CN109513887B - Treatment method suitable for conventional ingot type steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging - Google Patents

Treatment method suitable for conventional ingot type steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109513887B
CN109513887B CN201710854355.0A CN201710854355A CN109513887B CN 109513887 B CN109513887 B CN 109513887B CN 201710854355 A CN201710854355 A CN 201710854355A CN 109513887 B CN109513887 B CN 109513887B
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ingot
steel ingot
temperature
forging
steel
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CN201710854355.0A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN109513887A (en
Inventor
孙明月
郭逸丰
刘威峰
曹燕飞
徐斌
谢海练
李殿中
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中国科学院金属研究所
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D7/00Casting ingots, e.g. from ferrous metals
    • B22D7/12Appurtenances, e.g. for sintering, for preventing splashing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D30/00Cooling castings, not restricted to casting processes covered by a single main group

Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of forging, and particularly relates to a method for processing a conventional ingot type steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging. The method provides the following steps by a numerical simulation method and combined with the technological requirements of forging of the steel ingot for the ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging: 1) the bottom heat preservation design is adopted, when the surface of a steel ingot has certain strength, the steel ingot strip mold is lifted, placed on a heat preservation chassis fully paved with heat preservation cotton, and subjected to static uniform temperature treatment; 2) and the riser sealing design is adopted, and in the steel ingot cooling process, a forced cooling measure is adopted at the riser so that molten steel at the top is solidified to form a solidified shell with a certain thickness. The method reduces the temperature difference of the steel ingot by changing the local temperature field distribution of the steel ingot, and can ensure that the prepared steel ingot for the ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging meets the forging requirement in the subsequent forging process. The invention is suitable for the conventional ingot type steel ingot for ultrahigh temperature soft core forging, and particularly solves the problem of extremely uneven temperature after demoulding of the steel ingot with large height-diameter ratio for soft core forging.

Description

Treatment method suitable for conventional ingot type steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging

Technical Field

The invention belongs to the field of forging, and particularly relates to a method for processing a conventional ingot type steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging, which is suitable for processing the steel ingot suitable for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging and particularly has an obvious preparation effect on a steel ingot blank with a large height-diameter ratio.

Background

Large forgings are generally forged from large ingots. In the steel ingot, a large amount of micro-shrinkage holes and loose defects are inevitably generated due to the solidification and shrinkage of metal, and the hole type defects are dispersed and distributed in the center of the steel ingot to destroy the continuity of materials and influence the mechanical property of a forged piece. Meanwhile, due to solute redistribution in the solidification process, the alloy concentration at the solidification end is high, low-melting-point substances and impurity elements are often enriched, dendritic crystal segregation is formed, the segregation can be only partially improved in the subsequent forging process and cannot be completely eliminated, the homogeneity of materials is damaged, and the structure and the performance of a forging piece are influenced. Based on some classic solidification theories and experimental researches at home and abroad, related researchers develop a forging method-an ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging method which is more powerful and effective for eliminating the internal defects of steel ingots recently, firstly, a liquid core of a steel ingot belt which is naturally cooled after casting is demolded at ultrahigh temperature, then, the liquid core of the steel ingot belt is forged at high temperature and pressure maintaining, so that dendrites at the solidification tail end are fully crushed, a large amount of isometric crystal tissues are formed, shrinkage porosity is eliminated, and dendrite segregation is reduced; and finally, performing conventional forging to fully refine grains and structures. The method breaks through the conventional method of forging the steel ingot after the steel ingot is completely solidified, can realize forced feeding and pressure solidification, solves the problems of shrinkage, looseness, segregation and the like in the center of the steel ingot, improves the metallurgical quality, reduces the weight of a dead head, reduces the heating frequency of forging and prolongs the service life of a mold.

