CN1090360A - Precision structure system - Google Patents

Precision structure system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1090360A
CN1090360A CN 93119913 CN93119913A CN1090360A CN 1090360 A CN1090360 A CN 1090360A CN 93119913 CN93119913 CN 93119913 CN 93119913 A CN93119913 A CN 93119913A CN 1090360 A CN1090360 A CN 1090360A
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China
Prior art keywords
truss
framework
roof
pin
chord
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CN 93119913
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
加里·兰德尔·哈特
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Individual
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Individual
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Publication of CN1090360A publication Critical patent/CN1090360A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H12/00Towers; Masts or poles; Chimney stacks; Water-towers; Methods of erecting such structures
    • E04H12/02Structures made of specified materials
    • E04H12/08Structures made of specified materials of metal
    • E04H12/10Truss-like structures
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01DCONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES, ELEVATED ROADWAYS OR VIADUCTS; ASSEMBLY OF BRIDGES
    • E01D6/00Truss-type bridges
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/34Extraordinary structures, e.g. with suspended or cantilever parts supported by masts or tower-like structures enclosing elevators or stairs; Features relating to the elastic stability
    • E04B1/3408Extraordinarily-supported small buildings
    • E04B1/3412Extraordinarily-supported small buildings mainly supported by a central column or footing
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/35Extraordinary methods of construction, e.g. lift-slab, jack-block
    • E04B1/3511Lift-slab; characterised by a purely vertical lifting of floors or roofs or parts thereof
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B7/00Roofs; Roof construction with regard to insulation
    • E04B7/02Roofs; Roof construction with regard to insulation with plane sloping surfaces, e.g. saddle roofs
    • E04B7/022Roofs; Roof construction with regard to insulation with plane sloping surfaces, e.g. saddle roofs consisting of a plurality of parallel similar trusses or portal frames
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C3/06Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal with substantially solid, i.e. unapertured, web
    • E04C3/07Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal with substantially solid, i.e. unapertured, web at least partly of bent or otherwise deformed strip- or sheet-like material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C3/11Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal with non-parallel upper and lower edges, e.g. roof trusses
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/38Arched girders or portal frames
    • E04C3/40Arched girders or portal frames of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01DCONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES, ELEVATED ROADWAYS OR VIADUCTS; ASSEMBLY OF BRIDGES
    • E01D2101/00Material constitution of bridges
    • E01D2101/30Metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2415Brackets, gussets, joining plates
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B1/2403Connection details of the elongated load-supporting parts
    • E04B2001/2451Connections between closed section profiles
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • E04B2001/249Structures with a sloping roof
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0404Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects
    • E04C2003/0408Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by assembly or the cross-section
    • E04C2003/0413Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by assembly or the cross-section being built up from several parts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0404Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects
    • E04C2003/0408Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by assembly or the cross-section
    • E04C2003/0413Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by assembly or the cross-section being built up from several parts
    • E04C2003/0417Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by assembly or the cross-section being built up from several parts demountable
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0404Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects
    • E04C2003/0426Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by material distribution in cross section
    • E04C2003/0434Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by material distribution in cross section the open cross-section free of enclosed cavities
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0404Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects
    • E04C2003/0443Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by substantial shape of the cross-section
    • E04C2003/046L- or T-shaped
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0404Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects
    • E04C2003/0443Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by substantial shape of the cross-section
    • E04C2003/0469Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by substantial shape of the cross-section triangular-shaped
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0404Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects
    • E04C2003/0443Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by substantial shape of the cross-section
    • E04C2003/0473U- or C-shaped
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0404Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects
    • E04C2003/0443Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal beams, girders, or joists characterised by cross-sectional aspects characterised by substantial shape of the cross-section
    • E04C2003/0482Z- or S-shaped
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0486Truss like structures composed of separate truss elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C3/00Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting
    • E04C3/02Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces
    • E04C3/04Joists; Girders, trusses, or trusslike structures, e.g. prefabricated; Lintels; Transoms; Braces of metal
    • E04C2003/0486Truss like structures composed of separate truss elements
    • E04C2003/0491Truss like structures composed of separate truss elements the truss elements being located in one single surface or in several parallel surfaces

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Architecture (AREA)
  • Civil Engineering (AREA)
  • Structural Engineering (AREA)
  • Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • Electromagnetism (AREA)
  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Materials Engineering (AREA)
  • Wood Science & Technology (AREA)
  • Joining Of Building Structures In Genera (AREA)
  • Rod-Shaped Construction Members (AREA)

Abstract

A kind of structure truss that constitutes by the chord (101-110) in the truss plane, wherein each truss (101-110) has at least one hole (118) at each end, so that be connected two chords at a component node place by a holding pin (diameter in hole is no more than 1.007 with the pin diameter ratio).The chord at adjacent member node place is to the panel point that connects and composes of (101-110).Column (111-113) and pull bar (114-117) are divided into stable quadrangle with truss.

