CN109373879B - Part outline dimension detection device and detection method - Google Patents

Part outline dimension detection device and detection method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109373879B
CN109373879B CN201811510561.0A CN201811510561A CN109373879B CN 109373879 B CN109373879 B CN 109373879B CN 201811510561 A CN201811510561 A CN 201811510561A CN 109373879 B CN109373879 B CN 109373879B
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China
Prior art keywords
displacement sensor
sensor
sliding block
distance
displacement
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CN109373879A (en
Inventor
邱达
陈世强
徐建
吕俊
刘嵩
李时东
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Hubei Juxin Industrial Trade Co ltd
Hubei University for Nationalities
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Hubei Juxin Industrial Trade Co ltd
Hubei University for Nationalities
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Priority to CN201811510561.0A priority Critical patent/CN109373879B/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B7/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical techniques
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical techniques
    • G01B11/02Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical techniques for measuring length, width or thickness
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical techniques
    • G01B11/24Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical techniques for measuring contours or curvatures
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B7/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques
    • G01B7/14Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques for measuring distance or clearance between spaced objects or spaced apertures
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B7/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques
    • G01B7/28Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of electric or magnetic techniques for measuring contours or curvatures

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  • Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • General Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • A Measuring Device Byusing Mechanical Method (AREA)
  • Length Measuring Devices With Unspecified Measuring Means (AREA)

Abstract

The invention relates to the field of detecting instruments, and discloses a part outline dimension detecting device and a detecting method, wherein the detecting device comprises a part placing rack for placing a part to be detected; the testing mechanism comprises at least one displacement sensor and at least one distance sensor, wherein the displacement sensor is used for scanning the outline dimension parameter of the part to be tested, and the distance sensor is used for detecting the displacement of the displacement sensor moving along the direction vertical to the section of the part to be tested after the displacement sensor scans one section of the part to be tested; and at least one driving mechanism for driving the part placing frame or the testing mechanism to move in a linear, plane or three-dimensional range is also included. The invention detects the cross section sizes of a plurality of parts through the testing mechanism, is not easy to be interfered by artificial factors compared with the traditional manual visual detection, has good stability in the detection process and has low requirements on detection personnel.

Description

Part outline dimension detection device and detection method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of detection instruments, in particular to a part outline dimension detection device and a detection method.
Background
In the processing and production process of parts, detecting the external dimension of the parts is a necessary means for judging whether the processing dimension of the parts to be detected is qualified. For example, steel bars, steel pipes, screw rods and other parts such as discs and the like, external threads are often required to be machined for assembly. Traditional external thread parameter detection is to detect a plurality of points when the detection tool is used for contact type manual detection, and the mode has a plurality of defects in external thread detection of batch parts to be detected. Such as: 1) The detection workload is large, the efficiency is low, and the detection result is easy to be interfered by human factors; 2) The detection tool is easy to wear, and the requirements on detection personnel are high; 3) The stability of the artificial vision detection technology is not high, and the use process is limited to a certain extent; 4) The root profile of the external thread cannot be detected.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a part outline dimension detection device which is used for solving the problems that a detection result is easy to be interfered by human factors and the stability of a detection technology is not high in manual visual detection of parts.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme: the part outline dimension detection device comprises a part placement rack for placing a part to be detected;
a testing mechanism comprising at least one displacement sensor and at least one distance sensor; the displacement sensor is used for scanning the outline dimension parameters of the part to be measured; the distance sensor is used for detecting displacement of the displacement sensor moving along the direction vertical to the section of the part to be detected after scanning one section of the part to be detected;
the device also comprises at least one driving mechanism, wherein the driving mechanism drives the part placing rack or the testing mechanism to move in a linear, plane or three-dimensional range.