As shown in fig. 1(a), in the temperature field after the traditional steel ingot is demolded after being naturally cooled and simulated by the thermcast software, the solidification trend of the steel ingot is that the steel ingot gradually advances from the bottom to the top of the steel ingot in the axial direction and advances from the inner wall of the steel ingot to the center of the steel ingot in the radial direction, and the solidification development is slow due to good heat insulation performance of a riser region. If the naturally cooled steel ingot is directly demoulded at ultrahigh temperature, because the inherent temperatures of different parts of the steel ingot are different, the temperature of a riser end (about 1500 ℃) is far higher than that of an ingot tail (about 900 ℃), so that the ingot tail of the steel ingot is not easy to press down, and an ingot body and the riser end are easy to press down, as shown in figure 1(c), the phenomenon is more obvious in the condition of the steel ingot with the large height-diameter ratio, the required deformation resistance is easy to increase in the actual production process, even the required deformation resistance is close to a range press, the continuous deformation cannot be realized, the risk of equipment is increased, and secondly, because the ingot tail is cooled quickly, the continuous deformation can be realized only by increasing the corresponding firing number, and the forging efficiency and the practicability of the ultrahigh-temperature soft. In addition, after the liquid core is demolded in the ultrahigh temperature zone, a large amount of molten steel is stored in the riser area, and the riser is inevitably subjected to pressure in the subsequent forging process, which inevitably causes molten metal inside the riser to be sprayed out, as shown in fig. 1 (b). This not only has huge potential safety hazard, and inside metal probably takes place the oxidation with the air contact moreover, influences the inside quality of forging.

With the development of modern solidification theory and computer simulation technology, the simulation technology is adopted to predict the solidification process of the large-scale casting and forging piece, and the practical stage is entered. A plurality of simulation software (such as PROCAST, THERCAST and the like) are developed internationally to simulate the conditions of temperature field, liquid phase fraction and the like of metal in the solidification process, and the software can accurately simulate the influence of each external field on the solidification of the steel ingot in the solidification process by setting boundary conditions such as heat transfer and the like. Based on the background, by a numerical simulation method and combined with the technological requirements of forging of steel ingots for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging, a related processing method is designed to solve the bottleneck problem existing in the preparation process of ultrahigh-temperature soft core forged steel ingots, and an optimal processing scheme is further determined through repeated tests on a computer platform.

Disclosure of Invention

The invention aims to provide a treatment method of a conventional ingot steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging, which is used for solving the problems that the steel ingot cannot be deformed efficiently and a riser splashes molten steel due to uneven temperature distribution of the steel ingot after demoulding in the subsequent forging process.

The technical scheme of the invention is as follows:

a method for processing a conventional ingot-shaped steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging is characterized in that the steel ingot is subjected to temperature equalization and riser head end water spraying treatment after a heat-insulating chassis is lifted and replaced in the process of natural cooling in an ingot mold, so that the temperature of the demoulded steel ingot is uniform, the liquid spraying phenomenon in the forging process is avoided, and the feasibility of subsequent ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging is improved.

The treatment method of the conventional ingot type steel ingot suitable for the ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging comprises the following specific steps:

1) after the steel ingot is cooled in the ingot mould for a period of time, the ingot strip mould is hoisted by a crown block and placed on a heat-insulating chassis fully paved with heat-insulating cotton;

2) after the heat preservation chassis is replaced, the steel ingot continues to be in the ingot mold for a period of time;

3) and carrying out water spraying treatment on the dead head end for a period of time.

In the steps 1), 2) and 3), the time node is determined by computer simulation software THERCAST.

In the step 1), the surface layer of the side face of the steel ingot feeder head is solidified at a time node with the thickness of 150-250 mm, the steel ingot feeder head is hoisted by using a crown block, the hoisting process of the crown block is required to be stable so as to ensure that the steel leakage phenomenon does not occur in the hoisting and subsequent chassis replacement processes, the used heat-insulating chassis is completely matched with the steel ingot, is preheated to 500-700 ℃, and is covered with asbestos for heat insulation.

In the step 2), the time node of the end of the temperature equalizing process is when the temperature of the ingot tail reaches 1200-1300 ℃.

And in the step 3), the water spraying process is finished after a solidified shell is formed on the surface of the riser and is separated from the lower molten steel, and the uniform water spraying and the water spraying time are ensured in the riser water spraying and closing process so as to prevent the steel leakage phenomenon in the subsequent demoulding and forging processes.

