CN109511611B - Method for quickly breeding earthworms and producing high-quality earthworm cast by using solid-liquid separation cow dung and dung slurry - Google Patents

Method for quickly breeding earthworms and producing high-quality earthworm cast by using solid-liquid separation cow dung and dung slurry Download PDF

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CN109511611B
CN109511611B CN201811571629.6A CN201811571629A CN109511611B CN 109511611 B CN109511611 B CN 109511611B CN 201811571629 A CN201811571629 A CN 201811571629A CN 109511611 B CN109511611 B CN 109511611B
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earthworm
slurry
earthworms
dung
cast
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CN109511611A (en
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田给林
牛芳兵
赵贵红
朱道玉
于博
田忠红
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Heze University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K67/00Rearing or breeding animals, not otherwise provided for; New breeds of animals
    • A01K67/033Rearing or breeding invertebrates; New breeds of invertebrates
    • A01K67/0332Earthworms

Abstract

The invention provides a method for quickly breeding earthworms and producing high-quality earthworm casts by solid-liquid separation of cow dung and dung slurry, which comprises the steps of establishing an earthworm bed by utilizing the solid-liquid separation of the raw cow dung, irrigating the earthworm bed before inoculating the earthworm with water, irrigating the dung slurry on the surface of the earthworm bed during a breeding period to consume waste liquid and increase substrate nutrition, and reserving a part of fresh dung slurry-free area during the breeding period to establish an earthworm 'ecological refuge island' to enable the earthworm to gradually adapt to a dung slurry environment; the earthworm bed top layer is scraped to collect earthworm cast and earthworm cast when being eaten and distributing a large amount of earthworm cast by the earthworm, earthworm species get into the lower floor and continue to produce the cocoon, the earthworm cast and the earthworm cast of collection cover in newly-built earthworm bed, begin incessantly to collect high nutrition, high microorganism activity earthworm cast after the young earthworm hatching, the young earthworm is then bred until becoming the earthworm and selling. The method can realize the recycling of liquid waste in intensive cattle farms, increase the production of earthworms, remarkably improve the nutrient indexes and microorganism indexes of the earthworm cast, and finally realize the aims of labor saving of mechanical collection and treatment of the earthworm cast, high efficiency of earthworm propagation, resource of nutrient elements, maximization of economic benefits and environment friendliness and ecology.