In the technical scheme, the displacement sensor scans the outline dimension parameter of one section of the part to be measured, the driving mechanism drives the part placing rack or the testing mechanism to move a distance along the direction vertical to the section of the part to be measured, and the displacement sensor scans the outline dimension parameter of the section of the part to be measured; repeating the steps until the sections of all the parts to be tested are detected. Compared with the traditional manual visual detection, the scheme is not easy to be interfered by artificial factors, the stability of the detection process is good, and the requirement on detection personnel is low.
Further, the driving mechanism comprises a first driving mechanism for driving the part placement frame to longitudinally move, a second driving mechanism for driving the part placement frame to vertically move and a third driving mechanism for driving the testing mechanism to transversely move. Therefore, the part to be measured is transversely placed on the part placing rack, the position of the part to be measured is adjusted through the first driving mechanism and the second driving mechanism, the part to be measured is kept at a proper distance from the displacement sensor, and the displacement sensor is convenient to detect the part; the third driving mechanism enables the testing mechanism to move transversely, namely along the direction perpendicular to the section of the part to be tested, so that the part to be tested can be tested at multiple points conveniently.
Further, the displacement sensor comprises a first displacement sensor and a second displacement sensor, and the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor are respectively positioned in opposite directions of two sides of the part placement frame; the distance sensor comprises a third distance sensor and a fourth distance sensor; the third distance sensor is used for detecting the distance between the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor in the vertical direction; the fourth distance sensor is used for detecting the transverse displacement of the first displacement sensor. And two displacement sensors are respectively arranged in opposite directions of two sides of the part placement frame, and a third distance sensor for detecting the distance between the two displacement sensors is arranged, so that the appearance parameters of the shaft, the disc and the external thread parts are indirectly detected.
Further, the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor are respectively positioned at the upper side and the lower side of the part placing frame, the testing mechanism further comprises a fourth driving mechanism for enabling the first displacement sensor or the second displacement sensor to vertically move, and the longitudinal position and the transverse position of the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor are relatively unchanged. The fourth driving mechanism enables one of the displacement sensors to move vertically, so that the distance between the two displacement sensors can be conveniently adjusted; when detecting parts with different diameters, the displacement sensor can be ensured to be in a proper range, so that the detection result is more accurate.
Further, the fourth driving mechanism drives the first displacement sensor to vertically move, and the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor are laser displacement sensors; the third distance sensor is a magnetic grating ruler, and a reading head of the magnetic grating ruler moves along with the first displacement sensor; the fourth distance sensor is a grating ruler which is transversely arranged, a scale grating of the grating ruler is fixed, and a reading head of the grating ruler moves along with the first displacement sensor.
The laser displacement sensor has good straightness and high detection precision; the magnetic grating ruler has small volume and small influence on the space structure; the grating ruler has the advantages of large detection range, high detection precision and high response speed, and is suitable for detecting the transverse moving distance of the first displacement sensor.
Further, the first driving mechanism comprises a first guide rail, a first sliding block and a first driving module for enabling the first sliding block to longitudinally slide on the first guide rail; the second driving mechanism comprises a second sliding block, a second guide rail fixedly connected with the first sliding block and a second driving module enabling the second sliding block to vertically slide on the second guide rail, and the second sliding block is fixedly connected with the part placement frame. The longitudinal and vertical moving paths of the part to be tested walk along the path of the guide rail in a guide rail and slide block mode.
Further, the third driving mechanism comprises a third motor and a third guide rail which is transversely arranged, and an output shaft of the third motor is coaxially connected with a third screw rod; the test mechanism further comprises a third sliding block transversely and slidably connected to the third guide rail, and a third screw rod is in threaded connection with the third sliding block; the fourth driving mechanism comprises a fourth sliding block and a fourth driving module which enables the fourth sliding block to vertically move on the third sliding block; the first displacement sensor and the third distance sensor are connected with the fourth sliding block; the second displacement sensor is fixedly connected with the third sliding block; the third distance sensor is arranged on the third sliding block; the fourth driving module comprises two vertical guide posts connected to the third sliding block, the two guide posts penetrate through the fourth sliding block, a vertical fourth screw rod is connected to the third sliding block in a rotating mode, the fourth screw rod is in threaded connection with the fourth sliding block, and a fourth knob is fixedly connected to the fourth screw rod.