Description

Precision structure system
The present invention relates to be used for cage construction, as the improvement of the structural system and the fabric structure framework of tower and crane span structure, also comprise the improvement of manufacturing, assembling and erection technique and construction sequence aspect, it has saved time and cost greatly for the structure of numerous species and building.
The present situation that making a thorough investigation of structural system before the present invention and construction method shown prior art is as follows:
(a) many buildings and structure are used as a kind of " single-piece " (one off) project and design and build, and at this, have sacrificed the interests and the large-scale production of production run, cause that expense increases, time lengthening.
(b) structurally, the various parts of legacy system and modular system seriously interdepend, and for example, base and floor-supporting wallboard, and wallboard is supporting the roof.This dependence has reduced the flexibility of design and has increased cost.
(c) building of " system builds up " and " the whole series are built up " still needs a large amount of skilled manual work, and this is the principal element that influences building cost, particularly in the outlying district.
(d) roof in the building or wallboard use the pre-manufactured steel truss more at large in recent years, yet still leave some room for improvement in the design of point of contact, and will build a simple place that can be used for the package system truss and can conveniently transport.
(e) the pre-manufactured steel truss that uses in building has two types, i.e. welding or bolted, each all has himself excellent, shortcoming, but they all use the connecting structure of rigidity, that is to say owing to reducing moment of flexure makes member determine that the efficient of size reduces, and they all need special equipment, and particularly the truss that connects than king-bolt will use the friction grip bolt at this moment on the gusset tie point.These truss all do not use simple single pin to connect and are rotatably connected.
(f) in many cases, the roof design of building does not become " specific " (" add hoc ") because of it is not regarded as absolute construction, and its bearing position is definite by building layout, and does not consider the efficient of roof structure self more.In most of the cases, further make reconstruction become difficult and expensive owing to use too many supporting member.
(g) construction on roof is to carry out in its last eminence position with few exceptions, i.e. operation aloft so necessity and expensive safety precautions have increased the expense of building, and also will be used crane to bigger roof component.
(h) construction method normally order build, wherein the roof is just to install near the centre of building cycle or when finishing, and this means that before the roof builds up building time can incur loss through delay because of rain, snow, wind, strong daylight etc.
(i) said system is too complicated, can not dismantle easily and reset, and is particularly all the more so to unskilled personnel.
(j) whole system is still too expensive.
At the problems referred to above, main purpose of the present invention is:
(a) provide a kind of precision structure system, it is comprised that by all personnel of builing industry architect, engineer, businessman and end user are familiar with easily, and to the building of many types and structure cost saving and construction time greatly.
(b) provide a kind of architectural structural system of standard, wherein, the structure dependence of each removable part of building is dropped to minimum degree, like this, each removable part comprises that roof, floor, wallboard and furniture all have economically benefit aspect design and/or the construction method, is the no-load supporting and can reorientates when increasing requiring that functional adaptation changes all the more so at wallboard especially.
