperature yield strength of cast alloy prepared by the present invention can reach 143-152MPa, and elongation percentage can reach 8.0%-12.0%, 200 DEG C of Testing Tensile Strength at Elevated Temperature can reach 158-170MPa, and high temperature elongation percentage can reach 10.0%-20.0%, Have the characteristics that high-elongation and high-temperature heat-resistance, meets the requirement of aluminium alloy car components, and simple process, safely may be used It leans on, easy to operate, the market competitiveness with higher is suitble to be generalized in scale industrial production.
Detailed description of the invention
Upon reading the detailed description of non-limiting embodiments with reference to the following drawings, other feature of the invention, Objects and advantages will become more apparent upon.
Fig. 1 is that aluminium alloy as-cast metallographic structure figure is prepared in embodiment 4.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described in detail combined with specific embodiments below.Following embodiment will be helpful to the technology of this field Personnel further understand the present invention, but the invention is not limited in any way.It should be pointed out that the ordinary skill of this field For personnel, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, various modifications and improvements can be made.These belong to the present invention Protection scope.
Embodiment 1
A kind of weight percent of the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting are as follows: press stoichiometric, 9.0% Si, 0.05%Cu, 0.05%Mg, 0.05%Sc, 0.3%Zr, 0.3%V, surplus are Al and inevitable impurity F e.
Preparation method is that technical pure aluminium ingot, technical pure magnesium ingot and Al-Si intermediate alloy AlSi23 are removed oxidation by (1) Layer and dry be preheated to 200 DEG C;By the ingredient and stoichiometric ratio of alloy, the dosage of raw material needed for calculating;(2) crucible height will be accounted for After the technical pure aluminium ingot of degree 25% is fused into molten bath at 710 DEG C, remaining aluminium ingot is added;(3) after aluminium ingot all fusing, heating To 720 DEG C, by 2 additions of Al-Si intermediate alloy point, and keep temperature constant at 720 DEG C;(4) to the Al-Si intermediate alloy All after fusing, 780 DEG C are warming up to, sequentially adds AlCu50, AlZr4 intermediate alloy, AlV5 intermediate alloy, the conjunction of the centre AlSc2 Gold keeps the temperature 15 minutes at 780 DEG C after being all added to all intermediate alloys;(5) it all melts and finishes to all intermediate alloys, it will Melt temperature is down to 695 DEG C of addition technical pure magnesium ingots and 0.5% refining agent is added at 715 DEG C after the magnesium ingot is completely melt It is refined, 720 DEG C of the temperature of refining, the mixing time 10min of refining treatment, refining agent component is by mass percentage are as follows: 50% calcium carbonate, 30% sodium chloride, 20% potassium chloride stand 10 minutes after refining, skim surface scum, and it is molten to obtain aluminium alloy Body;(6) aluminium alloy melt is cooled to 715 DEG C, skims surface scum, gravity-assist pouring to the metal mold for being preheated to 180 DEG C In mold, natural cooling, obtains the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy for being suitable for gravitational casting in air.
High-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy made from gravitational casting is subjected to a. room temperature tensile test respectively;b.200℃,200 High-elongation after hour heat exposure processing in 200 DEG C of progress high temperature tensile properties tests, this example suitable for gravitational casting is resistance to The as cast condition room-temperature yield strength of hot aluminium alloy is 143MPa, elongation percentage 12.0%;Drawing by high temperature tensile strength is at 200 DEG C 158MPa, elongation percentage 20.0%.
Embodiment 2
A kind of weight percent of the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting are as follows: press stoichiometric, 11.0% Si, 0.4%Cu, 0.02%Mg, 0.1%Sc, 0.3%Zr, 0.3%Ti, surplus are Al and inevitable impurity F e.