The test mechanism transversely moves on the third guide rail in a mode of the third motor and the third screw rod, so that the structure is simple, safe and reliable. The first displacement sensor and the third distance sensor are arranged on the fourth sliding block and move vertically along with the fourth sliding block; the fourth sliding block vertically moves through the fourth screw rod and the fourth knob, so that the vertical position of the first displacement sensor is adjusted; because the external dimension of the part changes very little when the part to be detected is detected in batches, the vertical position of the first displacement sensor does not need to be adjusted frequently, and therefore, the fourth rotation is used for manual adjustment, the motor is not required to be used for driving, and the cost can be saved.
Further, the industrial personal computer with the touch screen is electrically connected with the third motor, the first displacement sensor, the second displacement sensor, the third distance sensor and the fourth distance sensor. Therefore, the data detected by the sensor is calculated through the industrial personal computer and then displayed on the touch screen, so that parameters of the external dimensions of the parts can be obtained conveniently and rapidly.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for detecting an external dimension of a part, the method comprising the steps of;
a, building the detection device according to any one of claims 1 to 5, and connecting a sensor in the device with an industrial control computer;
b, preparing before detection, namely placing the part to be detected on a part placing frame, and adjusting the positions of the part to be detected, the displacement sensor and the distance sensor;
c, the section outline dimension of the part to be measured when the displacement sensor reads the initial position;
the D driving mechanism drives the testing mechanism or the part placing rack to move along the direction vertical to the section of the part to be tested, and the moving distance of each time is deltax;
e, reading delta x data measured by a distance sensor; simultaneously reading the section outline dimension of the part to be measured at a distance delta x position measured by the displacement sensor;
f, repeating the steps D to E until the whole outline dimension of the part to be measured is read;
g, smoothing and filtering the data measured by the read displacement sensor and the distance sensor;
h, calculating parameters of the part to be measured;
and displaying the outline dimension parameters of the part to be tested on a touch screen on the I industrial personal computer.
Further, the detected object is an external thread on the part to be detected;
or constructing the detection device of claim 5 in the step A;
or in the step C, reading data Y0 of the magnetic grid ruler, and reading initial data of the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor;
or in the step E, when the distance delta x is a distance delta x, reading the thread parameter Y1 on the upper surface of the part to be detected, which is measured by the first displacement sensor; reading a lower surface thread parameter Y2 of the part to be detected, which is measured by a second displacement sensor;
or in the step H, the industrial personal computer identifies a tooth root value Y11 of the upper surface of the external thread and a tooth top value Y12 of the upper surface of the external thread from Y1; identifying a tooth root value Y21 of the lower surface of the external thread and a tooth top value Y22 of the lower surface of the external thread from Y2; the major diameter d=y0- (y22+y12) of the external thread and the minor diameter d1=y0- (y21+y11) of the external thread were calculated.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic perspective view of a detection device according to a first embodiment.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of external thread profile data of a part to be tested displayed on a touch screen in the second embodiment.
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a path of a third motion sensor for scanning the cross-sectional dimension of a part under test in the third embodiment.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in further detail below by way of specific embodiments:
reference numerals in the drawings of the specification include: the device comprises a frame 1, a first guide rail 11, a first sliding block 12, a first knob 13, a second guide rail 21, a second sliding block 22, a second knob 23, a part placing frame 31, a V-shaped block 32, a first displacement sensor 41, a second displacement sensor 42, a magnetic grating ruler 43, a grating ruler 44, a third guide rail 5, a third motor 51, a third sliding block 6, a fourth sliding block 61, a guide post 62, a fourth screw 63, a fourth knob 64, an industrial computer 7 and a third displacement sensor 8.