(c) provide a kind of architectural structural system of standard, it is designed to be easy to understood by the roustabout and assemble, thereby will reduce the expense of making, particularly in the outlying district.
(d) provide a kind of architectural structural system of standard, its uses and simply to be easy to the on-the-spot steel truss that transports and the framework basic structural components as system, these truss can be easily by the standard steel section manufacturing, and assembles three-dimensional framework by the fixing truss that intersects in Different Plane.
(e) provide a kind of architectural structural system of standard, in this system, the structure design of basic truss uses the geometry of the truss of list pin to make that the length manufacturing tolerance of parts no longer is crucial for load merogenesis correct in the truss by replacing welding or many bolts to link with simple single pin binding and improving greatly.
(f) provide a kind of architectural structural system of standard, wherein roof design is a kind of structure independent and independent utility, owing to used the intersection truss, frame construction becomes a kind of very effective shape, thereby can use the pillar of minimum number, the cost that this has improved the function of total and has greatly reduced renewal, and the roof framework volume inside can be as the life zone.
(g) provide a kind of architectural structural system of standard, wherein roof or floor system are built on ground or near the place, ground, comprise the installation of whole roofs baffle plate, top board, beam, gutter channel, gable termination, ventilation opening, isolation layer and hydroelectric line, promote and fix it then on the final position on the pillar of truth of a matter amount, also can be with the interim lifting means of pillar supporting, this mounting method is more safer than overhead installation, expense is more economical.
(h) provide a kind of architectural structural system of standard, its construction sequence is that the roof at first is installed, thereby other operation can be carried out under hiding, this has reduced total set-up time and has reduced the operation of dependence " scene " transaction, for example hydroelectric line can the fluid concrete floor the time be installed in the roof space.
(i) provide a kind of architectural structural system of standard, it can make the rawness personnel dismantle easily, re-assembly and use another set of pillar to assemble at another diverse location.
(j) provide a kind of precision structure system that can reduce expense greatly.
For the present invention can at length be understood, preferred embodiment is described referring now to accompanying drawing.Wherein:
Fig. 1 to 71 expression two-dimentional truss geometry of the present invention and node;
Figure 72 to 78 expression three-dimensional truss geometry of the present invention and node;
The fabric structure that Figure 79 to 105 expression designs according to the present invention and possible application thereof, and represented various structural series.
Fig. 1 is the stereogram of a two-dimentional truss, and it comprises the flute profile chord 101-110 that forms rectangle truss periphery.Flute profile column 111-113 further is subdivided into unsettled quadrangle with the closed area of truss, is rectangle at this, and flute profile pull bar 114-117 is subdivided into stable quadrangle with these unsettled shapes again.
Can see, each member and another member link to each other by the hole 118 of a pin or bolt (not shown) being inserted the aligning in these two members an independent position, at this, one the pin or bolt only a member is fixed on the other member.
In Fig. 1, can see, all members all are flute profile materials, the pin or the effect of bolt are that the lateral surface with the flute profile belly is clamped together and forms coplane and connects, but still can carry out angle adjustment by winding perpendicular to the pin on member and truss plane or the rotation of bolt axis between two members.The clamping means that make member keep coplane to connect with pin are that each end that is preferably in pin has screw thread, and nut may be screwed on the two ends of pin, and at this, the packing ring of adequate thickness guarantees that the hole wall in the member is bearing in pin or bolt does not have on the part of screw thread.
According to Fig. 1, pin or the bolt cross section vertical with the longitudinal axis is preferably circular, so that insert in the circular hole of member, at this, the ratio in aperture and pin footpath is less than 1.007.
Can see by Fig. 1, at least two members and maximum five members interrupt in the zone of a node of what is called limited or that limit, for example, two members 101 link to each other at single pin joint place with 110, three members 109,110 and 114 have formed a double-pin joint, four members 101,102,111 and 114 form one three pin joint, and five members 102,103,112,115 and 116 then form one four pin joint.The aperture of the pin in each member is preferably on the longitudinal axis of member.