The design idea of the invention is as follows:

in order to improve the temperature of the tail part of the steel ingot, the tail part of the steel ingot is designed to be insulated, and the heat loss from the bottom is reduced as much as possible. When the surface of the steel ingot has certain strength, the steel ingot strip mold can be lifted and placed on a heat-insulating chassis fully paved with heat-insulating cotton. Due to the heat insulation effect of the heat insulation cotton, the heat loss of the tail part of the steel ingot from the chassis can be greatly reduced, meanwhile, the heat is continuously transmitted from the molten steel, and the cooling speed of the bottom of the steel ingot is slowed down. From the simulation point of view, the temperature field in the time period can be calculated by setting the interface heat exchange coefficient between the steel ingot and the chassis to be small in THERCAST simulation software. An eighth symmetrical finite element model of 11t (ton) of a conventional steel ingot is built by using THERCAST simulation software to simulate the solidification process, wherein a temperature field after the steel ingot is cast and naturally cooled for 1h is shown in figure 2(a), and a temperature field after the steel ingot is naturally cooled for 1h and then the bottom of the steel ingot is subjected to heat preservation is shown in figure 2(b), so that the temperature of the bottom of the steel ingot can be improved by the heat preservation effect of the bottom. And (c) as shown in fig. 2, bottom center nodes a and B are selected, wherein a is a steel ingot processed without a heat preservation chassis, and B is a steel ingot processed with a heat preservation chassis, and the temperature of the bottom center is still over 1250 ℃ (the initial forging temperature) after heat preservation is finished by comparing the temperature of the steel ingot with the temperature of the bottom center which is changed along with time, so that the heat preservation of the bottom can reduce the interface heat exchange between the steel ingot and the bottom, the heat at the tail of the steel ingot is prevented from being greatly lost from the chassis, meanwhile, the heat is continuously transmitted from molten steel, the cooling speed of the bottom of the steel ingot is slowed down, and powerful conditions are provided for the smooth process of the subsequent ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging.

In order to ensure the safety problem of the subsequent ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging process, a capping measure for the liquid core demoulding steel ingot is designed. Considering that the water-cooling capping is adopted because the water-cooling capping operation is convenient and the cooling intensity is high. The method is characterized in that THERCAST software is utilized to simulate riser water spraying and capping of 11t conventional ingot steel ingots (an eighth symmetrical finite element model), from the simulation angle, the temperature field and the liquid phase fraction in the time period can be calculated by setting the interface heat exchange coefficient of a riser and the outside in the THERCAST simulation software to be large, and as shown in figure 3, a simulation result graph after water is sprayed to the riser is shown, wherein: fig. 3(a) - (b) show the temperature field and the liquid phase fraction before water is sprayed to the riser, and fig. 3(c) - (d) show the temperature field and the liquid phase fraction after the water spraying is finished after 15min, and the simulation results show that the water is sprayed to the riser to form a solidified shell on the surface of the riser, and the solidified shell is separated from the molten steel below.

The invention has the advantages and beneficial effects that:

1. the invention provides a method for processing a conventional ingot type steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging, which solves the problems that the steel ingot cannot deform efficiently due to extremely uneven temperature distribution after demoulding in the ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging, and particularly the tail end of the steel ingot with a large height-diameter ratio is difficult to deform.

2. The invention provides a method for processing a conventional ingot steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging, which solves the problem that molten steel is sprayed on a riser in the ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging process and ensures the safety of the ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging.

In a word, the forge piece produced by the method solves the problems that the high-efficiency deformation cannot be realized and the molten steel is sprayed on a riser head due to the fact that the temperature distribution of the steel ingot is not uniform after demoulding in the subsequent soft core forging process, and particularly improves the problem that the high diameter of the soft core forging cannot be deformed when the temperature of the tail of the steel ingot is lower than that of the steel ingot after demoulding. The method reduces the temperature difference of the steel ingot by changing the local temperature field distribution of the steel ingot, can ensure the safety of the prepared steel ingot for the ultra-high temperature soft core forging in the subsequent forging process, has more uniform temperature gradients of a riser, an ingot body and an ingot tail compared with an untreated steel ingot, greatly improves the efficiency and the feasibility of the subsequent ultra-high temperature soft core forging, is beneficial to protecting equipment, reduces the maintenance cost and the like.

Drawings

FIG. 1 is a simulation diagram (a) of temperature field of a conventional ingot-shaped steel ingot subjected to ultrahigh-temperature demoulding, a riser spraying phenomenon diagram (b) and an undeformable phenomenon diagram (c) of low ingot tail temperature.

Fig. 2(a) -fig. 2(c) are temperature field simulation diagrams of 11t conventional ingot type steel ingot which are simulated by THERCAST simulation software and are not insulated after being naturally cooled for 1 h-fig. 2(a), temperature field simulation diagrams of adding bottom insulation for 1h after being naturally cooled for 1 h-fig. 2(b) and comparison diagrams of node temperature change of the bottom center of the steel ingot with or without insulation measures-fig. 2 (c). In fig. 2(c), the abscissa time(s) is time (sec); the ordinate Temperature is Temperature (. degree. C.).