Example 1
This embodiment is basically as shown in fig. 1: the part outline dimension detection device comprises a frame 1, wherein a part placement frame 31 is arranged on the frame 1, a test mechanism for detecting external threads of a part to be detected, and a driving mechanism for driving the part placement frame 31 or the test mechanism to move in a linear, plane or three-dimensional range. Preferably, the drive mechanism includes a first drive mechanism that drives the part carrier 31 in a longitudinal motion (i.e., forward and backward motion), a second drive mechanism that drives the part carrier 31 in a vertical motion (i.e., up and down motion), and a third drive mechanism that drives the test mechanism in a lateral motion (i.e., left and right motion). It should be noted that in practice, the part to be tested may also be immobilized, so that the test mechanism moves vertically and longitudinally.
The first driving mechanism comprises a first guide rail 11 connected to the frame 1 through bolts, a first sliding block 12 is vertically and slidably connected to the first guide rail 11, a first driving module which enables the first sliding block 12 to longitudinally slide on the first guide rail 11 is arranged in the first guide rail 11, the first driving module comprises a first gear (not shown in the figure) rotationally connected to the first guide rail 11, a longitudinal first rack meshed with the first gear is fixedly connected to the first sliding block 12, and a first knob 13 is fixedly connected to a first gear at the left side of the first sliding block 12; whereby the part holder 31 is moved longitudinally by turning the first knob 13.
The second driving mechanism comprises a second guide rail 21 connected to the first slide block 12 through a bolt, a second slide block 22 is vertically and slidably connected to the second guide rail 21, a second driving module for enabling the second slide block 22 to vertically slide on the second guide rail 21 is arranged in the second guide rail 21, the second driving module comprises a second gear (not shown in the figure) rotatably connected to the second guide rail 21, a vertical second rack meshed with the second gear is fixedly connected to the second slide block 22, and a second knob 23 is fixedly connected to a second gear on the left side of the second slide block 22; whereby the part holder 31 is vertically moved by rotating the second knob 23. The second slider 22 is connected with the part placing frame 31 through bolts, two ends of the part placing frame 31 are transversely connected with a V-shaped block 32 for placing a part to be tested in a sliding manner, and the specific sliding connection mode of the V-shaped block 32 and the part placing frame 31 is as follows: the V-shaped block 32 is provided with a chute matched with the shape of the part placing frame 31.
It should be noted that, the transmission mode of the gear and rack is only one implementation mode of the first driving module/the second driving module, and the first driving module and/or the second driving module may also adopt other mechanisms such as worm gear, crank block, screw pair, etc. for changing rotation into linear motion. Of course, the manner of adopting the guide rail, the sliding block and the first driving module/the second driving module is only one implementation manner of the first driving mechanism/the second driving mechanism, and the first driving mechanism and/or the second driving mechanism can also adopt the transmission manners such as a hydraulic power unit, a pneumatic power unit, an electro-hydraulic push rod, a motor screw rod sleeve and the like to enable the part placing frame 31 to vertically and longitudinally move, so that the part placing frame can be selected according to actual conditions, and the part placing frame is not limited in particular.
The third driving mechanism comprises a third motor 51 and a third guide rail 5 which is transversely arranged, the third motor 51 is a stepping motor and is positioned in the third guide rail 5, a third screw rod ((not shown in the figure) is coaxially connected with an output shaft of the third motor 51, the testing mechanism comprises a displacement sensor and a distance sensor, the displacement sensor comprises a first displacement sensor 41 and a second displacement sensor 42, the distance sensor comprises a third distance sensor and a fourth distance sensor, the testing mechanism further comprises a vertical third sliding block 6 which is transversely and slidably connected on the third guide rail 5, and the third screw rod is in threaded connection with the third sliding block 6.