Can be explained by Fig. 1 to be known as progressively firm assembling sequence, it shows that the member length between the center, hole is unimportant for the non-stress assembly, and term " precision " structural system is finger-hole, pin (cooperation) tolerance than less than 1.007.This has prevented the excessive deformation when changing load or load transformation.At first, member 101,109,110 and 111 is connected into a rectangle, then this rectangle is pushed into the pitch-row of a parallelogram and equate apart from strictness with the centre bore of member 114 up to member 101 and 109 with four pins from the assembling of left hand end.This progressively firm process repeats by increasing member 102,108 and 112 subsequently, and it has constituted another rectangle, and makes it stable by this rectangle being pushed into a parallelogram and adding pull bar 115.Repeat this process, up to being assembled into overall truss.Note also that pin connects and only to require its excessive deformation that can prevent load truss under the effect of shearing force get final product, this be since closely hole-pin tolerance cause with the vertical load that acts on the component wall on the pin face.Usually, in such truss, a member is fixed to the friction grip bolt on another member and surpasses pin size 1mm or 2mm(rather than 0.1mm by using~0.2mm) hole can make the distortion of truss obtain restriction.In more than describing, the carrying of truss and distortion are to make trussmember produce the vertical load of vertical displacement based on the vertical supporting of member 110 and 105 belows and the top that acts on member 111,112 and 113.
Truss stable also partly owing to extend into the continuity and the rigidity of end of some members of adjacent quadrangular from a quadrangle, for example, have three holes on the end of member 102, and end 102A between member 102 and these stomidiums and 102B are an integral body, this globality has promoted member 101 together with truss geometry one works, 102,115,108,109 and 111 polygons that define are with respect to member 102A, 112,108 and 115 polygonal the stablizing of defining, and can see, the end of these rigidity can make the member contact be positioned within the length range of tetragonal any side, and do not make the truss unstability, for example, member 102 links to each other with member 103 in the length of polygonal top margin, and polygon 102B, 103A, 116,107,108 and 112 keep stable, part is because the end 102B and the 103A of continuous rigidity partly are because the truss geometry.Can also see that end 102B needn't become delegation with 103A, and this polygon 102B, 103A, 116,107,108 and 112 can think a hexagon.
Figure 1A has represented the application of the long-pending chord of nested Z-section and flute profile column and pull bar, and Figure 1B has then represented nested flute profile chord and the flute profile pull bar and the column that can use in truss shown in Figure 1.Certainly any type of cross section can use to(for) each member comprises dihedral material, T shape material and hollow section, connects as long as can form coplane between member.
It is contemplated that by Fig. 1,1A and 1B length by changing member and the angle between member can be assembled into the truss of different shape, comprise triangle, arc, arch etc.
Fig. 2 to 4 has represented several other truss geometries, and wherein chord is not to form periphery in line, and column and pull bar have the hole more than in each end, yet only connects two members in any pin place in all cases.
Fig. 2 also can be assembled according to progressively firm mode to the truss of Fig. 4.
Fig. 5, Fig. 6 have represented the diagram layout of two-dimentional truss, wherein the node location shown in great circle 501,502 and 601 have one with two member nodes of a pin and one only with three member nodes of a pin.Represent three members, a pin joint at the node place of the small circle that does not have straight line to pass, the small circle that has straight line to pass is then represented two members, a pin joint.
Fig. 7 represents to use the node 501 of angle chord 701,702 and brail 703 or 601 three-dimensional exploded view.
Node 501 when Fig. 8 is to use the chord 801,802 of Z-section and flute profile pull bar 803 or 601 three-dimensional view.
Can also see that by Fig. 5-8 two pull bars can be located to be fixed to chord on one point and separate on a plurality of chords that are connected, thereby eliminate the bending of member.
Fig. 9,10 has represented the diagram layout of two-dimentional truss, and wherein all members at node 901 or 1001 places are all only connected by a pin, and it has eliminated the bending of all members.
