CN109507757B - Novel typhoon tracking detection method and system based on aircraft airship - Google Patents

Novel typhoon tracking detection method and system based on aircraft airship Download PDF

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CN109507757B
CN109507757B CN201811177002.2A CN201811177002A CN109507757B CN 109507757 B CN109507757 B CN 109507757B CN 201811177002 A CN201811177002 A CN 201811177002A CN 109507757 B CN109507757 B CN 109507757B
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typhoon
airship
sensing node
data
wind
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CN109507757A (en
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张军
曹先彬
肖振宇
董航
罗喜伶
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Beihang University
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Beihang University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01WMETEOROLOGY
    • G01W1/00Meteorology
    • G01W1/08Adaptations of balloons, missiles, or aircraft for meteorological purposes; Radiosondes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01WMETEOROLOGY
    • G01W1/00Meteorology
    • G01W1/02Instruments for indicating weather conditions by measuring two or more variables, e.g. humidity, pressure, temperature, cloud cover, wind speed
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01WMETEOROLOGY
    • G01W1/00Meteorology
    • G01W1/10Devices for predicting weather conditions
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A50/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weather
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A90/00Technologies having an indirect contribution to adaptation to climate change
    • Y02A90/10Information and communication technologies [ICT] supporting adaptation to climate change, e.g. for weather forecasting or climate simulation

Abstract

The invention discloses a novel typhoon tracking detection method and system based on an air airship, and belongs to the field of monitoring and early warning of natural disasters in an air information system. The typhoon tracking detection system comprises a typhoon tracking flight controller, a shipboard wind detection radar, a floating air image sensing node, a weather sensing fixed-point feeder, a shipboard receiver and a high-resolution digital typhoon simulation system, wherein the typhoon tracking flight controller, the shipboard wind detection radar, the floating air image sensing node, the weather sensing fixed-point feeder and the shipboard receiver are carried on an airship, and the high-resolution digital typhoon simulation system is arranged on a ground workstation. The method of the invention utilizes the airship to track the typhoon position, puts sensing nodes into the typhoon according to the needs, collects internal measurement data through the sensor, transmits the internal measurement data back to the ground station through the airship, carries out assimilation simulation on the typhoon, and realizes forecasting and disaster reduction. The invention is not restricted by the foundation, the airship can track and monitor the whole process of typhoon generation, development and extinction over the ocean, and compared with the existing foundation and space-based detection method, the invention has the advantages of long-term sky-staying, wide-area coverage, continuous tracking and real-time data return.

Description

Novel typhoon tracking detection method and system based on aircraft airship
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of monitoring and early warning natural disasters in an air information system, and particularly relates to a novel typhoon tracking detection method and system based on an air airship.
Background
Typhoon is one of the most serious natural disasters in the world, has huge harm, and occurs for more than 60 times every year in the world, for example, in the united states, the 'cartelina' hurricane causes the loss of 5100 hundred million dollars in the united states in 2005; the number of landings in typhoon year in China is 7.6, and the typhoon is the first in the world. It is obvious that typhoon disasters are huge, the prevention cost is high, and the typhoon forecast is particularly critical.
The typhoon has a very complex structure, the radius of the typhoon is 200-300 km, the height of the typhoon is about 15km, the internal circulation structure of the typhoon is complex, the typhoon is provided with a cloud top cover, wind eyes, eye walls, an inner core and the like, wherein the wind speed of the inner core area is extremely high, and the turbulence is high. The typhoon is subjected to the processes of occurrence, development, extinction and the like, the life cycle is generally 7-10 days, the longest life cycle can reach more than 20 days, and if the typhoon is observed at sea, the stroke is very long, and the whole course and the inside and outside combined observation are very difficult.
In the research of typhoon early warning at home and abroad at present, in the aspect of space-based instruments, a meteorological satellite wind cloud 4 developed in China is the first global stationary meteorological satellite with vertical detection capability (reference 1: Dongyouhai, wind cloud IV and application prospect thereof [ J ]. Shanghai space, 2016,33(02):1-8.), the vertical resolution is 1.5km, the horizontal resolution is 16km, due to the fact that the orbit height is high, the meteorological satellite has the advantages of all weather and large range, high-resolution observation data can be obtained, but the defects are that indirect observation is not carried out, the precision is not enough, a sensor does not go deep into the interior of the typhoon for quantitative observation, and therefore, the observed meteorological elements are not complete, for example, only the aspects of wind speed, air pressure, temperature, humidity and the like can be observed; in terms of ground-based instruments, such as ground-based radar, automatic station, vehicle-mounted observation station, and the like, the latest U.S. next-generation radar NEXRAD (reference 2: Doviak R J, Bringi V, Ryzhkov A, et al. communication for polar electromagnetic up-graders to Operational WSR-88D Radars [ J ]. Journal of Atmospheric and ocean Technology,1998,17(3):257.) and China's new Doppler weather radar CIN (reference 3: put, spring day, application of the radar-SA radar [ J ]. weather, 2006,32(2):46-51.), spatial resolution is substantially 0.2-0.3 km, visible superiority is higher than that of the space-based instruments, but group networking time is insufficient because of weak observation area, namely, offshore wind observation capability is limited, the stage of typhoon formation, reinforcement and the like on the sea can not be effectively detected, so that the early warning time is short, and the foundation detection system is easy to damage under the condition of strong wind.
