CN109802242B - Super-surface lens - Google Patents

Super-surface lens Download PDF

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CN109802242B
CN109802242B CN201910164897.4A CN201910164897A CN109802242B CN 109802242 B CN109802242 B CN 109802242B CN 201910164897 A CN201910164897 A CN 201910164897A CN 109802242 B CN109802242 B CN 109802242B
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lens
metal
metal cross
cross
dielectric plate
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CN109802242A (en
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吴礼
肖芸
彭树生
高辉
李玉年
盛俊铭
毕业昆
卞亨通
彭立尧
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Nanjing University of Science and Technology
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Nanjing University of Science and Technology
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Abstract

The invention provides a super-surface lens which comprises a plurality of lens units which are periodically arranged according to the shape grid distribution, wherein the phase range of the lens units covers 0-360 degrees, and the arrangement of the lens units meets the requirement that the transmission wave phase of the lens units focuses electromagnetic waves to one point. The invention can realize the phase shift range of 360 degrees under the condition that the transmission coefficient is more than-3 dB by connecting the phase control ranges of the two structures, so that the focusing effect of the lens is excellent.

Description

Super-surface lens
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of planar lenses, and particularly relates to a super-surface lens.
Background
The super-surface lens is an ultrathin two-dimensional array plane consisting of a series of sub-wavelength artificial microstructures, has the characteristics of relatively simple manufacture, relatively low loss, small volume, ultrathin thickness and the like, and can realize effective regulation and control on the aspects of amplitude, phase, propagation mode, polarization state and the like of electromagnetic waves.
The super-surface lens is formed of topologically similar transmissive frequency selective surface elements that are phase compensated by each element of the array to produce the desired beam of radiation on the other side of the array. The conventional super-surface lens generally adopts a multi-layer frequency selective structure having at least two or more dielectric layers as an array unit, or adopts a single-layer frequency selective structure as an array unit, and although the single-layer (double-layer metal) structure is easy to manufacture, it is difficult to cover a 360 ° phase shift range in a manner satisfying high efficiency.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a super-surface lens, which solves the problem that the existing super-surface lens is difficult to cover a 360-degree phase shift range in a high-efficiency mode.
The technical solution for realizing the invention is as follows: a super-surface lens comprises a plurality of lens units which are periodically arranged according to the shape grid distribution, the phase range of the lens units covers 0-360 degrees, and the arrangement of the lens units meets the requirement that the transmission wave phase of the lens units focuses electromagnetic waves to one point.
Preferably, the phase of the transmitted wave of the lens unit satisfies:
Figure BDA0001985962610000011
wherein the content of the first and second substances,
Figure BDA0001985962610000012
is transmitted wave phase, x'mAnd y'nIs the unit coordinate of the lens, F is the focal length of the parallel wave along the z-axis, F is the design frequency, and c is the speed of light.
Preferably, the lens unit includes unit construction E _ I and unit construction E _ II, unit construction E _ I includes two metal crosses, two metal cross CCR, a hollow metal via hole and dielectric slab, metal cross and metal cross CCR are equallyd divide and are do not plated two surfaces about the dielectric slab, and metal cross cover is peripheral at metal cross, and hollow metal via hole sets up and sees through the dielectric slab in the middle of metal cross and links to each other two-layer metal cross about with, unit construction E _ II includes two metal crosses, four hollow metal via holes and dielectric slab, and metal cross plates two surfaces about the dielectric slab respectively, and four hollow metal via hole settings are in the middle of every frame of cross and are passed through the dielectric slab and will be two-layer metal cross link to each other from top to bottom.
Preferably, the metal cross and the metal cross ring CCR are made of PEC and have a thickness of 0.035 mm.
Preferably, the material of the medium plate is F4BM, the thickness is 3mm, and the side length is 16 mm.
Preferably, the unit structure E _ I and the unit structure E _ II are both centrosymmetric patterns.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following remarkable advantages: 1) the invention can realize the phase shift range of 360 degrees under the condition that the transmission coefficient is more than-3 dB by connecting the phase control ranges of the two structures, so that the focusing effect of the lens is excellent; 2) the invention has low profile, thin thickness and light weight, and effectively improves the focusing efficiency of the lens on incident light
The present invention is described in further detail below with reference to the attached drawings.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a super-surface lens structure of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of the unit structure E _ I of the present invention, wherein FIG. 2(a) is a front view, and FIG. 2(b) is a left side view.
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the unit structure E _ II of the present invention, wherein FIG. 3(a) is a front view and FIG. 3(b) is a left side view.
FIG. 4 is a graph of transmission coefficient at 11GHz for the unit structure E _ I of the present invention, wherein FIG. 4(a) is a graph of side length l along a metal cross2A magnitude map of the variations; FIG. 4(b) is a graph showing the side length l of a cross2Phase map of the changes.
FIG. 5 is a graph of the transmission coefficient at 11GHz for the unit structure E _ II of the present invention, wherein FIG. 5(a) is a graph of the side length l of a metal cross3A magnitude map of the variations; FIG. 5(b) is a graph showing the side length l of a cross3Phase map of the changes.
Fig. 6 is a phase connection coverage curve implemented by the unit structure E _ I and the unit structure E _ II of the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a normalized power density profile of the super-surface lens of the present invention at 11GHz along the intersection of the xoz plane and the yoz plane.
Detailed Description
A super-surface lens comprises a plurality of lens units which are periodically arranged according to the shape grid distribution, the phase range of the lens units covers 0-360 degrees, and the arrangement of the lens units meets the requirement that the transmission wave phase of the lens units focuses electromagnetic waves to one point.