Figure 11 has represented that one four member in Fig. 9 or 10, single pin joint 901 or 1001 use the exploded perspective view of dihedral chord 1101 and dihedral pull bar 1102.This figure also shows, pin 1103 has the screw thread 1104 of clamping and nut 1105 in its end.Chord has hole 1106, and pull bar has hole 1107, and node is along axis 1108 assemblings.These chords have longitudinal axis 1109, and pull bar has longitudinal axis 1110, and axis 1109,1110 and assembling axis 1108 intersect.
Figure 12 has represented one the four nested Z-section chord of member list pin nodal plate in Fig. 9 or 10 and the situation of flute profile pull bar.Pin among Figure 11 and clamping action nut all are representational for Fig. 1-12.
In Fig. 1-4, independent pin is only fixed two members at a single pin joint or multi-pin joint place, in Fig. 5-8 at the fixing at least member more than two of a single pin joint or the pin in multi-pin joint place; In Fig. 9-12, an independent pin is being fixed all members on a node.
Figure 13 is the exploded perspective view of one four member list pin joint, and it uses along the flute profile truss 1301 and the flute profile pull bar 1302 of axis 1303 assemblings, and this moment, the end of these members was cut into the oblique angle, is not subjected to the influence at edge so that can form the coplane connection of belly.
Figure 14 is the three-dimensional view of the decomposition of one four member list pin joint, and wherein flute profile truss 1401 and flute profile pull bar 1402 are assembled along axis 1404, and need not remove any part of member by using pad 1403.
Figure 15 has introduced the notion that has more than the member of a face in this example, pillar 1501 has the hole 1502 of alignment respectively in two relative parallel surfaces, unitary pin is passed column 1501 and two flute profile chords 1503 or one or two flute profile pull bar 1504 are fixed.
Figure 16 and Figure 15 are similar, and different is, and it has used two cover chords, with in column 1601 by chord 1602 and 1603 and pull bar 1604 reaction torque load is provided.
Figure 17 has represented the section bar of a roll extrusion or extrusion molding, and it has three vertical two dimensional surfaces, has the hole of alignment on the face, be used for being connected with other member coplane.
Figure 18 has represented to have the rolling forming section bar of four vertical two dimensional surfaces, has the hole of alignment on these four planes, is used for being connected with other member coplane.
Figure 19 represents the exploded perspective view of a roll extrusion or extrusion molding member 1901, this member has four vertical planes, hollow square cross section chord that aligns with it 1902, a hollow square cross section column 1903 and a square hollow section pull bar 1904, these hollow square section structural members are contained within the edge of member 1901 smoothly, with the common connection of two opposite faces of realizing each hollow square section structural member.
Figure 20 has represented one four member list pin joint, and its uses a telescopic or telescopically to be embedded in a big-and-middle short side tee section chord 2002, interior hollow square cross section chord 2001, and two flute profile pull bars 2003 are also along bearing pin 2004 assemblings.
Figure 21 has represented one four member, three pin joints, wherein, hollow square section structural member 2101 is sleeved in the channel 2102 and is connected on the pin, and the cross section column 2103 of the square or rectangle of a hollow and pull bar 2104 each be connected within the chord 2102 independently on the pin position.
Figure 22 has represented that a kind of two dimensional surface of flute profile chord 2201 of expanding is so that connect the method for flute profile chord 2202, it is that two pins of a flat board 2203 usefulness are fixed on the channel 2201 rigidly, flute profile pull bar 2204 also connects thereon, thereby forms one four member double-pin joint.
Figure 23 has represented a kind of method of expanding two relative walls of hollow square cross section chord 2301, and it is that two pins of channel 2302 usefulness that length is short are fixed on 2301 rigidly.Aligned hole in the flute profile expansion of square hollow section chord is used to connect another one chord 2303 and pull bar 2304.