In conclusion, continuous direct observation of the fine structure in the typhoon is a great strategic requirement, and the disaster prevention and reduction capability can be effectively improved, so that the economic loss and the casualties are reduced. At present, no matter which method is used, the method has limitations, and the whole process and multiple elements of the typhoon cannot be observed in a precise mode, so that a new principle and a new method are urgently needed to be provided, and the method has the characteristics of long-term sky staying, wide-area coverage and continuous tracking, and can be used for realizing the simultaneous direct observation of the large area, the whole process and the multiple elements of the typhoon.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problem that the existing foundation and sky foundation detection methods can not carry out the fine observation of the whole process and multiple elements on typhoon, the invention breaks through the observation limitation of the existing typhoon tracking detection equipment, provides a novel typhoon tracking detection method and a novel typhoon tracking detection system based on an air airship, and can realize the simultaneous observation of the whole process and the multiple elements in a large area based on the air foundation detection.
The invention provides a novel typhoon tracking detection system based on an air airship, which comprises a typhoon tracking flight controller, a boat-mounted typhoon detection radar, a floating air image sensing node, a weather sensing fixed-point launcher, a boat-mounted receiver and a high-resolution digital typhoon simulation system, wherein the typhoon tracking flight controller, the boat-mounted typhoon detection radar, the floating air image sensing node, the weather sensing fixed-point launcher and the boat-mounted receiver are carried on the airship, and the high-resolution digital typhoon simulation system is mounted. The airship communicates with the ground workstation through a broadband data link.
The typhoon tracking flight controller is used for controlling the flight of the aircraft airship, so that the aircraft airship approaches to the typhoon tracking position.
The ship carrier wind detection radar adopts a one-dimensional dual-polarized phased array antenna, transmits beams to irradiate a core area of a typhoon, receives echoes, and observes the micro physical structure and change characteristics of a precipitation system in the typhoon.
The floating meteorological sensing node is provided with a sensor for collecting temperature, humidity, wind direction, wind speed and air pressure, a navigation positioning module and a communication module; the floating meteorological sensing node is carried on a parachute provided with a punching type cubic cone and thrown by an airship; the floating meteorological sensing node transmits data measured by the sensor back to the airship through the communication module.
The meteorological perception fixed-point delivery device comprises two types, namely a low Reynolds number gliding aircraft for long-distance fixed-point delivery and a glancing wing gliding aircraft for penetrating through the top eye wall of the typhoon. And the gliding aircraft sends the floating aeroimage sensing node bound with the parachute to a specified position.
The on-board receiver is used for collecting sensing data sent back by the floating meteorological sensing nodes.
The digital typhoon simulation system obtains data detected by a ship-borne wind detection radar, sensing data acquired by a floating air image sensing node and data acquired by a camera and a photoelectric sensor on an airship from the airship through a broadband data link, simulates and reconstructs a typhoon time sequence evolution process, establishes a digital typhoon model, performs analog simulation on typhoon, and displays time-space data of warm and humid wind pressure cloud water particles.
The invention provides a novel typhoon tracking detection method based on an aircraft airship, which comprises the following implementation steps:
step 1, approaching and tracking the airship with the airborne radar.
The method comprises the following steps that a temporary airship utilizes an airship carrier wind to detect radar irradiation to identify the position of a typhoon eye, and a typhoon tracking flight controller controls the airship to approach to tracking the typhoon position; and observing the micro physical structure and change characteristics of a precipitation system in the typhoon by using a boat carrier wind detection radar.
The typhoon tracking flight controller controls the propulsion subsystem and the direct force control subsystem in a self-adaptive comprehensive control mode, and realizes the tracking of the typhoon by the airship.
And 2, throwing floating meteorological sensing nodes into the typhoon by the airship.
According to the typhoon wind field distribution obtained by the detection of the ship platform wind detection radar, floating meteorological sensing nodes are thrown in according to needs, the downward thrown sensing nodes form a three-dimensional network configuration in typhoon, and when a certain sensing node in the three-dimensional network configuration is vacant, a meteorological sensing fixed-point feeder is used for feeding the sensing node to the vacant position at a fixed point. The fixed-point delivery of the sensing node at the wind eye uses the glide vehicle with low Reynolds number, and the glancing-wing glide vehicle is used for delivery when needing to break through the top eye wall of the typhoon.
And 3, transmitting the external measurement data and the internal measurement data of the typhoon back to the ground workstation.
The data collected by each sensing node in the typhoon, namely the internal measurement data, is transmitted back to the boat-mounted receiver on the airship, and the airship transmits the internal measurement data and the external measurement data back to the ground workstation through the broadband data link. The external data comprises data observed by a wind detection radar of the airship carrier and data acquired by a camera and a photoelectric sensor on the airship.
