CN109696637B - Method for monitoring capacity of lithium disposable battery - Google Patents

Method for monitoring capacity of lithium disposable battery Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109696637B
CN109696637B CN201910126946.5A CN201910126946A CN109696637B CN 109696637 B CN109696637 B CN 109696637B CN 201910126946 A CN201910126946 A CN 201910126946A CN 109696637 B CN109696637 B CN 109696637B
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battery
lithium
capacity
internal resistance
precision resistor
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CN109696637A (en
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陈阜东
谭卫国
张中其
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Shanghai Siproin Microelectronics Co ltd
Ramway New Energy Co ltd
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Shanghai Siproin Microelectronics Co ltd
Ramway New Energy Co ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for monitoring the capacity of a lithium disposable battery, which belongs to the technical field of electronics, and adopts a new circuit structure, a tiny precision resistor is connected between a lithium battery and an external filter capacitor in series, an A/D voltage conversion circuit is used for measuring the voltage to earth at two ends of the precision resistor connected in series when a load works, the output current of the battery can be obtained through calculation, the internal resistance of the battery can be judged through the output voltage of the battery, the residual capacity of the battery can be obtained through a pre-established lithium disposable battery capacity model, and an alarm can be given when the preset threshold capacity is reached, so that the effective monitoring of the capacity of the lithium disposable battery is realized. This approach is not only highly precise, but also does not add cost and extra energy consumption.

Description

Method for monitoring capacity of lithium disposable battery
[ technical field ] A method for producing a semiconductor device
The invention belongs to the technical field of electronics, and relates to a method for monitoring the capacity of a lithium disposable battery.
[ background of the invention ]
With the development of the internet of things industry and the construction of a basic network, the application of the sensor in the internet of things network is more and more extensive. Many thing networking sensor circuit are inconvenient to get the electricity from the electric wire netting, but because the consumption is very little, can adopt the disposable battery power supply of large capacity, can maintain 8 ~ 10 years's operating time, for example water gauge, hotlist etc.. The sensor module needs to send battery capacity information to the server at regular time, and sends an alarm signal to the server before the battery is exhausted, so as to remind network maintenance personnel to replace the battery in time, therefore, the battery capacity can be accurately measured, and the sensor module becomes a necessary function of the module of the internet of things.
With the consumption of the electric quantity of the battery, the phenomena of internal resistance increase and output voltage reduction of the battery can occur, so the current battery capacity monitoring can adopt a mode of directly measuring the output voltage of the battery during working and judging the battery capacity through the output voltage. However, the voltage measured by the method changes along with the output load current, so that the accuracy of judging the battery capacity is not high, and the method is only suitable for being applied to modules with relatively constant output current. Another improved method is to disconnect the positive pole of the battery from the load at regular time, connect the battery to a fixed dummy load through a change-over switch to obtain a relatively fixed current, measure the output voltage to calculate the internal resistance of the battery, and then judge the remaining capacity of the battery according to a battery model. The disadvantage of this method is that the load needs to be restarted without power interruption, and a change-over switch and a switch control circuit need to be added, which increases both the cost and the extra energy consumption.
[ summary of the invention ]
The invention provides a method for monitoring the capacity of a lithium disposable battery, which aims to solve the technical problems in the background technology.
In order to achieve the above technical object, the present invention adopts the following aspects.
A method for monitoring the capacity of disposable lithium battery includes such steps as measuring the output voltage and current of battery twice, starting the load with higher power or full power, charging capacitor with higher current, starting A/D converter, and measuring the voltages at both ends of precise resistor to be V1And V'1Then, the battery-to-capacitor charging current can be obtained according to equation (1):
I1=(V1-V1')/R (1)
during the second measurement, the whole machine is selected to be in a standby state, the capacitor is already in a full-charge state, and the voltage between two ends of the resistor can be measured to be V2And V'2The current on the precision resistor can be obtained according to the formula (2) as follows:
I2=(V2-V2')/R (2)
according to the current value and the voltage value obtained by twice measurement of the formula (1) and the formula (2), the battery internal resistance can be obtained by calculation according to the formula (3) as follows:
r=(V2-V1)/(I1-I2) (3)
by establishing an accurate relation curve of constant-current discharge voltage, capacity and internal resistance, after the internal resistance of the battery is measured, the residual capacity of the battery can be accurately estimated, an alarm can be sent when the set threshold capacity is reached, an alarm signal is sent to a server end in time, and network maintenance personnel are reminded to replace the battery in time, so that the capacity monitoring of the lithium disposable battery is realized.