The second displacement sensor 42 is connected to the lower end of the third slider 6 through a bolt, and the first displacement sensor 41 and the second displacement sensor 42 are both laser displacement sensors, preferably high-precision laser displacement sensors LDS series of the tinplate-free science and technology limited company. The third distance sensor is a magnetic grating ruler 43 for detecting the height difference between the first displacement sensor 41 and the second displacement sensor 42 in the vertical direction, the length of the reading head of the magnetic grating ruler 43 is about 7cm, and the step distance of the magnetic grating ruler 43 is 5um; preferably the MIRAN series of Shenzhen MiLang technologies Inc. The testing mechanism further comprises a fourth distance sensor, wherein the fourth distance sensor is a grating ruler 44 which is transversely arranged, a scale grating of the grating ruler 44 is fixedly connected to the third guide rail 5, a reading head of the grating ruler 44 moves along with the first displacement sensor 41, the grating distance of the grating ruler 44 is 10um, and preferably a closed grating ruler of MSA 7xx series of Beijing precision Boda technology Co; the grating scale 44 is used to read the lateral displacement of the first displacement sensor 41 and the second displacement sensor 42.
In this embodiment, the third slider 6 is preferably disposed vertically such that the first displacement sensor 41 and the second displacement sensor 42 are located on the upper and lower sides of the part holder 31; in practice, the third slider 6 may be disposed at any angle with respect to the vertical direction, and the corresponding first displacement sensor 41 and second displacement sensor 42 are respectively located in opposite directions on both sides of the part placement frame 31. It should be noted that in practice, in order to further improve accuracy of the detection data, several more displacement sensors may be disposed in the circumferential direction of the external thread of the part to be detected, and corresponding distance sensors for detecting the distance between the displacement sensors may be disposed.
The test mechanism further includes a fourth drive mechanism that vertically moves the second displacement sensor 42, the fourth drive mechanism including a fourth slider 61 and a fourth drive module that vertically moves the fourth slider 61 on the third slider 6, the first displacement sensor 41 and the third distance sensor being connected to the fourth slider 61 by bolts such that the reading head of the magnetic scale 43 moves following the first displacement sensor 41. The fourth driving module comprises two vertical guide posts 62 connected to the third sliding block 6, and the guide posts 62 and the third sliding block 6 can be connected in a rotating or fixedly connected manner; two guide posts 62 are arranged on the fourth slide block 61 in a penetrating way, a vertical fourth screw rod 63 is connected to the third slide block 6 in a rotating way, the fourth screw rod 63 is connected with the fourth slide block 61 in a threaded way, and a fourth knob 64 is fixedly connected to the upper end of the fourth screw rod 63; thus, by turning the fourth knob 64, the fourth slider 61 is caused to move the readhead of the first displacement sensor 41 and the magnetic scale 43 vertically.
When the parts to be detected are detected in batches, the change of the external dimensions of the parts to be detected is very small, and the longitudinal position and the vertical position of the parts to be detected do not need to be regulated frequently; moreover, the vertical position of the first displacement sensor 41 does not need to be adjusted frequently, so that the first knob 13, the second knob 23 and the fourth knob 64 can be manually adjusted, and the driving mode of a motor is not needed, thereby saving the cost. The third motor 51, the first displacement sensor 41, the second displacement sensor 42, the magnetic scale 43, and the grating scale 44 in the present embodiment are all electrically connected to the industrial personal computer 7.
Example two
The method for detecting the external dimension of the part according to the first embodiment is a method for detecting the external dimension of the external thread of the part to be detected by using the detection device according to the first embodiment, and the method comprises the following steps:
a the detection device in the first embodiment is built.
B, preparing before detection, namely placing the part to be detected on the V-shaped blocks 32 on the part placing frame 31, and simultaneously adjusting the distance between the two V-shaped blocks 32 on the part placing frame 31 according to the length of the part to be detected; the first knob 13 is turned to move the part to be measured longitudinally, so that the extension lines of the laser beams emitted by the first displacement sensor 41 and the second displacement sensor 42 can pass through the central axis of the external thread of the part to be measured and are perpendicular to the central axis.