Step 4, after receiving the external measurement data and the internal measurement data of the typhoon, the ground workstation establishes a three-dimensional structure of the typhoon according to the single-time data, and then reconstructs a typhoon time sequence evolution process according to the time sequence; and (3) simulating and establishing a typhoon digital model, and inverting and assimilating the time-space data of the warm and humid wind pressure cloud water particles into the typhoon digital model.
The invention has the advantages and positive effects that:
(1) the invention can track the position of typhoon, is not restricted by the foundation, can monitor the whole process of occurrence, development and extinction of typhoon over the sea, and can continuously park and fly the airship more than 1 month for continuous detection;
(2) compared with the existing instrument, the sensing device used in the invention has very high measurement precision on the parameters such as the temperature, the humidity, the wind direction, the wind speed, the air pressure and the like in the typhoon, and the ground station can more truly approach the digital state of the actual typhoon and invert through calculation;
(3) the invention has high horizontal resolution, vertical resolution, horizontal and vertical grid resolution for typhoon and excellent performance.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the components of a novel typhoon tracking and detecting system of the aircraft airship according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the parachute of the sensing node of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of two glide vehicles used with the weather aware pointing projector of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic overall flow diagram of the typhoon tracking method using a blimp of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of an approaching airborne airship approaching a tracking typhoon in the method of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of a method for launching a weather sensing node on an aircraft.
Detailed Description
To facilitate understanding and implementing the invention by those of ordinary skill in the art, the invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
According to the method, an airship in the near space is used for tracking the typhoon position, sensing nodes are thrown into the typhoon as required above the typhoon, internal measurement data are collected through sensors arranged on the sensing nodes and then are transmitted back to a ground station through the airship, the typhoon is assimilated and simulated, and forecasting and disaster reduction are achieved. The typhoon tracking detection method and the system provided by the invention are not restricted by the foundation, the airship can track and monitor the whole process of occurrence, development and extinction of the typhoon over the sea and can continuously fly for more than one month, and the measuring precision of the down-thrown meteorological sensing node on the parameters such as the temperature, the humidity, the wind speed, the air pressure and the like in the typhoon is very high, so that a very solid foundation is laid for the following data processing and typhoon inversion. Compared with the existing foundation and space-based detection method, the system and the method provided by the invention have the advantages of long-term parking, wide-area coverage, continuous tracking and real-time data return, and can realize direct observation of large area, whole process and multiple elements.
As shown in fig. 1, the present invention provides a new typhoon tracking detection system based on an airship in an adjacent space, which includes: the system comprises a typhoon tracking flight controller 1, an on-board typhoon detection radar 2, a floating air image sensing node 3, a weather sensing fixed point projector 4, an on-board receiver 5, a broadband data link 6 and a high-resolution digital typhoon simulation system 7. Wherein, typhoon tracking flight controller 1, ship carrier wind detection radar 2, floating air image sensing node 3, weather sensing fixed point projector 4 and ship-borne receiver 5 are carried on the airship, and high resolution digital typhoon simulation system 7 is installed on the ground workstation. The airship communicates with the ground workstation through a broadband data link 6, and an unmanned aerial vehicle serving as a relay node is arranged on a communication link. The airship is also provided with an avionic system, a high-definition camera, a photoelectric sensor and other equipment, and the airship serving as an observation platform in the system needs to perform various tasks and provides a carrying platform for each module and load.
The typhoon tracking flight controller 1 is used for controlling the flight of the aircraft. The typhoon tracking flight controller 1 adopts integrated boat-mounted equipment, carries a task computer, a management computer and a flight control computer, performs real-time calculation to control a propulsion subsystem and a direct force control subsystem, and realizes flight control of the aircraft in the sky so as to track typhoon. The propulsion subsystem controls the corresponding propeller and the control surface to realize the flight of the airship. The direct force control subsystem dynamically controls the redistribution of the propeller thrust, optimizes the power output and increases the thrust of the propulsion system. The typhoon tracking flight controller 1 provides a control, measurement and control and management interface for an airship observation platform, and realizes the functions of flight control, navigation, equipment and load management, remote control and remote measurement, data acquisition and the like.
The airship carrier wind detection radar 2 is used for directly observing typhoon by means of propping, and the radar adopts a one-dimensional dual-polarized phased array antenna, so that the rapid change of the antenna beam direction and the large-range rapid scanning can be realized. Dual polarization transmission and the receiver that the radar possessed realize dual polarization transmission and receptivity, and the radar passes through the transmission beam and shines the kernel district of scanning typhoon, and precipitation particle produces the echo and is received by the radar, can distinguish its looks state through the scattering characteristic of precipitation particle on different polarization directions to reappear the interior precipitation system's of typhoon little physical structure and change characteristic. The radar has Doppler observation capability, can measure the moving speed of precipitation particles, can measure the wind speed and estimates the flow characteristics in the typhoon. The dual-polarization feature extraction method is used for obtaining the micro physical structure and change feature information of the precipitation system in the high-precision typhoon and realizing the accurate identification of the phase state. Data observed by the airship carrier wind detection radar 2 and data shot or collected by a camera, a photoelectric sensor and the like on the airship are all external data of typhoon.