Preparation method is that technical pure aluminium ingot, technical pure magnesium ingot and Al-Si intermediate alloy AlSi23 are removed oxidation by (1) Layer and dry be preheated to 200 DEG C;By the ingredient and stoichiometric ratio of alloy, the dosage of raw material needed for calculating;(2) crucible height will be accounted for After the technical pure aluminium ingot of degree 25% is fused into molten bath at 720 DEG C, remaining aluminium ingot is added;(3) after aluminium ingot all fusing, heating To 730 DEG C, by 4 additions of Al-Si intermediate alloy point, and keep temperature constant at 720 DEG C;(4) to the Al-Si intermediate alloy All after fusing, 770 DEG C are warming up to, sequentially adds AlCu50, AlZr4 intermediate alloy, AlTi5B1 intermediate alloy, among AlSc2 Alloy keeps the temperature 20 minutes at 780 DEG C after being all added to all intermediate alloys;(5) it all melts and finishes to all intermediate alloys, Melt temperature is down to 705 DEG C of addition technical pure magnesium ingots, after the magnesium ingot is completely melt, 1.5% refining is added at 725 DEG C Agent is refined, and 730 DEG C of the temperature of refining, the mixing time 10min of refining treatment, refining agent component is by mass percentage are as follows: 70% calcium carbonate, 10% sodium chloride, 20% potassium chloride stand 20 minutes after refining, skim surface scum, and it is molten to obtain aluminium alloy Body;(6) aluminium alloy melt is cooled to 725 DEG C, skims surface scum, gravity-assist pouring to the metal mold for being preheated to 220 DEG C In mold, natural cooling, obtains the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy for being suitable for gravitational casting in air.
High-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy made from gravitational casting is subjected to a. room temperature tensile test respectively;b.200℃,200 High-elongation after hour heat exposure processing in 200 DEG C of progress high temperature tensile properties tests, this example suitable for gravitational casting is resistance to The as cast condition room-temperature yield strength of hot aluminium alloy is 150MPa, elongation percentage 9.0%;Drawing by high temperature tensile strength is at 200 DEG C 165MPa, elongation percentage 13.0%.
Embodiment 3
A kind of weight percent of the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting are as follows: press stoichiometric, 11.0% Si, 0.2%Cu, 0.04%Mg, 0.05%Sc, 0.1%Zr, 0.3%Ti, 0.3%V, surplus are Al and inevitable impurity Fe。
Preparation method is that technical pure aluminium ingot, technical pure magnesium ingot and Al-Si intermediate alloy AlSi28 are removed oxidation by (1) Layer and dry be preheated to 200 DEG C;By the ingredient and stoichiometric ratio of alloy, the dosage of raw material needed for calculating;(2) crucible height will be accounted for After the technical pure aluminium ingot of degree 25% is fused into molten bath at 715 DEG C, remaining aluminium ingot is added;(3) after aluminium ingot all fusing, heating To 725 DEG C, Al-Si intermediate alloy is added three times, and keeps temperature constant at 720 DEG C;(4) to the Al-Si intermediate alloy All fusing after, be warming up to 770 DEG C, sequentially add AlCu50, AlTi5B1, AlTi10 intermediate alloy, AlV5 intermediate alloy, AlZr4 intermediate alloy, AlSc2 intermediate alloy keep the temperature 15 minutes at 770 DEG C after being all added to all intermediate alloys;(5) to All intermediate alloys, which all melt, to be finished, and melt temperature is down to 700 DEG C of addition technical pure magnesium ingots, is completely melt to the magnesium ingot Afterwards, 1.0% refining agent is added at 725 DEG C to be refined, 730 DEG C of the temperature of refining, the mixing time 15min of refining treatment, Refining agent component is by mass percentage are as follows: 50% calcium carbonate, 20% sodium chloride, 30% potassium chloride stand 15 minutes after refining, skim Surface scum is removed, aluminium alloy melt is obtained;(6) aluminium alloy melt is cooled to 725 DEG C, skims surface scum, gravity pours It infuses in the metal type dies for being preheated to 220 DEG C, in air natural cooling, obtains the high-elongation for being suitable for gravitational casting Heat-resisting aluminium alloy.