C, reading initial position data, reading detection data of the magnetic grating ruler 43, recording the detection data as Y0, reading detection data of the first displacement sensor 41 and the second displacement sensor 42, and uploading the data to the industrial personal computer 7;
d, enabling the third motor 51 to rotate, enabling the third motor 51 to enable the sliding block to move transversely, namely to move along the length direction of the part to be tested, enabling the first displacement sensor 41, the second displacement sensor 42 and the reading head of the grating ruler 44 to move along with the sliding block, wherein the moving distance of each time is deltax;
e, reading delta x data measured by the grating ruler 44; simultaneously, the screw thread parameter of the upper surface of the part to be detected, which is measured by the first displacement sensor 41, is read and recorded as Y1; and reading the lower surface thread parameter of the part to be measured, which is measured by the second displacement sensor 42, and recording the lower surface thread parameter as Y2.
F, repeating the steps D to E until the whole section of external threads on the part to be measured is read.
And G, performing smoothing filtering processing on the data measured by the read displacement sensor and the data measured by the distance sensor.
And H, calculating parameters of the part to be measured.
And a touch screen on the I industrial personal computer 7 displays the outline dimension parameters of the part to be tested.
When the external thread parameter of the part to be measured is detected by the above method, the grating ruler 44 transmits data detected in the X-axis direction every time the industrial personal computer 7 obtains data Y1 and Y2 detected in the Y-axis direction transmitted from the first displacement sensor 41 and the second displacement sensor 42, and the data is different from the previous data by a fixed displacement Δx in the X-axis direction. And D and E are repeated, a plurality of groups of X-axis and Y-axis data are measured, a plurality of groups of two-dimensional data sets can be obtained, and then a data schematic diagram of the external thread axial section of the part to be measured is synthesized. Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of external thread data of a part to be measured after the synthesis of the tooth form data of the upper surface and the tooth form data of the lower surface of the external thread of the part to be measured.
And then reasonably judging, filtering and segmenting the data in the figure 2, finding out straight line segment parts of each tooth surface, further solving the intersection point of the straight line segment parts, calculating a plurality of basic parameters, finally carrying out error compensation, storing detection data into a database, and ending a complete detection period. The external thread parameters of the part to be measured can be calculated from the data in fig. 2 as follows:
major diameter d=y0- (y22+y12), minor diameter d1=y0- (y21+y11), pitch P.
Wherein: y11 is the tooth root value of the upper surface of the external thread identified in Y1 measured by the industrial personal computer after filtering from the first displacement sensor;
y12 is the tooth top value of the upper surface of the external thread identified in Y1 measured by the industrial personal computer after filtering from the first displacement sensor;
y21 is the tooth root value of the lower surface of the external thread identified in Y2 measured by the industrial personal computer from the second displacement sensor after filtering;
y22 is the tooth top value of the lower surface of the external thread identified in Y2 measured by the industrial personal computer after filtering from the second displacement sensor;
the distance between two adjacent threads of the pitch P.
The pitch diameter d2=d-0.640327P of the external thread can be calculated according to common knowledge, i.e. can be obtained by simple calculation from the major diameter and the pitch.
Because Y11, Y12, Y21 and Y22 measured by each section are different, when the precision requirement is not high, the parameters of the external thread can be calculated after the Y11, Y12, Y21 and Y22 are averaged; if the requirement on the detection precision is higher, the maximum value and the minimum value of Y11, Y12, Y21 and Y22 can be substituted into the calculation formulas of the major diameter and the minor diameter of the external thread to calculate, so that the value ranges of the major diameter and the minor diameter of the external thread are obtained, and the machining precision of the external thread is judged.