Preferably, the lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring circuit comprises a lithium battery, a filter capacitor, a precision resistor, a load circuit, an A/D voltage conversion circuit and a battery internal resistance calculation and capacity judgment firmware, wherein the lithium battery, the filter capacitor and the precision resistor are connected in series to form a main loop, and a line is arranged between the lithium battery and the filter capacitor and is grounded; the load circuit is connected with the filter capacitor in parallel; the positive and negative ends of the precision resistor are respectively connected with the positive and negative ends of the A/D voltage conversion circuit; the battery internal resistance calculation and capacity judgment firmware is connected in series with the A/D voltage conversion circuit.
Preferably, the lithium battery is a lithium thionyl chloride battery.
Preferably, the lithium thionyl chloride cell comprises one of ER14250 lithium thionyl chloride cell and ER18505 lithium thionyl chloride cell.
Preferably, the capacity of the filter capacitor is larger than or equal to 1 farad.
Preferably, the resistance value of the precision resistor is one tenth of the minimum internal resistance of the lithium battery.
Preferably, the precision resistor can be embedded in a lithium battery.
Preferably, the load in the load circuit comprises one or more of a water meter and a heat meter.
Preferably, the a/D voltage conversion circuit may be embedded in a lithium battery.
Through this technical scheme, can realize following effect:
the invention relates to a method for monitoring the capacity of a lithium disposable battery, which adopts a new circuit structure, a tiny precision resistor is connected between a lithium battery and an external filter capacitor in series, an A/D voltage conversion circuit is used for measuring the voltage to ground at two ends of the precision resistor connected in series when a load works, the output current of the battery can be obtained through calculation, the internal resistance of the battery can be judged through the output voltage of the battery, the residual capacity of the battery can be obtained through a pre-established capacity model of the lithium disposable battery, and an alarm can be given when the preset threshold capacity is reached, thereby realizing the effective monitoring of the capacity of the lithium disposable battery. This approach is not only highly precise, but also does not add cost and extra energy consumption.
[ description of the drawings ]
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a circuit for monitoring the capacity of a lithium disposable battery according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a graph of load operating current and battery discharge current over time;
FIG. 3 is a graph showing the relationship between ER14250, 10mA constant current discharge voltage, capacity and internal resistance.
[ detailed description ] embodiments
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the following detailed description and accompanying drawings. It should be emphasized that the following description is merely exemplary in nature and is not intended to limit the scope of the invention or its application.
The lithium thionyl chloride battery belongs to a lithium disposable battery, and has the characteristics of large capacity, small discharge current and extremely small self-leakage, so that the lithium thionyl chloride battery is suitable for supplying power to an Internet of things sensor circuit with low power consumption and long-time work. Because the discharge current of the lithium battery is small, the current consumption of a load circuit in full-power work can not be generally met, a large-capacity super capacitor with small electric leakage can be connected in parallel at two ends of the battery, the capacity of the capacitor is over 1 Farad, most energy consumption is provided by the capacitor when the load works, after the load enters a standby state, the voltage of the capacitor is lower than the voltage of the battery due to the consumption of the electric quantity of the capacitor, and the battery can continuously charge the capacitor until the voltage of the capacitor is equal to the output voltage of the battery. Due to this characteristic of the circuit, the load's full power operation time is typically very short, while the charging time is much longer than the load's operation time.
Based on the characteristics of the circuit, the invention designs a novel lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring circuit which can avoid the influence of a super capacitor on the measurement of the internal resistance of the battery, as shown in figure 1, the lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring circuit comprises a lithium battery, a filter capacitor, a current sampling precision resistor, a load circuit, an A/D voltage conversion circuit, a battery internal resistance calculation and capacity judgment firmware, wherein the lithium battery, the filter capacitor and the precision resistor are connected in series to form a main loop, and a line is arranged between the lithium battery and the filter capacitor and is grounded; the load circuit is connected with the filter capacitor in parallel; the positive and negative ends of the precision resistor are respectively connected with the positive and negative ends of the A/D voltage conversion circuit; the battery internal resistance calculation and capacity judgment firmware is connected in series with the A/D voltage conversion circuit.
The lithium battery is a lithium disposable battery, the lithium disposable battery is a lithium thionyl chloride battery, and the lithium thionyl chloride battery comprises one of ER14250 lithium thionyl chloride battery and ER18505 lithium thionyl chloride battery.