The floating air image sensing node 3 is called a sensing node for short and thrown by an airship, carries temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction and air pressure sensors, and forms a three-dimensional network configuration after falling into typhoon. The three-dimensional network configuration is composed of a plurality of sensing nodes, and the sensing nodes collect parameters at different positions to realize optimal coverage. Sensing nodes are not recycled, the survival time is limited, and in order to prolong the effective working time of the sensing nodes, light materials are required to be adopted as much as possible and low-energy-consumption design is carried out; meanwhile, the communication module is integrated to the sensing node so as to transmit the data collected by the communication module to the aircraft airship in time. The data collected by the sensing nodes are measured data of typhoon.
In the invention, the airship directly throws the floating air image sensing node 3 similar to a sonde controlled by a parachute, and the sensing node falls into the typhoon to form a three-dimensional structure for large-range gridding detection, thereby realizing fine measurement. The floating meteorological sensing node 3 is a light low-energy consumption meteorological sensing device and is carried on a parachute with a punching type cubic cone. As shown in fig. 2, the structure of the ram-type cubic cone parachute mounted on the sensing node of the present invention mainly includes a top panel 11, a spoiler panel 12, a side panel 13, an air inlet 14 opened in the side panel, a connecting buckle 15, a connecting rope 16, a buffer rope 17, and the like. The swing angle of the parachute is not more than 3 degrees, the stability performance is excellent, after the downward-throwing sensing node is ejected out of the launcher, the parachute is opened by the charged air within 5 seconds, the excellent stability can be kept, the swinging of the sensing node is reduced and restrained, and the parachute can float and detect in typhoon for a long time. The sensing node can realize three-dimensional dynamic detection of multi-element meteorological characteristics, the built-in humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction and barometric pressure sensors adopt multi-parameter parallel acquisition, accurate measurement of typhoon wind speed and sea surface topographic characteristics is realized based on GNSS reflected signals of a global navigation satellite system, and measurement data are sent to the airship.
Under the condition that floating meteorological sensing nodes 3 are not uniformly distributed, in order to acquire typhoon parameters of important areas such as typhoon eyes and wind field shear nodes, new requirements are put forward for a detection technology, equipment with high-precision fixed-point abutting and launching capacity of a sensor is required, and fixed-point detection or compensation measurement of typhoon data is achieved. The detection means of the conventional rocket and the like are greatly limited, the detection of the sounding rocket has certain penetration capacity but is greatly influenced by typhoon disturbance, and usually fixed points are difficult to realize (reference 4: Leiwu Tuo, Zhao Biaoke, afterglow and the like. New technology for detecting typhoon meteorological parameters by throwing rocket projectiles downwards and a preliminary test [ J ] scientific report, 2017,62(32):3789 plus 3796.). The technical difficulty for realizing fixed-point detection of typhoon data is that in an air environment, rarefied air flies at a low Reynolds number, the pneumatic efficiency is reduced, and meanwhile, the circulation structure inside an eye wall is complex and ultra-strong airflow disturbance exists.
Aiming at the requirement that typhoon data needs fixed-point detection, the invention adopts the meteorological sensing fixed-point feeder 4 to solve the problems. Weather perception fixed point delivery device 4 is the gliding aircraft promptly, and the airship utilizes the altitude dominance, releases two kinds of gliding aircraft that possess controllable flight, a low reynolds number gliding aircraft that is used for long distance fixed point to deliver, a becomes grazing wing gliding aircraft that is used for penetrating through typhoon top layer eye wall, and the two combines to get into the inner core district that the environment is complicated, the reinforcing is surveyd. The meteorological perception fixed point thrower 4 is controlled by the control terminal on the airship, can carry floating aeronautical picture perception node 3 to the appointed place and throw in, carries out the additional survey, if: the sensing node is carried to the interior of the typhoon eye and released, and the sensing node which is influenced by a wind field and deviates from the expected position is compensated, so that the three-dimensional configuration is maintained. The weather sensing fixed point feeder 4 is not recycled. As shown in fig. 3, the following describes the gliding aircraft used in each of the two scenarios.
The low Reynolds number gliding aircraft in the air environment can ensure that the high-altitude low-density environment has a higher lift-drag ratio and the long-distance gliding capacity under the design of low Reynolds number wing profiles and streamline layout, and can ensure the flight characteristics and controllability of the gliding aircraft at different heights by adopting the ultra-light layout, the flexible fine-adjustable wing profiles and the optimal control rate. The lower part of the wing is provided with a load nacelle, a floating aeroimage sensing node 3 is arranged in the nacelle, and after the gliding aircraft reaches a preset position, the nacelle is opened to launch the sensing node according to a built-in program of the nacelle, so that fixed-point compensation measurement is completed. The key indexes of the low Reynolds number gliding aircraft for long-distance fixed-point delivery are that the gliding distance is more than 100km, the fixed-point precision is less than 1km, the takeoff weight is 5kg, and the task load is 2 kg.