Example III
The detecting device of the present embodiment is different from the first embodiment in that the number and arrangement positions of the displacement sensors and the distance sensors in the test mechanism are different from those in the first embodiment. As shown in fig. 3, the displacement sensor in this embodiment includes a third displacement sensor 8, which is a laser displacement sensor, and the third displacement sensor 8 can rotate around the periphery of the part to be measured at a set radius and speed, so as to scan a cross-sectional external dimension of the part to be measured; the third driving mechanism is also provided, and the third displacement sensor 8 can move along the direction vertical to the section of the part to be tested under the driving of the third driving mechanism.
The distance sensor is provided with only the grating scale 44 in the first embodiment, and the reading head of the grating scale 44 moves along with the third displacement sensor 8 along the direction perpendicular to the section of the part to be measured, so as to measure the displacement of the third displacement sensor 8 along the direction perpendicular to the section of the part to be measured. In the embodiment, a driving mode of a motor and an eccentric shaft can be adopted to enable the third displacement sensor 8 to rotate around the periphery of the part to be tested; this structure is the prior art and will not be described in detail here.
When the detecting device of this embodiment is used to detect the external dimension of the part to be detected, the initial position of the third displacement sensor 8 is located directly above the part to be detected, and then the third displacement sensor 8 is rotated according to the set radius and speed, that is, moves according to the path S in fig. 3. Since the path and speed of the third displacement sensor 8 are known, the position of the third displacement sensor 8 can be determined from the time the third displacement sensor 8 moves. The distance between the third displacement sensor 8 and the surface of the part to be measured is measured in the movement process, and the outline dimension of one section of the part to be measured can be scanned after the third displacement sensor 8 rotates for one circle.
After the size detection of one section is completed, the third displacement sensor 8 is positioned right above the part to be detected, then the third driving mechanism enables the third displacement sensor 8 and the reading heads of the grating ruler 44 to move by delta x along the direction perpendicular to the section of the part to be detected, and the grating ruler 44 reads the displacement data and transmits the displacement data to the industrial personal computer 7. And then the third displacement sensor 8 rotates for one turn according to the path S, and the outline dimension of the section of the first delta x position of the part to be detected is scanned. And repeating the steps, scanning out n section outline dimensions of the part to be tested, obtaining a data set of n groups of section outline dimensions, and then synthesizing the whole three-dimensional outline dimensions of the part to be tested.
Of course, in order to increase the detection speed, the number of the third displacement sensors 8 may be plural, for example, four, and four third displacement sensors 8 are uniformly distributed on the path S.
While only the preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described above, it should be noted that it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and improvements can be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and these should also be considered as the scope of the invention, which does not affect the effect of the practice of the invention and the utility of the patent. The technology, shape, and construction parts omitted herein are all known in the art.

Claims (7)

1. Part overall dimension detection device, its characterized in that: comprising
The part placing rack is used for placing the part to be tested;
a testing mechanism comprising at least one displacement sensor and at least one distance sensor; the displacement sensor is used for scanning the outline dimension parameters of the part to be measured; the distance sensor is used for detecting displacement of the displacement sensor moving along the direction vertical to the section of the part to be detected after scanning one section of the part to be detected;
the device also comprises at least one driving mechanism, wherein the driving mechanism drives the part placing rack or the testing mechanism to move in a linear, plane or three-dimensional range;
the displacement sensor comprises a first displacement sensor and a second displacement sensor, and the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor are respectively positioned in opposite directions of two sides of the part placement frame; the distance sensor comprises a third distance sensor and a fourth distance sensor; the third distance sensor is used for detecting the distance between the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor in the vertical direction; the fourth distance sensor is used for detecting the transverse displacement of the first displacement sensor;
the detection method of the part outline dimension detection device comprises the following steps:
a, building a part outline dimension detection device, and connecting a sensor in the device with an industrial personal computer;