The filter capacitor is a high-capacity super capacitor, and the capacity is more than or equal to 1 Farad.
The precision resistor is a current sampling precision resistor, and the resistance value is one tenth of the minimum internal resistance of the lithium battery.
The precision resistor can be embedded in the lithium battery.
The load in the load circuit comprises one or more of a water meter and a heat meter.
The A/D voltage conversion circuit is composed of a voltage analog-to-digital conversion circuit and can be embedded in a lithium battery.
The battery internal resistance calculation and capacity judgment firmware is composed of a single chip microcomputer, a single chip microcomputer circuit is adopted in realization, the single chip microcomputer circuit is connected behind an A/D voltage conversion circuit, a voltage value on a current sampling precision resistor is read, and the battery internal resistance is calculated according to different voltage values measured twice (corresponding to two times of sampling of different current values on the current sampling precision resistor).
The circuit structure of the present invention includes a calculation unit for judging the internal resistance and the battery discharge model matching point. The computing unit is also a single chip microcomputer circuit, and the same single chip microcomputer is adopted as the battery internal resistance computing and capacity judging firmware, namely different firmware programs running in the single chip microcomputer.
The resistance value of the precision resistor is selected according to the maximum discharge current of the battery and the voltage measurement precision, the resistance value of the precision resistor cannot be selected too much so as to avoid excessive energy consumption and too small, otherwise, the voltage measurement precision is not enough, so that the voltage difference between two ends of the resistor cannot be distinguished, and the current calculation precision is influenced. The precision error of the precision resistor can directly influence the measurement precision of the current, and further influence the measurement precision of the internal resistance of the battery and the judgment of the capacity of the lithium disposable battery. The precise resistor is connected in series between the anode of the battery and the anode of the super capacitor, and through long-term selection in tests, the resistance value of the precise resistor is finally selected to be one tenth of the minimum internal resistance of the lithium battery, for example, for the normal internal resistance of the ER18505 lithium disposable battery to be 10-300 ohms, the resistance value of the current sampling precise resistor is 1 ohm.
The following is a more specific example.
Example 1
As shown in fig. 1, a lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring circuit includes a lithium battery, a filter capacitor, a current sampling precision resistor, a load circuit, an a/D voltage conversion circuit, and a battery internal resistance calculation and capacity judgment firmware, wherein the lithium battery, the filter capacitor, and the precision resistor are connected in series to form a main loop, and a line ground is arranged between the lithium battery and the filter capacitor; the load circuit is connected with the filter capacitor in parallel; the positive and negative ends of the precision resistor are respectively connected with the positive and negative ends of the A/D voltage conversion circuit; the battery internal resistance calculation and capacity judgment firmware is connected in series with the A/D voltage conversion circuit.
The lithium battery is a lithium disposable battery, the lithium disposable battery is a lithium thionyl chloride battery, and the lithium thionyl chloride battery is an ER14250 lithium thionyl chloride battery.
The filter capacitor is a high-capacity super capacitor, and the capacity is 1.2 farads.
The precision resistor is a current sampling precision resistor, and the resistance value is one tenth of the minimum internal resistance of the lithium battery.
The load in the load circuit is a heat meter.
The method for monitoring the capacity of the lithium disposable battery is to measure the internal resistance of the batteryWhen the voltage and the current output by the battery are measured twice, firstly, the load starts to work at high power, then the battery charges the capacitor at a larger charging current in a period of time, at the moment, the A/D voltage conversion circuit is started, and the voltages at two ends of the precision resistor can be measured to be V respectively by utilizing the A/D voltage conversion circuit1And V'1Then, the battery-to-capacitor charging current can be obtained according to equation (1):
I1=(V1-V1')/R (1)
during the second measurement, the whole machine is selected to be in a standby state, the capacitor is already in a full-charge state, and the voltage between two ends of the resistor can be measured to be V2And V'2The current on the precision resistor can be obtained according to the formula (2) as follows:
I2=(V2-V2')/R (2)
according to the current value and the voltage value obtained by twice measurement of the formula (1) and the formula (2), the battery internal resistance can be obtained by calculation according to the formula (3) as follows:
r=(V2-V1)/(I1-I2) (3)
the accurate relation curve of constant-current discharge voltage, capacity and internal resistance is established through laboratory measurement, see fig. 3, after the internal resistance of the ER14250 lithium thionyl chloride battery is obtained through measurement, the residual capacity of the ER14250 lithium thionyl chloride battery can be accurately estimated, an alarm can be sent out when the set threshold capacity is reached, an alarm signal is sent to a server end in time, network maintenance personnel are reminded to replace the battery in time, and therefore effective monitoring of the capacity of the lithium disposable battery is achieved.