In a further embodiment, the phase of the transmitted wave of the lens unit satisfies:
Figure BDA0001985962610000021
wherein the content of the first and second substances,
Figure BDA0001985962610000031
is transmitted wave phase, x'mAnd y'nIs the unit coordinate of the lens, F is the focal length of the parallel wave along the z-axis, F is the design frequency, and c is the speed of light.
In a further embodiment, the lens unit comprises a unit structure E _ I and a unit structure E _ II, the unit structure E _ I comprises two metal crosses, two metal cross CCR, a hollow metal via hole and a dielectric plate, the metal crosses and the metal cross CCR are equally divided and respectively plated on the upper surface and the lower surface of the dielectric plate, the metal cross is sleeved on the periphery of the metal crosses, the hollow metal via hole is arranged in the middle of the metal cross and penetrates through the dielectric plate to connect the upper layer of metal cross with the lower layer of metal cross, the unit structure E _ II comprises two metal crosses, four hollow metal via holes and the dielectric plate, the metal cross is respectively plated on the upper surface and the lower surface of the dielectric plate, and the four hollow metal via holes are arranged in the middle of each cross frame and penetrate through the dielectric plate to connect the upper layer of metal cross with.
In a further embodiment, the metal cross and the metal cross ring CCR are made of PEC and have a thickness of 0.035 mm.
In a further embodiment, the material of the dielectric plate is F4BM, the thickness is 3mm, and the side length is 16 mm.
In a further embodiment, the unit structure E _ I and the unit structure E _ II are both centrosymmetric patterns.
The invention carries out phase compensation on electromagnetic waves at different positions in a mode of adjusting the sizes of the metal cross structures of the unit structure E _ I and the unit structure E _ II,ensuring that the transmission array unit makes the electromagnetic wave transmit to the other side of the unit. The specific implementation mode is as follows: firstly, according to the formula:
Figure BDA0001985962610000032
calculating the phase compensation of the corresponding position, and establishing the position relation between the phase compensation and the lens; then, obtaining a corresponding size range meeting the condition that the transmission phase is larger than 360 degrees through simulation, establishing a relation between phase compensation and size, and obtaining a corresponding lookup table; and finally, corresponding the structural size required by the corresponding position by comparing the phase compensation of the first step in a table lookup mode, so that the transmission phase range of the transmission array along the horizontal axis direction and the vertical axis direction is 360 degrees.
The invention designs an element group consisting of two similar unit structures E _ I, E _ II, and the lens units perform phase compensation on electromagnetic waves by adjusting the size of a metal cross of E _ I, E _ II. Under the condition that the transmission coefficient is larger than-3 dB, the phase control ranges of the two elements can be well connected, and a 360-degree phase shift range is realized.
Example 1
As shown in fig. 1, the super-surface lens of the present embodiment is formed by 293 lens units periodically arranged in a grid-shaped distribution. The super-surface lens of the embodiment performs phase compensation on electromagnetic waves at different positions in a manner of adjusting the sizes of the metal crosses of the structural unit structure E _ I and the unit structure E _ II, so that the total coverage phase range of the lens unit E _ I, E _ II is 360 °.
As shown in fig. 2, in this embodiment, the unit structure E _ I includes two metal crosses, two metal cross CCR, a hollow metal via hole, and a dielectric plate, where the metal cross and the metal cross CCR are respectively plated on the upper and lower surfaces of the dielectric plate, the metal cross is sleeved on the periphery of the metal cross, and the hollow metal via hole is disposed in the middle of the metal cross and penetrates through the dielectric plate to connect the upper and lower layers of metal crosses. The metal cross shape is w22.5 mm; the inner ring length of the metal cross ring (CCR) is l18mm, width w13.6mm, the distance between the inner ring and the outer ring ist is 0.3 mm; the diameter of the hollow metal via hole is 0.3 mm.
As shown in fig. 3, in this embodiment, the metal cross-shaped frame includes two metal cross-shaped frames, four hollow metal via holes, and a dielectric plate, the metal cross-shaped frames are respectively plated on the upper and lower surfaces of the dielectric plate, and the four hollow metal via holes are disposed in the middle of each cross-shaped frame and connect the upper and lower layers of metal cross-shaped frames through the dielectric plate. The width of the metal cross is w 33 mm; the diameter of the hollow metal through holes is d-0.3 mm, and the distance between the through holes is r-2 mm.
In this embodiment, the dielectric constant of each of the unit structures E _ I and E _ II is 2.94, the length p of the dielectric plate is 16mm, the width p of the dielectric plate is 16mm, and the thickness h of the dielectric plate is 3 mm. The material used for the dielectric sheet is F4 BM.
As shown in FIG. 4, in this embodiment, when the unit structure E _ I is at 11GHz, the metal cross edge length l is longer2When the amplitude transmission coefficient is changed by stepping 0.05mm from 2.5mm to 7.65mm, the amplitude transmission coefficient is larger than-3 dB, the transmission phase is changed from-34 degrees to-124 degrees, and the phase steering range only covers 90 degrees.
Therefore, in this embodiment, in order to achieve complete phase coverage, a unit structure E _ II is designed, and the unit structure E _ II removes a metal cross ring (CCR) on the basis of the unit structure E _ I, as shown in fig. 5, in this embodiment, when the unit structure E _ II is at 11GHz, the side length l of the metal cross is l3When the amplitude transmission coefficient is changed by stepping 0.05mm from 9.6mm to 15.7mm, the amplitude transmission coefficients are all larger than-3 dB, the transmission phase is changed from-125 degrees to-398 degrees, and the phase steering range covers 273 degrees.
As shown in fig. 6, the phase-diversion ranges of the unit structures E _ I and E _ II are well-connected in the case where both transmission coefficients are satisfied with a transmission coefficient greater than-3 dB, and the unit groups provide a total phase shift ranging from-34 ° to-398 ° with a coverage greater than 360 °.
In order to test the focusing function of the designed super-surface lens, a simulation experiment is carried out, a parallel wave excitation is emitted to test the focusing phenomenon of the lens, and the power density of the lens at the xoz plane is concentrated in a region at 10 GHz.
As shown in fig. 7, the power spectral density distribution at the intersection of the xoz plane and the yoz plane normalized at 11GHz has a peak at a distance of about 150mm at z.