b, preparing before detection, namely placing the part to be detected on a part placing frame, wherein the detected object is external threads on the part to be detected, and adjusting the positions of the part to be detected, the displacement sensor and the distance sensor;
c, reading data Y0 of a third distance sensor, and reading the cross section outline dimension of the part to be measured when the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor are at initial positions;
the D driving mechanism drives the testing mechanism or the part placing rack to move along the direction vertical to the section of the part to be tested, and the moving distance of each time is deltax;
e, reading delta x data measured by a distance sensor; simultaneously reading a screw thread parameter Y1 on the upper surface of the part to be measured at a distance delta x position measured by a first moving sensor and a screw thread parameter Y2 on the lower surface of the part to be measured at a distance delta x position measured by a second moving sensor;
f, repeating the steps D to E until the whole outline dimension of the part to be measured is read;
g, smoothing and filtering the data measured by the read displacement sensor and the distance sensor;
h, determining parameters of the part to be detected, and specifically, identifying a tooth root value Y11 of the upper surface of the external thread and a tooth top value Y12 of the upper surface of the external thread from Y1 by the industrial personal computer; identifying a tooth root value Y21 of the lower surface of the external thread and a tooth top value Y22 of the lower surface of the external thread from Y2; calculating the major diameter d=y0- (y22+y12) of the external thread, and the minor diameter d1=y0- (y21+y11) of the external thread;
and displaying the outline dimension parameters of the part to be tested on a touch screen on the I industrial personal computer.
2. The part form factor detection device of claim 1, wherein: the driving mechanism comprises a first driving mechanism for driving the part rack to longitudinally move, a second driving mechanism for driving the part rack to vertically move and a third driving mechanism for driving the testing mechanism to transversely move.
3. The part form factor detection device of claim 1, wherein: the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor are respectively positioned at the upper side and the lower side of the part placing frame, the testing mechanism further comprises a fourth driving mechanism which enables the first displacement sensor or the second displacement sensor to vertically move, and the longitudinal position and the transverse position of the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor are relatively unchanged.
4. A part form factor detection apparatus as defined in claim 3, wherein: the fourth driving mechanism drives the first displacement sensor to vertically move, and the first displacement sensor and the second displacement sensor are laser displacement sensors; the third distance sensor is a magnetic grating ruler, and a reading head of the magnetic grating ruler moves along with the first displacement sensor; the fourth distance sensor is a grating ruler which is transversely arranged, a scale grating of the grating ruler is fixed, and a reading head of the grating ruler moves along with the first displacement sensor.
5. The part outside dimension detecting apparatus according to any one of claims 2 to 4, wherein: the first driving mechanism comprises a first guide rail, a first sliding block and a first driving module enabling the first sliding block to longitudinally slide on the first guide rail; the second driving mechanism comprises a second sliding block, a second guide rail fixedly connected with the first sliding block and a second driving module enabling the second sliding block to vertically slide on the second guide rail, and the second sliding block is fixedly connected with the part placing frame.
6. The part outside dimension detecting apparatus according to any one of claims 2 to 4, wherein: the third driving mechanism comprises a third motor and a third guide rail which is transversely arranged, and an output shaft of the third motor is coaxially connected with a third screw rod; the test mechanism further comprises a third sliding block transversely connected to the third guide rail in a sliding manner, and a third screw rod is in threaded connection with the third sliding block; the fourth driving mechanism comprises a fourth sliding block and a fourth driving module enabling the fourth sliding block to vertically move on the third sliding block; the first displacement sensor and the third distance sensor are connected with the fourth sliding block; the second displacement sensor is fixedly connected with the third sliding block; the third distance sensor is arranged on the third sliding block; the fourth driving module comprises two vertical guide posts connected to the third sliding block, the two guide posts penetrate through the fourth sliding block, a vertical fourth screw rod is connected to the third sliding block in a rotating mode, the fourth screw rod is in threaded connection with the fourth sliding block, and a fourth knob is fixedly connected to the fourth screw rod.
7. The part form factor detection device of claim 6, wherein: the industrial personal computer is electrically connected with the third motor, the first displacement sensor, the second displacement sensor, the third distance sensor and the fourth distance sensor.
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