The variable-sweep wing gliding aircraft used for penetrating through the typhoon top eye wall can control the equivalent area of the wings and the pressure center position, quickly adjust the flight speed and the attitude, improve the anti-interference capability and expand the whole flight envelope, thereby realizing high-altitude long-distance gliding, quickly breaking through the eye wall to execute tasks and delivering sensing nodes into typhoon eyes and the typhoon wind wall. The key indexes of the sweep-variable wing gliding aircraft for penetrating through the top eye wall of the typhoon are that the gliding distance is more than 50km, the fixed point precision is less than 1km, the flying speed is more than 100m/s, and the mission load is 2 kg.
The on-board receiver 5 is used for collecting sensing data which are sent back by each sensing node and used for measuring the interior of the typhoon, the sensing nodes are limited in size and power consumption, so that the transmitting power is limited, in addition, the interior communication environment of the typhoon is severe, the on-board receiver 5 needs to perform complex space-time-frequency signal processing, the design of hardware has high requirements, and the communication transmission quality is guaranteed.
The broadband data link 6 realizes over-the-horizon transmission through a relay, the number of the relay nodes can be one or more than one, and the airship transmits data collected by the floating weather sensing node 3, typhoon external measurement data detected by the airship station wind detection radar 2, and data collected by a high-definition camera, a photoelectric sensor and the like on the airship back to the ground in real time in a single-hop or multi-hop mode through the relay nodes.
The high-resolution digital typhoon simulation system 7 is assembled in a ground workstation data processing center, receives different-time and space-time discrete internal measurement and external measurement multi-source data sent by an airship, performs fusion processing based on observed space and time four-dimensional high-resolution data, inverts multi-element data of typhoon, establishes a three-dimensional complete structure of typhoon based on single-time multi-source data, and reconstructs a typhoon time sequence evolution process based on different-time data. And diagnosing, post-processing and inspecting the mode result, and finally performing simulation display image processing to realize numerical prediction. The three-dimensional typhoon obtained by simulating the typhoon is a digital structure, a plurality of points are arranged in the structure, each point has warm and humid wind pressure parameters and cloud water particle information, although each position of the typhoon cannot be covered by a sensing node, a digital typhoon model can be obtained finally through data processing (such as interpolation) and inversion, and then the space-time data of the warm and humid wind pressure cloud water particles can be displayed and obtained. If a digital temperature model of typhoon is needed, the temperature parameters are separated, if a digital air pressure model is needed, the air pressure parameters are separated, and the like.
Accordingly, the overall flow of the novel typhoon tracking method using the airship in the near space provided by the invention is shown in fig. 4. The whole tracking measurement process can be summarized into four steps: the outer side of the ship-borne radar is close to the airship for tracking; putting in a sensing node internal measurement and a fixed point supplementary measurement; sensing node data returning; and (5) assimilating and simulating the ground station. The following describes the difficulties and solutions in the implementation of each step in detail.
Firstly, approaching and tracking the airship with the airborne radar.
The approaching airship utilizes the airship carrier wind detection radar 2 to irradiate and identify a typhoon area for carrying out approaching tracking, and external measurement data of typhoon is obtained. The near space airship is used as an observation platform, the vertical height of the typhoon is about 15km, and the typhoon tracking detection equipment, namely the near space airship is located at the height of about 5km above the typhoon. The invention utilizes the ship carrier wind detection radar 2 to irradiate and identify the position of the typhoon eye, and approaches to the tracking typhoon position under the command of the typhoon tracking flight controller 1.
Adopt ship microscope carrier wind to survey radar 2 and support into the peripheral survey, this radar uses one-dimensional phased array antenna, specifically is dual polarization phased array antenna, and the beam direction of antenna can the rapid change to can scan on a large scale, can distinguish the looks attitude of particle through observing the scattering characteristic of precipitation particle on different polarization directions, thereby reappear the little physical structure and the change characteristic of the inside precipitation system of typhoon. Compared with the traditional airborne Doppler radar which is large in power consumption and weight and incapable of realizing continuous tracking of typhoon, the airborne carrier wind detection radar 2 carries a light and small dual-polarized phased array antenna, the detection distance can reach 40km, the weight is less than 100kg, multi-dimensional high-efficiency real-time processing can be carried out, and the used dual-polarized characteristic extraction method can acquire multi-dimensional information of typhoon polarization and speed fields, acquire high-precision polarization information and realize accurate identification and quantitative inversion of internal phase states. Meanwhile, the radar of the invention also has Doppler observation capability, can measure the moving speed of precipitation particles, measure the wind speed and estimate the flow characteristics in the typhoon. The airship carrier wind detection radar designed by the invention has vertical and horizontal high resolutions, and can realize fine observation of typhoon local area duration longer than 24 hours, vertical resolution smaller than 100 meters and horizontal resolution lower than 1km by virtue of the long endurance and the mobility of an airship and the rapid scanning capability of a phased array antenna.