3(a) -3 (d) are temperature field and liquid phase fraction graphs of 11t conventional ingot models simulated by THERCAST simulation software before and after being subjected to water spray cooling by a 15min riser; wherein, fig. 3(a) is a temperature field before water spraying; FIG. 3(b) is a liquid phase fraction diagram before water spraying; FIG. 3(c) is the temperature field after spraying water; FIG. 3(d) is a liquid phase fraction diagram after water spraying.

FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a process of replacing the chassis according to an embodiment. Wherein, (a) is the lifting of the steel ingot with the mold; (b) and (c) placing the steel ingot on a base plate paved with heat-preservation cotton.

FIG. 5 is a diagram showing the operation of de-feeder, de-coating agent and water seal feeder in the example. Wherein (a) is standing; (b) and spraying water to the riser to remove the covering agent of the riser.

FIG. 6 is the drawing of the tail end of a conventional ingot-shaped steel ingot treated by the method of the present invention and the drawing of the top end of the ingot body (a).

FIG. 7 is a drawing of a steel ingot after ultrahigh temperature soft core forging.

Detailed Description

In the specific implementation process, the invention provides the following steps by a numerical simulation method and combined with the technological requirements of forging the steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging: 1) and (3) bottom heat preservation design, namely lifting the steel ingot strip mold when the surface of the steel ingot has certain strength, placing the steel ingot strip mold on a heat preservation chassis fully paved with heat preservation cotton, and standing and homogenizing the temperature. 2) And the riser sealing design is adopted, and in the steel ingot cooling process, a forced cooling measure is adopted at the riser so that molten steel at the top is solidified to form a solidified shell with a certain thickness. Therefore, the method is suitable for preparing the conventional ingot type steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging, and particularly solves the problem of extremely uneven temperature after demoulding of the steel ingot with large height-diameter ratio for soft core forging. The method comprises the following specific processes:

1) as shown in the attached figure 4, after the steel ingot is cooled in the ingot mold for a period of time, the steel ingot is hoisted by a crown block and placed on a chassis fully paved with heat preservation cotton.

2) After the heat preservation chassis is replaced, the steel ingot continues to be in the ingot mold for a period of time.

3) As shown in fig. 5, the feeder head end was treated with water spray for a period of time.

In steps 1), 2) and 3), the time node is determined by computer simulation software THERCAST. In the step 1), the surface layer of a riser of a steel ingot is solidified at a time node of 150-250 mm, the crane is hoisted, the stability of the crane is ensured in the hoisting process so as to ensure that steel leakage does not occur in the hoisting and subsequent chassis replacement processes, the used heat-insulating chassis is completely matched with the steel ingot, and the steel ingot is preheated to 500-700 ℃ and covered with asbestos for heat insulation. In the step 2), the ending time node of the temperature equalizing process is that the temperature of the ingot tail reaches 1200-1300 ℃. And 3) in the water spraying process, a solidified shell is formed on the surface of the riser and is separated from the lower molten steel, and water spraying uniformity and water spraying time are ensured in the riser water spraying and sealing process so as to prevent steel leakage in the subsequent demoulding and forging processes.

The invention is described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples.

Examples

In the embodiment, a split type steel ingot mold with an ingot height-diameter ratio of 2.28, a taper of 3.2 percent, a heat preservation cap, a steel ingot mold and a chassis separated is selected, the material is 42CrMo, the steel ingot weight is 11t, and the following process scheme is made according to simulation analysis results: (1) and after the steel ingot is poured, naturally cooling for 1 h. (2) And lifting the steel ingot strip mold after 1h, and placing the steel ingot on a chassis paved with heat preservation cotton, as shown in the attached figure 4. (3) And continuously standing for 1h, removing the covering agent of the feeder head, and spraying water to the feeder head for about 15min, as shown in the attached figure 5. (4) And after the water spraying is finished, the steel ingot is conveyed to a forging workshop for demoulding, and then forging is carried out.

As shown in figure 6, when the conventional ingot tail (a) and the ingot body riser end (b) are subjected to ultrahigh-temperature demoulding by the method, the temperature difference between the ingot tail and the riser body is very small, and the riser end is sealed. As shown in FIG. 7, the tail of the steel ingot after the ultra-high temperature soft core forging has obvious deformation.