Description

Method for quickly breeding earthworms and producing high-quality earthworm cast by using solid-liquid separation cow dung and dung slurry
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of earthworm cultivation, in particular to a method for quickly breeding earthworms and producing high-quality earthworm cast by utilizing solid-liquid separation cow dung and manure slurry.
Background
Along with the continuous improvement of intensification, labor conservation, scale and mechanization levels of cattle raising industry, the treatment of the breeding excrement waste is a problem to be solved urgently, and great environmental risks exist when the treatment is not good. Liquid pulping and solid-liquid separation of cow dung in a large-scale cow farm are important technical measures for labor-saving pipeline transportation of the dung and subsequent treatment of the cow dung, but the large cow farm after solid-liquid separation of the cow dung also has the problems of high difficulty in treating liquid wastes, high potential environmental risk, incapability of effectively developing and utilizing nutrient resources and the like.
The earthworm is commonly called earthworm, also called song eel, and is a representative animal of oligochaeta of Annelida. The earthworms are saprophytic living animals, live in a humid environment, eat putrefactive organic matters, are especially greedy for animal excrement food, the daily eating amount is equivalent to the self weight, and about half of the food passes through the digestive tract and is discharged as excrement. The earthworm cast containing a large amount of beneficial microorganisms and nutrients is a high-quality functional fertilizer, and the earthworm is an important feed and Chinese medicinal materials, has great development potential and great market demand.
The cow dung is the most important and widely applied food for large-scale earthworm cultivation, the earthworm cultivation industry generally adopts fermented cow dung directly collected by cow farms as earthworm feed for earthworm cultivation at present, and part of farmers use the directly collected cow dung to accumulate the cow dung without fermentation or incompletely ferment for earthworm cultivation, so that the cow dung collection and earthworm cultivation related technology has the requirements of large labor amount and unsuitability for large-scale slurry cow dung treatment of the large-scale cow farms.
According to the traditional technology and method for breeding earthworms by cow dung, because the earthworms are bred by continuously feeding materials on the upper layer, the earthworm bed is continuously raised, the earthworm dung cannot be separated in time, the earthworm dung is cleaned once in the last year to two years, and as a result, the quantity of functional microorganisms of the earthworm dung is reduced, and finally the quality of the earthworm dung is seriously influenced.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to make up for the defects of the prior art, the invention provides a method for quickly propagating earthworms and producing high-quality earthworm cast by utilizing solid-liquid separation cow dung and manure slurry, which comprises the following steps:
and (1) selecting a field, specifically, stacking an earthworm cultivation bed in an open space or in a tree row under an artificial forest which is not flooded by water in rainy seasons.
And (2) building and preparing an earthworm cultivation bed, specifically, building the earthworm cultivation bed by stacking cow dung which is subjected to partial fermentation or non-fermentation treatment after solid-liquid separation, and thoroughly watering the earthworm cultivation bed by using tap water meeting agricultural standards before inoculating the earthworm.
And (3) inoculating earthworm seeds, specifically inoculating 1-2kg of healthy earthworm seeds with annuluses on the surface of an earthworm bed, and putting all earthworm seeds on the surface layer of the earthworm bed and starting to breed when the earthworms actively dig into cow dung and do not have obvious escape phenomenon after 12-24 h, wherein the putting amount of the earthworm seeds is 2-4kg/m2(about 7000-2And, at this time, the earthworm bed below 30cm may continue to ferment and produce heat, but the temperature of the manure below 20cm on the surface layer is close to the ambient temperature, which is suitable for earthworm cultivation, and the condition may last for a period of time, and the duration of time is related to the fermentation degree of the manure.
And (4) pouring the manure slurry, and pouring the manure slurry in a partial area of the surface layer of the earthworm bed by utilizing the principle of 'earthworm ecological refuge island', namely the principle that earthworms can automatically hide in a bad environment after the earthworms adapt to a new environment and the surface layer begins to be partially dried (generally 5-15 d in summer and 15-20d in spring and autumn). After the manure is poured, the earthworms are transferred to the side without the manure or the bottom layer because the earthworms do not adapt to the manure environment, thereby achieving the purpose of ecological refuge. And when the 3d-4d earthworms adapt to the new environment and return to one side where the manure slurry is poured in a large amount, performing second manure slurry pouring at the position where the manure slurry is not poured for the first time. The amount of the manure slurry poured is preferably 20 cm. Pouring manure slurry once again at intervals of 15-20 days, wherein the pouring amount is equivalent to that of the first pouring.