High-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy made from gravitational casting is subjected to a. room temperature tensile test respectively;b.200℃,200 High-elongation after hour heat exposure processing in 200 DEG C of progress high temperature tensile properties tests, this example suitable for gravitational casting is resistance to The as cast condition room-temperature yield strength of hot aluminium alloy is 145MPa, elongation percentage 10.0%;Drawing by high temperature tensile strength is at 200 DEG C 162MPa, elongation percentage 16.0%.
Embodiment 4
A kind of weight percent of the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting are as follows: press stoichiometric, 12.0% Si, 0.4%Cu, 0.05%Mg, 0.1%Sc, 0.3%Zr, 0.2%Ti, 0.3%V, surplus are Al and inevitable impurity Fe。
Preparation method is that technical pure aluminium ingot, technical pure magnesium ingot and Al-Si intermediate alloy AlSi28 are removed oxidation by (1) Layer and dry be preheated to 200 DEG C;By the ingredient and stoichiometric ratio of alloy, the dosage of raw material needed for calculating;(2) crucible height will be accounted for After the technical pure aluminium ingot of degree 25% is fused into molten bath at 720 DEG C, remaining aluminium ingot is added;(3) after aluminium ingot all fusing, heating To 730 DEG C, by 4 additions of Al-Si intermediate alloy point, and keep temperature constant at 718 DEG C;(4) to the Al-Si intermediate alloy All after fusing, 780 DEG C are warming up to, sequentially adds AlCu50, AlTi5 intermediate alloy, AlZr4 intermediate alloy, the conjunction of the centre AlV5 Gold, AlSc2 intermediate alloy keep the temperature 20 minutes at 770 DEG C after being all added to all intermediate alloys;(5) to all intermediate conjunctions Gold, which all melts, to be finished, and melt temperature is down to 698 DEG C of addition technical pure magnesium ingots, after the magnesium ingot is completely melt, at 722 DEG C 0.6% refining agent is added to be refined, 725 DEG C of the temperature of refining, the mixing time 15min of refining treatment, refining agent component is pressed Mass percent are as follows: 60% calcium carbonate, 30% sodium chloride, 10% potassium chloride stand 15 minutes after refining, skim surface scum, Obtain aluminium alloy melt;(6) aluminium alloy melt is cooled to 720 DEG C, skims surface scum, gravity-assist pouring is to being preheated to In 200 DEG C of metal type dies, natural cooling, obtains the high-elongation alumite suitable for gravitational casting and closes in air Gold.
High-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy made from gravitational casting is subjected to a. room temperature tensile test respectively;b.200℃,200 In 200 DEG C of progress high temperature tensile properties tests after hour heat exposure processing, Fig. 1 is aluminium alloy as cast condition metallographic manufactured in the present embodiment Organization chart.As cast condition room-temperature yield strength in this example suitable for the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy of gravitational casting is 152MPa, is prolonged Stretch rate 8.0%;Drawing by high temperature tensile strength is 170MPa, elongation percentage 10.0% at 200 DEG C.
Comparative example 1
This comparative example is related to a kind of weight percent of high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting are as follows: by theory Proportion, 12.0%Si, 0.4%Cu, 0.05%Mg, 0.3%Zr, 0.2%Ti, 0.3%V, surplus be Al and inevitably it is miscellaneous Matter Fe.