Claims (5)

1. A super-surface lens is characterized by comprising a plurality of lens units which are periodically arranged according to grid distribution, wherein the phase range of the lens units covers 0-360 degrees, and the arrangement of the lens units meets the requirement that the transmission wave phase of the lens units focuses electromagnetic waves to a point;
the lens unit comprises a unit structure E _ I and a unit structure E _ II, the unit structure E _ I comprises two metal crosses, two metal cross CCR, a hollow metal via hole and a dielectric plate, the metal cross and the metal cross CCR are equally divided and respectively plated on the upper surface and the lower surface of the dielectric plate, the metal cross is sleeved on the periphery of the metal cross, the hollow metal via hole is arranged in the middle of the metal cross and penetrates through the dielectric plate to connect the upper layer of metal cross with the lower layer of metal cross, the unit structure E _ II comprises two metal crosses, four hollow metal via holes and the dielectric plate, the metal cross is respectively plated on the upper surface and the lower surface of the dielectric plate, and the four hollow metal via holes are arranged in the middle of each cross frame and penetrate through the dielectric plate to connect the upper layer of metal cross with.
2. The super surface lens according to claim 1, wherein the phase of the transmitted wave of the lens unit satisfies:
Figure FDA0002712432980000011
wherein the content of the first and second substances,
Figure FDA0002712432980000012
is transmitted wave phase, x'mAnd y'nIs the unit coordinate of the lens, F is the focal length of the parallel wave along the z-axis, F is the design frequency, and c is the speed of light.
3. The super surface lens according to claim 1, wherein the material of the metal cross, metal cross ring CCR is PEC with a thickness of 0.035 mm.
4. The super surface lens as claimed in claim 1, wherein the dielectric plate is F4BM, and has a thickness of 3mm and a side length of 16 mm.
5. The super surface lens according to claim 1, wherein the unit structures E _ I and E _ II are both centrosymmetric patterns.
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CN110518364A (en) * 2019-08-22 2019-11-29 南京理工大学 Super surface condenser lens based on no through-hole single structure
CN110739551B (en) * 2019-10-29 2021-09-28 Oppo广东移动通信有限公司 Array lens, lens antenna, and electronic apparatus
CN111352237A (en) * 2020-04-24 2020-06-30 浙江舜宇光学有限公司 Super surface imaging device
CN111695211B (en) * 2020-05-20 2021-06-22 哈尔滨工程大学 Super-surface design method
CN113687453B (en) * 2021-07-27 2022-07-26 华南理工大学 Variable-focus near-infrared super-surface lens and control method thereof
CN115051168B (en) * 2022-06-29 2023-07-28 电子科技大学 Single-layer flat plate ultra-wideband ultra-surface lens and lens antenna
CN115117634A (en) * 2022-06-30 2022-09-27 电子科技大学 High-gain circularly polarized beam scanning antenna with transmission super surface
CN117374606A (en) * 2022-06-30 2024-01-09 中兴通讯股份有限公司 Electromagnetic super-surface lens and communication equipment

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