Example 2
A lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring circuit comprises a lithium battery, a filter capacitor, a current sampling precision resistor, a load circuit, an A/D voltage conversion circuit, a battery internal resistance calculation and capacity judgment firmware, wherein the lithium battery, the filter capacitor and the precision resistor are connected in series to form a main loop, and a line is arranged between the lithium battery and the filter capacitor and grounded; the load circuit is connected with the filter capacitor in parallel; the positive and negative ends of the precision resistor are respectively connected with the positive and negative ends of the A/D voltage conversion circuit; the battery internal resistance calculation and capacity judgment firmware is connected in series with the A/D voltage conversion circuit.
The lithium battery is a lithium disposable battery, the lithium disposable battery is a lithium thionyl chloride battery, and the lithium thionyl chloride battery is an ER14250 lithium thionyl chloride battery.
The filter capacitor is a high-capacity super capacitor, and the capacity is 1.2 farads.
The precision resistor is a current sampling precision resistor, and the resistance value is one tenth of the minimum internal resistance of the lithium battery.
The precision resistor can be embedded in the lithium battery.
The load in the load circuit is a water meter.
The A/D voltage conversion circuit can be embedded in a lithium battery.
The method for monitoring the capacity of the lithium disposable battery comprises the steps of measuring the output voltage and current of the battery twice when measuring the internal resistance of the battery, starting the load to work at full power for the first time, charging the capacitor with larger charging current by the battery within a period of time, starting an A/D voltage conversion circuit, and measuring the voltages at two ends of a precision resistor to be V respectively by utilizing the A/D voltage conversion circuit1And V'1Then, the battery-to-capacitor charging current can be obtained according to equation (1):
I1=(V1-V1')/R (1)
during the second measurement, the whole machine is selected to be in a standby state, the capacitor is already in a full-charge state, and the voltage between two ends of the resistor can be measured to be V2And V'2The current on the precision resistor can be obtained according to the formula (2) as follows:
I2=(V2-V2')/R (2)
according to the current value and the voltage value obtained by twice measurement of the formula (1) and the formula (2), the battery internal resistance can be obtained by calculation according to the formula (3) as follows:
r=(V2-V1)/(I1-I2) (3)
the accurate relation curve of constant-current discharge voltage, capacity and internal resistance is established through laboratory measurement, see fig. 3, after the internal resistance of the ER14250 lithium thionyl chloride battery is obtained through measurement, the residual capacity of the ER14250 lithium thionyl chloride battery can be accurately estimated, an alarm can be sent out when the set threshold capacity is reached, an alarm signal is sent to a server end in time, network maintenance personnel are reminded to replace the battery in time, and therefore effective monitoring of the capacity of the lithium disposable battery is achieved.
The technical principle of the lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring method of the invention is as follows:
in general application of the internet of things, a load is in a dormant state most of the time, the output current of a battery is extremely low, and when the load works normally, the output current of the battery is increased, even the maximum discharge current of the battery is reached. To calculate the internal resistance of the battery, the output voltage of the battery terminal needs to be measured at two different operating currents, so that the two operating states of the load just meet the measurement condition, and the change of the load operating current and the battery discharging current along with time is shown in fig. 2.
When measuring the internal resistance of the battery, the output voltage and current of the battery need to be measured twice. First, the load starts to work at a higher power or full power, then the battery charges the capacitor with a higher charging current for a period of time, and then the A/D voltage conversion circuit is started, as shown in FIG. 1, the A/D voltage conversion circuit is utilized to measure the voltages at two ends of the precision resistor as V1And V'1Then, the charging current of the battery to the capacitor can be obtained according to the formula (1):
I1=(V1-V1')/R (1)
during the second measurement, the whole machine is selected to be in a standby state, the capacitor is already in a full-charge state, the output current of the battery is very small, and the voltage at two ends of the resistor can be measured to be V2And V'2According to the formula (2), the current on the precision resistor is obtained as follows:
I2=(V2-V2')/R (2)
according to the current value and the voltage value obtained by twice measurement of the formula (1) and the formula (2), the battery internal resistance can be obtained by calculation according to the formula (3) as follows:
r=(V2-V1)/(I1-I2) (3)
from the empirical curve of lithium disposable battery capacity measurement, it can be known that the internal resistance of a new lithium disposable battery is usually from several ohms to tens of ohms, and when the battery is about to be exhausted, the internal resistance of the battery increases to more than 100 ohms, or even more.