Preparation method is that technical pure aluminium ingot, technical pure magnesium ingot and Al-Si intermediate alloy AlSi28 are removed oxidation by (1) Layer and dry be preheated to 200 DEG C;By the ingredient and stoichiometric ratio of alloy, the dosage of raw material needed for calculating;(2) crucible height will be accounted for After the technical pure aluminium ingot of degree 25% is fused into molten bath at 720 DEG C, remaining aluminium ingot is added;(3) after aluminium ingot all fusing, heating To 730 DEG C, by 4 additions of Al-Si intermediate alloy point, and keep temperature constant at 718 DEG C;(4) to the Al-Si intermediate alloy All after fusing, 780 DEG C are warming up to, sequentially adds AlCu50, AlTi5 intermediate alloy, AlZr4 intermediate alloy, the conjunction of the centre AlV5 Gold keeps the temperature 20 minutes at 770 DEG C after being all added to all intermediate alloys;(5) it all melts and finishes to all intermediate alloys, it will Melt temperature is down to 698 DEG C of addition technical pure magnesium ingots and 0.6% refining agent is added at 722 DEG C after the magnesium ingot is completely melt It is refined, 725 DEG C of the temperature of refining, the mixing time 15min of refining treatment, refining agent component is by mass percentage are as follows: 60% calcium carbonate, 30% sodium chloride, 10% potassium chloride stand 15 minutes after refining, skim surface scum, and it is molten to obtain aluminium alloy Body;(6) aluminium alloy melt is cooled to 720 DEG C, skims surface scum, gravity-assist pouring to the metal mold for being preheated to 200 DEG C In mold, natural cooling, obtains the gravitational casting aluminium alloy of this comparative example in air.
Gravitational casting aluminium alloy made from this comparative example is subjected to a. room temperature tensile test respectively;B.200 DEG C, 200 hours The as cast condition room temperature of gravitational casting aluminium alloy after heat exposure processing in 200 DEG C of progress high temperature tensile properties tests, this comparative example Yield strength is 126MPa, elongation percentage 3.5%;Drawing by high temperature tensile strength is 131MPa, elongation percentage 4.8%, performance at 200 DEG C It is suitable for the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy of gravitational casting substantially less than in example 4.
Comparative example 2
A kind of weight percent of the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting are as follows: press stoichiometric, 11.0% Si, 0.4%Cu, 0.02%Mg, 0.1%Sc, surplus are Al and inevitable impurity F e.
Preparation method is that technical pure aluminium ingot, technical pure magnesium ingot and Al-Si intermediate alloy AlSi23 are removed oxidation by (1) Layer and dry be preheated to 200 DEG C;By the ingredient and stoichiometric ratio of alloy, the dosage of raw material needed for calculating;(2) crucible height will be accounted for After the technical pure aluminium ingot of degree 25% is fused into molten bath at 720 DEG C, remaining aluminium ingot is added;(3) after aluminium ingot all fusing, heating To 730 DEG C, by 4 additions of Al-Si intermediate alloy point, and keep temperature constant at 720 DEG C;(4) to the Al-Si intermediate alloy All after fusing, 770 DEG C are warming up to, AlCu50 intermediate alloy, AlSc2 intermediate alloy is added, is all added to all intermediate alloys After 780 DEG C keep the temperature 20 minutes;(5) it all melts and finishes to all intermediate alloys, melt temperature is down to 705 DEG C of addition works Industry pure magnesium ingot is added 1.5% refining agent at 725 DEG C and is refined after the magnesium ingot is completely melt, the temperature 730 of refining DEG C, the mixing time 10min of refining treatment, refining agent component is by mass percentage are as follows: 70% calcium carbonate, 10% sodium chloride, 20% potassium chloride stands 20 minutes after refining, skims surface scum, obtain aluminium alloy melt;(6) aluminium alloy melt is dropped Temperature skims surface scum to 725 DEG C, and gravity-assist pouring is into the metal type dies for being preheated to 220 DEG C, natural cooling in air, Obtain the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy for being suitable for gravitational casting.
High-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy made from gravitational casting is subjected to a. room temperature tensile test respectively;b.200℃,200 High-elongation after hour heat exposure processing in 200 DEG C of progress high temperature tensile properties tests, this example suitable for gravitational casting is resistance to The as cast condition room-temperature yield strength of hot aluminium alloy is 135MPa, elongation percentage 8.5%;Drawing by high temperature tensile strength is at 200 DEG C 142MPa, elongation percentage 12.0%.