After the survey is completed, the airship is close to tracking, as shown in fig. 5. The airship is in meteorological environments such as complex thermodynamics and wind fields, and is influenced by natural factors such as the sun, cloud layers and the atmosphere, such as direct solar radiation, infrared radiation, atmospheric scattering, solar radiation, cloud layer thermal radiation, internal infrared radiation and internal natural convection, which provide high requirements for the flight control technology of the airship, and specifically comprise the following components:
the self-adaptive comprehensive control can realize more intelligent and efficient control on the tracking flight of the airship. The temporary air system has the characteristics of large inertia, weak control and strong coupling, so that the observation platform model is difficult to accurately model, the target span of tracking control is large, the working time is long, the requirements on the control efficiency and the stability are high, in addition, the system has high tracking error requirements, and the task track needs to be planned on line and independently. The invention needs to continuously and accurately position and track typhoon, in the aspect of instrument realization, a high-reliability redundancy control unit is utilized to carry out multi-task cooperative management, a control algorithm uses a self-adaptive observation compensation method, the airship senses the environmental disturbance under the influence of the natural factors, and then the compensation of real-time errors is realized through self-adaptive online learning.
The direct force control subsystem aims at the characteristic of weak attitude control capability of an aircraft airship, uses a ducted rectification technology and a low Reynolds number high-altitude propeller technology, uses vector drive direct force control to dynamically control redistribution of propeller thrust, optimizes power output, increases system thrust, and can effectively overcome the defect of low efficiency of traditional thrust differential control. The typhoon tracking flight controller 1 adopts a comprehensive integrated boat-mounted equipment framework, carries a task computer, a management computer and a flight control computer to carry out real-time calculation so as to control a propulsion subsystem and a direct force control subsystem, and finally can improve the flight control precision of the existing aircraft flying by one order of magnitude. Through irradiation identification of the typhoon area by the radar and the flight control technology, the approaching tracking of the aircraft airship to the typhoon can be realized, the external measurement task is executed, and the external measurement data is collected.
And step two, throwing the floating meteorological sensing node 3 to carry out follow-up internal measurement.
The method comprises the steps of utilizing a ship platform wind detection radar 2 to carry out wave beam scanning, throwing floating meteorological sensing nodes 3 according to the requirement and the distribution of a typhoon wind field obtained by radar detection, carrying out follow-up measurement on the integral movement of typhoon, meanwhile, adopting two meteorological sensing fixed-point throwers 4 designed by the invention to throw sensing nodes at fixed points in areas with important influence on the movement and evolution of typhoon, such as typhoon eyes and eye walls, and carrying out fixed-point fine supplementary measurement on a kernel area through the sensing nodes. The low Reynolds number gliding aircraft has the characteristics of ultralight design, flexible wing type, optimal control can be realized on the gliding track, and the low Reynolds number gliding aircraft is used in the fixed-point delivery of the sensing node at the wind eye. The variable-sweep wings can realize the change of the flight speed at different heights, and when the eye wall needs to be broken through, the variable-sweep wing gliding aircraft is used for delivering the sensing nodes.
The traditional method mainly adopts ground fixed-point monitoring for detecting the meteorological features inside the typhoon, is difficult to realize real-time, continuous and large-area follow-up monitoring, and cannot acquire accurate three-dimensional meteorological features. In order to solve the problem, the method provided by the invention comprises the steps that when an airship flies to a preset position, a control terminal sends a command for preparing a downward throwing sensing node 3, the sensing node is wirelessly started, the downward throwing command is sent, the floating air image sensing node 3 is thrown into typhoon, three-dimensional dynamic detection on meteorological characteristics and atmospheric parameters of the typhoon is completed through a carried temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind speed and wind direction sensor and a navigation positioning module, as shown in figure 6, firstly, the sensing node is thrown according to needs, the large-scale distribution characteristics of the typhoon are estimated according to detection information of a ship carrier wind detection radar 2, the thrown sensing node 3 is distributed in the typhoon basically and uniformly, and an optimal sensing node dynamic four-dimensional throwing track is designed through generation and deduction of the configuration of the thrown sensing node. The sensing nodes 3 which are thrown downwards form a plurality of three-dimensional network configurations, when one node in one three-dimensional network configuration is blown away by typhoon, the node is thrown by the meteorological sensing fixed point thrower 4, and the gliding aircraft carries the sensing nodes to throw to the corresponding position, so that the three-dimensional network configuration is kept complete.
And step three, each delivered sensing node goes deep into the typhoon, internal measurement information is transmitted to an onboard receiver 5 of the aircraft approaching the sky from the inside of the typhoon, and the aircraft and external measurement information of the onboard wind detection radar 2 are transmitted back to the ground station through an beyond-the-horizon broadband data link 6 to be analyzed and processed.
The typhoon internal environment is severe, the sensing nodes follow up at high speed, and the transmission of internal measurement information from the meteorological sensing nodes 3 to the air airship faces challenges. Firstly, the sensing node follows up, drifts, turns, rotates and the like at high speed, particularly near a typhoon eye, the air flow speed can be as high as 80 m/s, and the high-speed movement enables the channel between the sensing node and the airship to change rapidly, so that remarkable Doppler frequency shift is generated; secondly, the environment is severe, the strong wind and rain in the typhoon cause serious signal attenuation, and due to the shielding, reflection, diffraction and the like of objects such as rain water, ice crystals, dust and the like on electromagnetic signals, the signal power rapidly fluctuates (fast fading); thirdly, because of the constraint of the load, the transmitting module of the sensing node has small volume and low transmitting power. These factors all cause great difficulty in the transmission of the internal test information.