Figure 24 has represented a single pin joint, wherein four members end face and part of bottom surface by removing chord 2401,2402 and pull bar 2403 all can reach with two coplanes of other member and be connected, and remaining sidewall is then as the expansion of the hollow square section structural member wall of coplane.
Figure 22-24 has represented to reach by the component wall of expansion several distinct methods of single face or the connection of multiaspect coplane.
Figure 25,26 illustrates the layout of the truss geometry of using five members, four pin joints and four members, three pin joints, and Figure 27,28 has then represented the details of these nodes.
Figure 27 is the details of node 2601 among node 2501 or Figure 26 among Figure 25, and wherein member 2502 or 2602 is a double flute member 2701 in Figure 27, and the aligned hole in the double flute truss 2701 is connected with hole in hollow square cross section chord, column and the pull bar respectively.
Figure 28 and Figure 27 are similar, just Figure 28 is the node 2503 of one four member, three pin joints or the exploded view of 2603 anti position, wherein, a member is actually two flute profile chords 2801, and it is connected on the discrete pin mutually with hollow square cross section chord 2802 and pull bar 2803.Also show bolt among Figure 28 or sell 2804, binding nut 2805 and an inside sleeve gasket 2806 that is contained in the hollow square cross section chord 2802.
Figure 29-34 has represented the geometry of several other nodes, and they have the member of different numbers, different component form and pins, wherein, has at least a member to be replaced by two members that are spaced laterally apart.
Figure 29 is illustrated in the situation that chord uses as two members in the three pin connections.
Figure 30 is illustrated in the situation that pull bar uses as two members in the three pin connections.
Figure 31 is illustrated in three pins and connects the situation that B-C post uses as two members.
Figure 32 is illustrated in the situation that chord uses as two members in the double-pin connection.
Figure 33 is illustrated in the situation that chord is to use as two members in single pin connection.
Can see that by Figure 29-33 any truss, column or pull bar member all can be replaced by two members that are spaced laterally apart by different component forms and joint form.
Figure 34 has represented and hollow square cross section chord 3402, the applicable cases of two hollow squares cross section chord 3401 that column 3403 and pull bar 3404 use together, Figure 34 has also represented the application of inspecting hole 3405 and the inspecting hole 3406 in the groove 3407 that dots, and they can provide access for pin or bolt clamp mechanism.
Figure 35-39 has represented the whole bag of tricks that single or two member is strengthened or reinforced.
Figure 35 has represented a single channel member 3501, and it has 3502, four bolts of a stiffener or screw rod 3503 is fixed on its edge.
Figure 36 has represented a double flute shape member 3601, and it is reinforced by plate 3602, and each member is by two bolts or screw rod 3603 and this plate 3602 is fixed on the edge of member.
Figure 37 is illustrated in its two ends are fixed on a double flute shape member 3701 on the square hollow section member 3703 by single pin 3702 plan view, wherein, have strong market potential or bolt 3704 is striden frame between the hole at each member center of this double flute shape member for one, the threaded length of pin on 3704 should be able to make that channel member 3701 is stressed separately and by nut or jam nut 3705 to remain on stressed case of bending, this effect can be adjusted form or direction that each channel member transverse bending lost efficacy, and increases the axial compression ability of double flute shape member.
Figure 38 is similar to Figure 37, and different is in Figure 38, and central pin, nut and jam nut force double flute shape member to enter coplane in the middle part to be connected, and same can adjusting form or direction that transverse bending lost efficacy, increases compressed capability simultaneously.
Figure 39 is the plan view of the double flute shape member that has an intermediate pin in Figure 37,38.In this example, intermediate pin can produce a prestressing force in cable or metal tape 3901, and this cable also is to be connected on the pin tie point of channel member, square hollow section member.Like this, a kind of useful stress and/or the restraint forces of transverse movement are provided just for double flute shape member by the pressure that outside motion produced of nut 3902 on the pin screw thread.