Specific embodiments of the present invention are described above.It is to be appreciated that the invention is not limited to above-mentioned Particular implementation, those skilled in the art can make various deformations or amendments within the scope of the claims, this not shadow Ring substantive content of the invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting, which is characterized in that including percentage as Lower element: 9.0-12.0%Si, 0.05-0.4%Cu, 0.02-0.05%Mg, 0.05-0.1%Sc, 0.6-0.8%M, surplus are Al and inevitable impurity F e, wherein the mass fraction of Al is to contain at least two in Ti, Zr and V not less than 87%, M The composite component of element.
2. being suitable for the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy of gravitational casting as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that described to keep away The impurity F e content exempted from is no more than 0.2%.
3. being suitable for the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy of gravitational casting as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the composite unit In plain M, based on all elements total amount in alloy, the mass fraction of Ti is that the mass fraction of 0-0.3%, Zr are 0-0.3%, V Mass fraction be 0-0.3%, and two kinds of elements are not simultaneously 0.
4. a kind of preparation method suitable for the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy of gravitational casting as described in claim 1, special Sign is, includes the following steps:
Technical pure aluminium ingot, technical pure magnesium ingot and Al-Si intermediate alloy are removed removing oxide layer and dried to be preheated to 190-200 by S1 ℃;By the ingredient and stoichiometric ratio of alloy, the dosage of raw material needed for calculating;
After the technical pure aluminium ingot for accounting for crucible height 25% is fused into molten bath at 710~720 DEG C by S2, remaining aluminium ingot is added;
S3 is warming up to 710~720 DEG C after aluminium ingot all fusing, by 2~4 additions of Al-Si intermediate alloy point, and keeps temperature It spends constant at 710~720 DEG C;
S4 is warming up to 770~780 DEG C after the Al-Si intermediate alloy all fusing, sequentially adds and closes among Al-Cu, Al-M Gold, Al-Sc intermediate alloy, in 770~780 DEG C of 15~20min of heat preservation after being all added to all intermediate alloys;
S5 waits for that all intermediate alloys all melt and finishes, and melt temperature is down to 695~705 DEG C of addition technical pure magnesium ingots, to described After magnesium ingot is completely melt, refining agent is added at 715~725 DEG C and is refined, 10~20min is stood after refining, skims surface Dross obtains aluminium alloy melt;
The aluminium alloy melt is cooled to 715~725 DEG C by S6, skims surface scum, and gravity-assist pouring is to being preheated to 180~220 DEG C metal type dies in, natural cooling in air obtains the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting.
5. the preparation method suitable for the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy of gravitational casting as claimed in claim 4, which is characterized in that The Al-Si intermediate alloy is AlSi23 or AlSi28;The Al-Cu intermediate alloy is AlCu50;It is closed among the Al-Sc Gold is AlSc2 intermediate alloy;The Al-M intermediate alloy be containing Al-Ti intermediate alloy, Al-Zr intermediate alloy, Al-V among The combination of at least two intermediate alloys in alloy.
6. the preparation method suitable for the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy of gravitational casting as claimed in claim 5, which is characterized in that The Al-Ti intermediate alloy is AlTi5, AlTi10 or AlTi5B1;The Al-Zr intermediate alloy is AlZr4;The Al-V Intermediate alloy AlV5.
7. the preparation method suitable for the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy of gravitational casting as claimed in claim 4, which is characterized in that The additive amount of the refining agent is the 0.5~1.5% of raw material gross weight.
8. the preparation method of the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy suitable for gravitational casting as described in any in claim 5~7, Be characterized in that, the refining agent is grouped as by following group of percentage: calcium carbonate is 50~70%, sodium chloride 10 ~30%, potassium chloride is 10~30%.
9. the preparation method suitable for the high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy of gravitational casting as claimed in claim 4, which is characterized in that 720~730 DEG C of the temperature of the refining, 5~10min of mixing time of refining treatment.
10. a kind of high-elongation heat-resisting aluminium alloy answering on auto parts for being suitable for gravitational casting as described in claim 1 With.
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CN113388762A (en) * 2021-06-09 2021-09-14 苏州慧驰轻合金精密成型科技有限公司 Semi-solid aluminum alloy material suitable for new energy automobile battery pack and preparation method thereof

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