The transmitting module for internal information transmission is integrated in each meteorological sensing node, according to the above situation, the environmental disturbance inside the typhoon can generate Doppler and multipath effects, and each sensing node moves at high speed along with the airflow and has limited power, resulting in fast fading. The traditional LoRa technology is used as an LPWAN (low power consumption wide area network) wireless communication technology, digital spread spectrum, digital signal processing and forward error correction coding technologies are combined, and the sensing information transmission method is only suitable for a good and stable environment and cannot solve the problems of multipath and fast fading. Aiming at the situation, the invention adopts a transmission scheme based on the space-time diversity difference Chirp technology. The Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) technique achieves a Spread Spectrum effect by modulating transmitted information with Chirp pulses of Chirp, and uses the entire bandwidth of Chirp pulses to Spread the Spectrum of a signal, because of using a very wide frequency band, even at very low transmission power, multipath fading can be resisted, space diversity and time diversity can effectively resist fast fading, and differential modulation can effectively resist fast time varying. The Chirp spread spectrum not only can improve the receiving signal-to-noise ratio, but also is robust to Doppler frequency shift. The space-time diversity difference Chirp technology adopts a multi-antenna receiving mechanism in a space domain to obtain space diversity, adopts multi-slot repeated coding transmission in a time domain to obtain time diversity, divides a plurality of frequency channels in a frequency domain to realize multi-user distinguishing, and each user monopolizes one sub-frequency band. In this scenario, the multi-path signals sent by multiple sensing nodes are distinguished.
For over-the-horizon transmission, a high-power omnidirectional antenna is adopted in the traditional method, and low-frequency-band omnidirectional transmission can support hundreds of kilometers, but the scene of the invention is that the signal-to-noise ratio of a receiving end is low, the transmission rate is high (100Mbps), the omnidirectional transmission cannot obtain antenna gain, the transmission distance is insufficient, the further increase of the distance is difficult to realize, the interference is easy to occur, and the technical challenge is provided. In order to solve the problems, the shipboard receiver of the invention adopts a transceiving large-scale phased array antenna, can carry out quick alignment of the layered beams through an analog beam forming technology according to the requirements, forms a wide beam or a special covering beam, is agile in beam and can switch the direction in a short time. The large-scale phased array antenna means that the number of the antenna units is larger than 64. Compared with a directional antenna based on mechanical scanning, the method has the advantages that when the relative position of a receiver is changed, a sender needs to switch beams, the traditional mechanical scanning needs to adjust the beam direction by mechanically rotating the antenna, and the analog beam forming technology does not relate to mechanical rotation. By the method, the interference of other electromagnetic waves can be well inhibited, the energy is concentrated, the antenna gain is concentrated in a specific direction, and the efficiency and the reliability of data transmission are enhanced. By the method, broadband remote transmission is realized, and the transmission distance and the transmission rate can be doubled.
And step four, the ground station establishes a complete typhoon three-dimensional structure for the multi-source heterogeneous actual measurement data through assimilation and fusion, and obtains the high-fidelity digital typhoon continuously evolved in space and time through high-precision digital typhoon simulation, so that path prediction and strength prediction of the typhoon are finally completed.
Firstly, multi-source heterogeneous data fusion is carried out. The method provided by the invention is characterized in that a complete typhoon three-dimensional structure is established from single-time data through multi-source heterogeneous data association, the three dimensions are longitude x, latitude y and height z respectively, and the typhoon time sequence evolution process is reconstructed from the data at different times through four-dimensional assimilation according to the time sequence, so that the typhoon fine structure information with the horizontal resolution of 1 kilometer and the vertical resolution of 200 meters can be established.
And secondly, performing high-resolution digital typhoon simulation to complete path prediction and strength prediction of typhoon. The invention assimilates the high-precision sampling inversion of the temperature and humidity wind pressure to the high-precision four-dimensional vivid digital typhoon. The traditional method adopts a large-scale coarse-grained mode, the resolution ratio is 3-4 km, and the precision is insufficient. The solution of the invention is that the obtained typhoon three-dimensional structure information at different moments is input into a typhoon fine digitization model, and the high-fidelity digitized typhoon with the horizontal resolution of 50 meters, the vertical resolution of 10 meters and the time resolution of 10 seconds is obtained through the operation of a super computer. The method carries out cross validation optimization on the physical relation in the typhoon digital model through the obtained observation data, thereby ensuring the accuracy of the model.
Through the high-speed processing and calculation of the computer of the ground station, the invention can obtain the four-dimensional digital typhoon with the resolution ratio reaching 50 meters based on the whole process of the measured data, improves the resolution ratio of the prior art by two orders of magnitude and has considerable application prospect.