Figure 40,41 has represented the geometry of truss, wherein the zone line at truss has additional node, and these nodes are to be placed on the periphery of truss or near periphery, can are the node and the member of aforesaid arbitrary type at this all node and member in traditional Howe, Pratt, Fink, Warren type truss.
Note, in Figure 40,41, do not intersect between the member.
Figure 42-45 has represented various truss geometries, one of them member can from other member next door or between process.
Figure 42,43 has represented the geometry of single pin truss, one of them from other member next door or between the member of process represent by a semi-ring that is positioned in the middle of this leement duration, to be different from the small circle that is positioned at its end.
Figure 44 has represented a truss geometry, and the square or rectangular hollow cross section pull bar 4401 that wherein replaces is from replacing process between the double flute shape member 4402, and the formed truss of the latter is unfixed In the view of those of ordinary skills.
Figure 45 represents to be used for a double-pin node geometry of truss, wherein the hollow section pull bar 4501 of two rectangles in its end, node place by means of the lateral separation process from the side mutually because the width of the hollow section pull bar 4501 of rectangle is half of hollow section chord 4503 of rectangle.Hole and/or bolt hole 4502 can be realized a kind of slip or fixedly connected in its center or near the center between pull bar, this connection will help to reduce the actual flexion length of pressured state lower link, and when the pull bar tension, laterodeviation does not take place with supporting rod or restriction pull bar in it.
Figure 46 has represented to have realized a kind of pin or bolted method between two channel members 4601, Figure 46 is a sectional drawing, and it also expresses the pin or the bolt 4602 of the threaded end of a head with expansion 4603,4604, a packing ring 4605 and a nut 4606.
Can be seen that by Figure 46 the ontology representation of pin 4602 has become a cone, the external surface that will make pin of tightening of nut 4606 props up on the hole face that comes in the left hand channel member, thereby causes the precision-fit in bolt and hole.Obviously also can use a kind of cylinder bolt that has the standard swaging.The effect of pin or bolt is with a power the isoplanar surface of member to be clamped together among Figure 46, and this power equals the restraint forces of resistant members wall lateral deformation, but they allow a member to rotate in the plane of other member at truss.This pin or bolt only can be used for can not being used under the tension state under the shearing condition.
Figure 47 and Figure 46 are similar, and difference is in the sectional view of Figure 47, and two single pins or bolt are used in the member more than a plane, for example in the hollow section member 4701 of rectangle.The connection type that provides in Figure 46,47 is called constraint and connects, because the lateral deformation of the wall of tubular or channel member has been limited.
Figure 48 is the sectional view that a rectangular hollow section structural member is kept or be connected to the separate pins connection on outer panel or the component surface.Side leftward, lag bolt 4801 is endured wall 4803, an overdimensioned packing ring 4804 of plate or member 4802, rectangular hollow section structural member by the outside and is entered in the nut 4805, its middle washer and nut can be an integral body, and can be fixed on the inside wall of pipe.At right-hand side, bolt 4806 is from location, the inboard of pipe, passes a packing ring 4807, tube wall 4808, plate or member 4809, another packing ring 4810 and a nut 4811.When the assembling truss, the nut that can arrest at Figure 48 left-hand side is easy to place most, in then the easiest assembling of right-hand side.The head of clamping nut 4806 in pipe fitting may be difficult, and for this reason, solution is to use a kind of special bolts among Figure 49 or a kind of special pad among Figure 50.
In Figure 49, an assembling bolt comprises one threaded 4902 bar or sells 4901 that it passes a flat board 4903 and fixing by welding point 4904.This slab supporting medium and can prevent that when being screwed to the nut (not shown) on the screw thread 4902 shotpin 4901 rotates on the inside top surface or bottom surface of pipe fitting.
Equally, the channel section pad 5001 of a weak point will be clamped the head of standard bolt all the time and rest on the top or bottom inner face of pipe fitting in Figure 50, thereby prevent the rotation of the nut that is threaded.