In this embodiment, the "soft core forging" refers to the chinese patent application: an ultra-high temperature soft core forging method for steel ingots (publication number CN 105268884A).

The embodiment result shows that the processing method provided by the invention is suitable for processing the conventional ingot-shaped steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging, can remarkably reduce the huge temperature difference between the ingot tail and the riser ingot body during ultrahigh-temperature demoulding after natural cooling, ensures that no liquid spraying phenomenon exists in the subsequent forging process, and ensures that the steel ingot deforms uniformly, and the ultrahigh-temperature demoulded steel ingot processed by the method can meet the requirement of soft core forging.

Claims (3)

1. The utility model provides a processing method suitable for soft core of superhigh temperature forges with conventional ingot type steel ingot, its characterized in that, the steel ingot lifts up and carries out samming and rising head end water spray treatment after changing the heat preservation chassis in the in-process of ingot mould natural cooling for the steel ingot temperature after the drawing of patterns is more even, avoids taking place the hydrojet phenomenon in the forging process, thereby improves the forged feasibility of follow-up soft core of superhigh temperature, and concrete step is as follows:
1) after the steel ingot is cooled in the ingot mould for a period of time, the ingot strip mould is hoisted by a crown block and placed on a heat-insulating chassis fully paved with heat-insulating cotton;
2) after the heat preservation chassis is replaced, the steel ingot continues to be in the ingot mold for a period of time;
3) spraying water to the dead head end for a period of time;
in the step 1), the surface layer of the side face of the steel ingot feeder head is solidified at a time node with the thickness of 150-250 mm, the steel ingot feeder head is hoisted by using a crown block, the hoisting process of the crown block is required to be stable so as to ensure that the steel leakage phenomenon does not occur in the hoisting and subsequent chassis replacement processes, the used heat-insulating chassis is completely matched with the steel ingot and is preheated to 500-700 ℃, and the heat-insulating chassis is covered by asbestos for heat insulation;
in the step 2), the time node of the end of the temperature equalizing process is when the temperature of the ingot tail reaches 1200-1300 ℃.
2. A method of treating a conventional ingot-shaped steel ingot for ultra-high temperature soft core forging according to claim 1, wherein in the steps 1), 2), 3), the time node is determined by computer simulation software thermcast.
3. The method for treating a conventional ingot-shaped steel ingot for ultra-high temperature soft core forging according to claim 1, wherein in the step 3), the water spraying process is finished after a solidified shell is formed on the surface of the riser and the lower molten steel is separated, and uniform water spraying and water spraying time are ensured in the riser water spraying and closing process to prevent the occurrence of steel leakage in the subsequent demolding and forging processes.
CN201710854355.0A 2017-09-20 2017-09-20 Treatment method suitable for conventional ingot type steel ingot for ultrahigh-temperature soft core forging CN109513887B (en)

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CN110369692A (en) * 2019-08-26 2019-10-25 共享装备股份有限公司 Shorten the method for heavy castings pressure case time

Citations (5)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1350470A (en) * 1970-09-08 1974-04-18 Vallak E Method and apparatus for casting metals in ingot moulds
CN104827015A (en) * 2015-04-10 2015-08-12 江苏苏南重工机械科技有限公司 Superhigh-temperature demolding and hot transporting process of slab ingots
CN204912687U (en) * 2015-07-08 2015-12-30 中国科学院金属研究所 Novel rolling ingot mould
CN105268884A (en) * 2014-07-21 2016-01-27 中国科学院金属研究所 Method for forging superhigh-temperature soft core of steel ingot
CN105436368A (en) * 2014-09-01 2016-03-30 中国科学院金属研究所 Superhigh-temperature crossed large-deformation forging method for improving structure uniformity of tool and mold steel

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1350470A (en) * 1970-09-08 1974-04-18 Vallak E Method and apparatus for casting metals in ingot moulds
CN105268884A (en) * 2014-07-21 2016-01-27 中国科学院金属研究所 Method for forging superhigh-temperature soft core of steel ingot
CN105436368A (en) * 2014-09-01 2016-03-30 中国科学院金属研究所 Superhigh-temperature crossed large-deformation forging method for improving structure uniformity of tool and mold steel
CN104827015A (en) * 2015-04-10 2015-08-12 江苏苏南重工机械科技有限公司 Superhigh-temperature demolding and hot transporting process of slab ingots
CN204912687U (en) * 2015-07-08 2015-12-30 中国科学院金属研究所 Novel rolling ingot mould

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