Claims (6)

1. A detection system is tracked to novel typhoon based on face sky dirigible, its characterized in that includes: the system comprises a typhoon tracking flight controller, a shipboard wind detection radar, a floating air image sensing node, a meteorological sensing fixed-point projector, a shipboard receiver and a digital typhoon simulation system, wherein the typhoon tracking flight controller, the shipboard wind detection radar, the floating air image sensing node, the meteorological sensing fixed-point projector and the shipboard receiver are carried on an airship, and the digital typhoon simulation system is arranged on a ground workstation; the airship communicates with the ground workstation through a broadband data link;
the typhoon tracking flight controller is used for controlling the flight of the aircraft airship so as to enable the aircraft airship to approach the tracking typhoon position; the airship is positioned above the typhoon at a height of about 5 km;
the ship carrier wind detection radar adopts a one-dimensional dual-polarized phased array antenna, transmits a beam to irradiate and scan an inner core area of typhoon, receives an echo, and observes a micro physical structure and change characteristics of a precipitation system in the typhoon;
the floating meteorological sensing node is provided with a sensor for collecting temperature, humidity, wind direction, wind speed and air pressure, a navigation positioning module and a communication module; the floating meteorological sensing node is carried on a parachute provided with a punching type cubic cone and thrown by an airship; the floating meteorological sensing node transmits data measured by the sensor back to the airship through the communication module; after the floating meteorological sensing node falls into the typhoon, a plurality of nodes form a three-dimensional network configuration; when a sensing node in the three-dimensional network configuration is vacant, a meteorological sensing fixed-point feeder is used for feeding the sensing node to the vacant position in a fixed-point mode;
the weather sensing fixed-point delivery device comprises a low Reynolds number gliding aircraft for long-distance fixed-point delivery and a variable-sweep wing gliding aircraft for fixed-point delivery penetrating through the eye wall at the top layer of the typhoon; the gliding aircraft sends the floating aeronautical elephant sensing node bound with the parachute to a specified position; the glide distance of the low Reynolds number glide aircraft is more than 100km, the fixed point precision is less than 1km, the takeoff weight is 5kg, and the task load is 2 kg; the gliding distance of the gliding aircraft with the variable grazing wings is more than 50km, the fixed point precision is less than 1km, the flying speed is more than 100m/s, and the task load is 2 kg;
the shipborne receiver is used for collecting sensing data sent back by each floating meteorological sensing node;
the digital typhoon simulation system obtains data detected by a ship-borne wind detection radar, data detected by a floating air image sensing node and data acquired by a camera and a photoelectric sensor on an airship from the airship through a broadband data link, simulates and reconstructs a typhoon time sequence evolution process, establishes a digital typhoon three-dimensional model, and displays time-space data of warm and humid wind pressure cloud water particles through simulation of typhoon.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the ram type parachute with a cubic cone comprises a top panel, a spoiler panel, a side panel, an air inlet opening on the side panel, a connecting buckle, a connecting rope and a buffer rope.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein one or more relay nodes are arranged between the airship and the ground workstation, and the relay nodes are large-scale long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicles.
4. A typhoon tracking detection method based on the system of claim 1, characterized by comprising the steps of:
step 1, approaching and tracking an airship by an outboard radar of the airship;
the method comprises the following steps that a temporary airship utilizes an airship carrier wind to detect radar irradiation to identify the position of a typhoon eye, and a typhoon tracking flight controller controls the airship to approach to tracking the typhoon position; observing the micro physical structure and change characteristics of a precipitation system in the typhoon by using a boat carrier wind detection radar;
step 2, throwing floating meteorological sensing nodes into the typhoon by the airship;
according to typhoon wind field distribution obtained by detection of a ship platform wind detection radar, floating meteorological sensing nodes are thrown in as required, the downward thrown sensing nodes form a three-dimensional network configuration in typhoon, and when a certain sensing node in the three-dimensional network configuration is vacant, a meteorological sensing fixed-point feeder is used for fixed-point delivery of the sensing node to the vacant position; the fixed-point delivery of the sensing node at the wind eye is carried out by using a low Reynolds number gliding aircraft, and the delivery is carried out by using a glancing wing gliding aircraft when the top eye wall of the typhoon needs to be broken through;
step 3, transmitting the external measurement data and the internal measurement data of the typhoon back to the ground workstation;
the method comprises the following steps that each sensing node in the typhoon transmits collected data, namely internal measurement data back to an airship-mounted receiver on an airship, and the airship transmits the internal measurement data and the external measurement data back to a ground workstation through a broadband data link; the external data comprises data observed by a ship-borne wind detection radar and data acquired by a camera and a photoelectric sensor on the airship;
step 4, after receiving the external measurement data and the internal measurement data of the typhoon, the ground workstation establishes a three-dimensional structure of the typhoon according to the single-time data, and then reconstructs a typhoon time sequence evolution process according to the time sequence; and establishing a typhoon digital model, and inverting and assimilating the time-space data of the warm and humid wind pressure cloud water particles to the typhoon digital model.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein in step 3, the sensing node and the on-board receiver transmit by using a Chirp technique based on space-time diversity; the space-time diversity differential Chirp technology adopts a multi-antenna receiving mechanism in a space domain to obtain space diversity, adopts multi-time slot repeated coding transmission in a time domain to obtain time diversity, divides a plurality of frequency channels in a frequency domain to realize multi-user differentiation, and each user monopolizes one sub-frequency band.
6. The method of claim 4, wherein in step 3, the on-board receiver employs a large-scale phased array antenna and analog beamforming.
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