The accurate relation curve of constant-current discharge voltage, capacity and internal resistance is established through laboratory measurement, see fig. 3, after the internal resistance of the ER14250 lithium thionyl chloride battery is obtained through measurement, the residual capacity of the ER14250 lithium thionyl chloride battery can be accurately estimated, an alarm can be sent out when the set threshold capacity is reached, an alarm signal is sent to a server end in time, network maintenance personnel are reminded to replace the battery in time, and therefore effective monitoring of the capacity of the lithium disposable battery is achieved. The mode has high precision, does not increase the cost and extra energy consumption, and improves the economic benefit.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention and is not intended to limit the present invention, and various modifications and changes may be made by those skilled in the art. Any modification, equivalent replacement, or improvement made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. A lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring method is characterized in that a lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring circuit is constructed, the lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring circuit comprises a lithium battery, a filter capacitor, a precision resistor, a load circuit, an A/D voltage conversion circuit and a battery internal resistance calculation and capacity judgment firmware, the lithium battery, the filter capacitor and the precision resistor are connected in series to form a main loop, and a line is arranged between the lithium battery and the filter capacitor and grounded; the load circuit is connected with the filter capacitor in parallel; the positive and negative ends of the precision resistor are respectively connected with the positive and negative ends of the A/D voltage conversion circuit; the battery internal resistance calculation and capacity judgment firmware is connected with the A/D voltage conversion circuit in series;
when measuring the internal resistance of the lithium battery, the internal resistance of the lithium battery needs to be measuredMeasuring the output voltage and current of the lithium battery twice, firstly, starting the load to work with larger power or full power, then in a period of time, charging the filter capacitor with larger charging current by the lithium battery, starting the A/D voltage conversion circuit, and measuring the voltages at two ends of the precision resistor to be respectivelyV 1 And 1 then, the charging current of the lithium battery to the filter capacitor can be obtained according to the formula (1):
(1)
in the formula (1), R is a precision resistor connected with the lithium battery in series;
during the second measurement, the whole machine is selected to be in a standby state, the filter capacitor is already in a full-filling state, and the voltage at two ends of the precision resistor can be measured to beV 2 And 2 the current on the precision resistor can be obtained according to the formula (2) as follows:
(2)
in the formula (2), R is a precision resistor connected with the lithium battery in series;
according to the current value and the voltage value obtained by twice measurement of the formula (1) and the formula (2), the internal resistance of the lithium battery can be obtained by calculation according to the formula (3) as follows:
(3)
by establishing an accurate relation curve of constant-current discharge voltage, capacity and internal resistance, after the internal resistance of the lithium battery is obtained through measurement, the residual capacity of the lithium battery can be accurately estimated, an alarm can be sent when the set threshold capacity is reached, an alarm signal is sent to a server side in time, and network maintenance personnel are reminded to replace the battery in time, so that the capacity monitoring of the lithium disposable battery is realized.
2. The lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring method according to claim 1, characterized in that: the lithium battery is a lithium thionyl chloride battery.
3. The lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring method according to claim 2, characterized in that: the lithium thionyl chloride battery comprises one of ER14250 lithium thionyl chloride battery and ER18505 lithium thionyl chloride battery.
4. The lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring method according to claim 1, characterized in that: the capacity of the filter capacitor is more than or equal to 1 Farad.
5. The lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring method according to claim 1, characterized in that: the resistance value of the precision resistor is one tenth of the minimum internal resistance of the lithium battery.
6. The lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring method according to claim 5, characterized in that: the precision resistor can be embedded in the lithium battery.
7. The lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring method according to claim 1, characterized in that: the load in the load circuit comprises one or more of a water meter and a heat meter.
8. The lithium disposable battery capacity monitoring method according to claim 1, characterized in that: the A/D voltage conversion circuit can be embedded in a lithium battery.
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CN112379271B (en) * 2020-11-16 2022-01-28 哈尔滨工业大学 Passivation-considered capacity detection method for carbon-coated lithium thionyl chloride battery
CN112379278B (en) * 2020-11-16 2022-04-08 哈尔滨工业大学 Carbon-coated lithium thionyl chloride battery capacity detection device and automatic test method thereof
CN112958487A (en) * 2021-02-01 2021-06-15 中国电子科技集团公司第十八研究所 Primary lithium primary battery screening and matching method

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