And (5) culturing for 30d-45d, wherein 70% -80% of cow dung on the surface layer is eaten by earthworms and is already earthworm cast, when the density of earthworm cocoons on an earthworm cast layer of 5cm-20cm below the surface layer reaches 300/L of 140, the earthworm cast and the earthworm cocoons are scraped and separated by utilizing the light-shielding property of the earthworms, so that the earthworm seeds enter a lower-layer culture material to be continuously cultured to produce cocoons, the earthworm rapid propagation of the next round is carried out, and the mixture of the upper-layer earthworm cast and the earthworm cocoons is added to a new earthworm bed to carry out earthworm cocoon incubation and culture of young earthworms to adult earthworms. The width and the height of the new earthworm bed are different according to different purposes, the new earthworm bed is used for culturing young earthworms to adult earthworms and is directly used for selling adult earthworms, the earthworm bed is 1.2-1.4 m, the height is 30-40 cm, the earthworms can be eaten in one batch, the thickness of the earthworm bed can be increased to 50-60 cm when the new earthworm bed is used for culturing next batch of earthworm, and the cow dung which is subjected to solid-liquid separation needs to be soaked in tap water meeting the agricultural standard when the earthworm dung mixed with the earthworm cocoons is added at the upper layer.
And (6) separating the young earthworms and the earthworm casts, passing through 10d-30d, after the young earthworms are incubated, scraping and separating the upper-layer high-quality earthworm casts by utilizing the light-shielding property of the earthworms, preserving moisture, preventing extrusion, storing and using, wherein the upper-layer earthworm casts the earthworm for not long time of treatment after passing through the abdomen, is treated by pouring excrement slurry, and is not settled for a long time, so that the earthworm casts are rich in nutrition, very high in microbial activity and good in physical structure. The new cow dung on the lower earthworm bed is used for cultivating the young earthworms and treating the dung slurry.
The young earthworms are cultured to the adult earthworms and can be sold when the endless belts appear, and the adult earthworms are scraped and collected while being sold.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
according to the invention, the solid part of the cow dung is separated from the solid part of the cow dung through the large-scale intensive cow farm and is used for building the earthworm bed, the liquid part of the cow dung is used for diluting the cow dung to form dung slurry which is convenient for pipeline transportation, the dung slurry part is used for separating the cow dung from the solid and is partially used for irrigating and breeding earthworms through the earthworm bed, and the aims of recycling breeding waste, intensification, high-efficiency biotransformation, pollutant emission reduction and the like are finally realized.
The invention fully utilizes the bottom layer one-time feeding method to breed the rapid-propagation earthworms, can realize the timely collection of the earthworm cast and the timely separation of the earthworm cocoons and the young earthworms, can realize the standardization of earthworm production and the maximum maintenance of the biological and nutritional functions of the earthworm cast, and finally realizes the high-yield and yield-increase of the earthworms, and the high-quality earthworm cast production with high nutrition, high microbial activity and good physical structure.
The invention can save 30-50% of water consumption in earthworm breeding industry by the consumption of the manure slurry.
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The accompanying drawings are schematic diagrams of embodiments of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further described in detail below with reference to examples to enable those skilled in the art to practice the invention with reference to the description.
The invention provides a method for quickly breeding earthworms and producing high-quality earthworm casts by utilizing solid-liquid separation of cow dung and dung slurry, which comprises the following steps:
and (1) selecting a culture site. Selecting farmland or artificial tree land with higher topography and no water accumulation in rainy days. The site is required to have a water source meeting the agricultural irrigation standard, and the transportation is convenient.
And (4) preparing solid-liquid separation cow dung. The method is characterized in that cow dung obtained by solid-liquid separation in a large cow farm is selected, the cow dung can be subjected to short-time fermentation treatment or non-fermentation treatment, and the water content is 65-70%.
And (2) establishing an earthworm bed. The method comprises the steps of utilizing solid-liquid separation cow dung and an earthworm cultivation feeding vehicle to establish an earthworm cultivation bed, wherein the height of the bed is 50cm-60cm, the width of the lower bottom is 1.4m-1.5m, the width of the upper surface is 1.3m-1.4m, and the length of the earthworm bed is determined according to terrain conditions. After the earthworm bed is built, a sprinkling irrigation device is installed for watering, the length of a spray pipe connected to a main pipeline is preferably not more than 20m so as to prevent uneven water spraying, and the earthworms are watered thoroughly by the sprinkling irrigation device for the first watering so as to create proper living conditions for the earthworms.
And (3) inoculating earthworms. Selecting healthy Eisenia foetida variety large-average No. 2 earthworm species with clitellum and consistent size, firstly inoculating 1kg-2kg of the earthworm species, smoothly drilling the earthworm into cow dung, and inoculating the earthworm species in a large area when the earthworm species does not escape within 12h-24 h. The inoculation density is 7000-2About 2-4kg earthworm species/m2It is preferable. After the earthworms are inoculated, the bottom layer material can be continuously fermented to generate heat, but the upper layer is separated from the surface layer by 2-20cm, so that the ventilation is better, the water content is proper, the temperature is close to the ambient temperature, and the earthworms are suitable for growing. This condition may persist for a period of time, the length of time being related to the degree of fermentation of the manure.
And (4) pouring manure slurry, and pouring the manure slurry on the partial surface of the earthworm bed by utilizing the principle of 'earthworm ecological refuge island', namely the principle that earthworms can automatically hide in a bad environment after the earthworms adapt to a new environment and the surface layer begins to be partially dried (generally 5-15 d in summer and 15-20d in spring and autumn). After the manure is poured, the earthworms are transferred to the side without the manure or the bottom layer because the earthworms do not adapt to the manure environment, thereby achieving the purpose of ecological refuge. And when the 3d-4d earthworms adapt to the new environment and start to return to one side where the manure slurry is poured in a large amount, performing second manure slurry pouring on the earthworm bed at the position where the manure slurry is not poured for the first time. The amount of the manure slurry is preferably 20cm below the surface layer, and about 50L of the manure slurry is generally poured per square meter. Pouring manure slurry once again at intervals of 15-20 days, wherein the pouring amount is equivalent to that of the first pouring.
And (5) separating earthworm casts and earthworm cocoons. After 30d-45d of culture, 70-80% of cow dung on the surface layer is eaten by earthworms and is already earthworm cast, the density of earthworm cocoons on an earthworm cast layer of 5cm-20cm below the surface layer reaches 300/L of 140, at the moment, the fermentation of the lower layer is basically finished, earthworm cast separation can be carried out, the earthworm cast and the earthworm cocoons are scraped and separated by utilizing the light-shielding property of the earthworms, so that the earthworm seeds enter the culture material on the lower layer to continuously culture and produce cocoons, and the earthworm rapid propagation of the next round is carried out. Adding the mixture of the upper earthworm feces and the earthworm cocoons into a new earthworm bed for incubation of the earthworm cocoons and cultivation of young earthworms to adult earthworms.
Hatching and culturing the young earthworms. The method is characterized in that a new earthworm bed is established, the width and the height of the new earthworm bed are different according to different purposes, the new earthworm bed is used for breeding young earthworms to adult earthworms and is directly used for selling adult earthworms, the earthworm bed is 1.2-1.4 m and the height is 30-40 cm, food can be eaten by one batch of earthworms, the thickness of the earthworm bed can be increased to 50-60 cm when the earthworm bed is used for breeding the next batch of earthworms, no matter how thick the earthworm bed is, tap water meeting the agricultural standard is required to be used for soaking and culturing the substrate cow dung when the earthworm dung mixed with earthworm cocoons is added on the upper layer.
And (6) separating the young earthworms and the earthworm casts, passing through 14d-30d, after 80-90% of earthworm cocoons are incubated into the young earthworms, culturing for 10d-15d, scraping and separating the upper-layer high-quality earthworm casts by utilizing the light-resistant characteristic of the earthworms, preserving moisture, preventing extrusion, storing and using, wherein the upper-layer earthworm casts are subjected to long-time treatment, treated by pouring manure slurry and not subjected to long-time compaction, so that the earthworm casts are rich in nutrition, very high in microbial activity and good in physical structure. The new cow dung on the lower earthworm bed is used for cultivating the young earthworms and treating the dung slurry.
The young earthworms are cultured to the adult earthworms and can be sold when the endless belts appear, and the adult earthworms are scraped and collected while being sold.
The above detailed description of the embodiments of the present invention is provided as an example, and the present invention is not limited to the above described embodiments, and equivalent modifications of the present invention are within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. The method for rapidly propagating earthworms and producing high-quality earthworm cast by using solid-liquid separation of cow dung and dung slurry is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
(1) selecting a field, specifically selecting an open farmland or an artificial forest which is not flooded by water in rainy season as a field for building an earthworm cultivation bed;
(2) building and preparing an earthworm cultivation bed, specifically, stacking the earthworm cultivation bed by selecting solid-liquid separated cow dung, and thoroughly watering the earthworm cultivation bed by tap water meeting agricultural irrigation standards;
(3) inoculating the earthworm seeds, specifically inoculating 1-2kg of healthy earthworm seeds with clitellum on the surface of the earthworm cultivation bed, and putting all the earthworm seeds on the surface layer of the earthworm cultivation bed and starting cultivation when observing that the earthworm seeds actively penetrate into cow dung and no obvious escape phenomenon occurs after 12-24 h;
(4) pouring the manure slurry, after the earthworm seeds are adapted to a new environment and the surface layer begins to be partially dried, pouring dung slurry on the surface of the earthworm cultivating bed, transferring the seed earthworms to the side without dung slurry after the dung slurry is poured, and when 3d-4d earthworms start to return to the side with dung slurry in large quantity and the return quantity reaches 80-90%, continuously pouring the manure slurry for the second time on the other side of the earthworm cultivation bed, wherein the pouring amount is 10-20 cm deep after the manure slurry is soaked on the surface layer of the earthworm cultivation bed, earthworm cultivation is carried out 15d-20d after the manure slurry is poured for the second time, when the density of earthworm cocoons at the depth of 5-20 cm below the surface layer of the earthworm cultivation bed reaches 140 pieces/L, the earthworm casts and the earthworm cocoons on the surface layer are scraped, the earthworm species continuously enter the lower layer for cultivation and cocoon production, and carrying out the manure slurry treatment of the next round, wherein the manure slurry is a solid-liquid mixed slurry which is convenient for pipeline transportation after liquid obtained after solid-liquid separation is returned to the cowshed to dilute the cow dung;
(5) separating earthworm cast and earthworm cocoon, scraping and separating the earthworm cast and the earthworm cocoon, and continuously pouring earthworm cast for treating the earthworm cast and producing the earthworm cocoon and the earthworm cast in the step (4) after the earthworm cast enters the foodstuff at the lower layer; adding the mixture of earthworm casts and earthworm cocoons collected on the upper layer into a new earthworm cultivation bed for earthworm cocoon incubation and earthworm cultivation;
(6) and (3) separating the young earthworms and the earthworm casts, after the young earthworms are incubated, scraping and separating the upper-layer high-quality earthworm casts, preserving moisture and preventing extrusion for storage, and irrigating the new cow dung of the lower-layer earthworm breeding bed by using dung slurry in the step (4) for breeding the young earthworms and collecting the final earthworm products and earthworm cast products.
2. The method for producing earthworms with high quality by using the solid-liquid separation of cow dung and dung slurry as claimed in claim 1, wherein the cow dung for establishing the earthworm cultivating bed in the step (2) is the solid-liquid separation cow dung which is not fermented, is not fermented completely or is fermented completely.
3. The method for producing high-quality earthworm cast by quickly propagating earthworms through solid-liquid separation of cow dung and dung slurry as claimed in claim 1, wherein the width of the earthworm cultivation bed is 1.3m-1.4m, and the thickness is 0.5m-0.6 m.
4. The method for producing high-quality earthworm cast by quickly breeding earthworms through solid-liquid separation of cow dung and dung slurry as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the variety of the inoculated earthworms is the Daping No. 2 variety of Eisenia cupra, the size of the inoculated earthworms is the size of the health earthworms with the occurrence of clitellum and uniform size, and the inoculation density is 7000-2,2-4kg/m2
5. The method for producing earthworm cast by quickly breeding earthworms through solid-liquid separation of cow dung and excrement slurry as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the excrement slurry is poured on the surface layer of the earthworm cultivation bed 5 to 15 days after the earthworm is inoculated, the width of the poured excrement slurry is 40cm to 60cm, the length of the poured excrement slurry is determined according to the length of the earthworm cultivation bed, and the poured excrement slurry is in a depth of 10cm to 20cm after the excrement slurry is soaked in the surface layer.
6. The method for producing high-quality earthworm cast by quickly breeding earthworms through solid-liquid separation of cow dung and dung slurry as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the new earthworm cultivating bed in the step (5) is an earthworm cultivating bed which has a width of 1.2m to 1.4m and a thickness of 30cm to 40cm and is irrigated with tap water penetrating a dung layer.
7. The method for producing earthworm cast by using the solid-liquid separation of cow dung and dung slurry as claimed in any one of claims 1-3, characterized in that when young earthworms are hatched from the new earthworm cultivating bed earthworm cocoons in the step (5) and the hatching rate reaches 80-90%, the high-quality earthworm cast is scraped and collected in time, young earthworms enter a lower-layer high-nutrition cow dung substrate to be cultured, 40-45 d earthworms have annular zones, and can be separated from the earthworms when the commercial earthworm sales standard is met, and the high-quality earthworm cast is characterized by being black or slightly brownish yellow, uniform in particles, natural soil flavor, good in porosity, ventilation, drainage and high water holding capacity, the pH value is 6.5-7.2, the content of humic acid is 21% -40%, the content of microorganisms is about 1 hundred million/g, and the high-quality earthworm cast is rich in bacteria and actinomycete microorganisms.
CN201811571629.6A 2018-12-21 2018-12-21 Method for quickly breeding earthworms and producing high-quality earthworm cast by using solid-liquid separation cow dung and dung slurry Active CN109511611B (en)

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CN110122023B (en) * 2019-05-30 2021-11-05 菏泽学院 Method for biotransformation of cow breeding manure waste liquid by combining earthworm and edible fungus residue and compounding synergistic fertilizer
CN112167178A (en) * 2020-10-13 2021-01-05 浙江七河生物科技有限公司 Method for treating municipal sludge by three-dimensional earthworm breeding
CN112674036B (en) * 2021-01-12 2021-11-26 江西农业大学 Method for improving weight and cocoon yield of earthworm cultivated by pig manure by using humic acid

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CN105985000A (en) * 2015-02-04 2016-10-05 泰州市春光生态农业发展有限公司 Method for industrialized treatment of livestock and poultry manure and domestic sludge by using earthworms

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105985000A (en) * 2015-02-04 2016-10-05 泰州市春光生态农业发展有限公司 Method for industrialized treatment of livestock and poultry manure and domestic sludge by using earthworms

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