Figure 51 is the sectional view of a square hollow section member 5101, and it has two other channel member 5102 and is used for single pin 5103 that pivoting is connected these two channel members with one.Nut 5104 is being fixed two tie points, yet these two points are also unfettered, be that square hollow section wall energy reaches under load to internal strain, these two tie points are limited can resembling among Figure 52, Figure 52 and Figure 51 are similar, difference is also to have one among Figure 52 on the pin or around pin and be positioned at the sleeve within the pipe or extend pad 5201, is used to prevent inside wall distortion.
Figure 53-the 55th, the schematic diagram of truss layout, it shows that member or two member are enough wide, wherein has the hole that is used to connect other member, these holes be not on its longitudinal axis particularly some hole on axis perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.Figure 53 has represented wide chord, and Figure 54 has represented wide pillar, and Figure 55 then shows wide pull bar.
Figure 56 has represented a wide column tie point that is similar to the decomposition of Figure 54, and its central post is two wide channels 5601, and chord is square hollow section member 5602, and pull bar is square hollow section member 5603.
Figure 57-58 expression member is changed its normal straight microscler shape or crooked and variety of way that use when making a kind of member continue to become another member part.
Figure 57 is a schematic layout pattern, and wherein, column is reconfigured and becomes the part of truss in its end.Identical therewith, Figure 58 is two member flute profile pull bars of a reorganization, and it has constituted the part of peripheral chord.
Figure 59-63 expression is rigidly connected to the application of each component ends with separating plate that the means that connect other member are provided.
Figure 59 expresses two rigidity and is soldered to plate 5901 on the square hollow section pillar 5902, and wherein, square hollow section chord 5903 and pull bar 5904 are had strong market potential by one or two short pins are connected on the hole of aliging in the plate.
Figure 60 is the diagram of a truss, and wherein, column has the plate that is fixed on its top and bottom, and chord and pull bar then are connected on the plate at the tie point place that separates.
Figure 61 is the three-dimensional view of a square hollow section truss, and wherein plate 6101 is connected on the column 6102 rigidly by two bolts, and chord 6103 and pull bar 6104 are connected on the hole of aliging in the plate.
Figure 62 is the end-view of Figure 61, and wherein represented plate 6101 can form an angle by the top margin along plate and obtain reinforcing or strengthening, to resist the distortion that plate is taken place when plate transmits chord load better.
Figure 63 is the three-dimensional view that a node decomposes, and wherein, plate is the square channel, and it is rigidly fixed on the hollow section column of rectangle by two bolts.
Figure 64-the 66th is for resisting or stoping the moment of flexure that is produced by the service load that is applied on member and the node to form the whole bag of tricks of bending moment force.
In Figure 64, vertical arrow between the node is represented the weight avenged or wind action power put on chord by stringer, beam etc. load, acting in these chords of these non-panel loads can produce a moment of flexure, determine the size of member so these load must be combined with axial load in the chord, to resist these compound load.Yet, if member is an arc, shown in the left-hand side of Figure 64, perhaps resembling at right-hand side is crooked shown, so, it is a kind of to the reaction force by the moment of flexure that axial load produced that skew between the axis between member axis and pivot hole just provides, and this means to use undersized member to resist combined load.
In Figure 65, also can reach identical effect by simply its longitudinal axis being departed from the hole in the member.
Figure 66 and Figure 65 are similar, just in Figure 66 by a suitable mechanism, can reach a bigger offset distance thereby near the plate for example pivot hole increases the thickness of member.
Member in the more previously described truss of Figure 67-71 expression is how only can bear tensile load, and this class A of geometric unitA is steel pole or rope for example, and the pressure loading that it bore is very little, can ignore.
In Figure 67, that the right-hand side of truss uses only is tensile member AB, CD, DF and BE, at this moment, if truss only is supported in its end points G and N, and loading straight down is on node A, D and E, so only member CD and BE tension and member AB and DF pressurized, but they can not bear pressure are so that member AB and DF become is unnecessary, otherwise, when on node C, B, F or A, D, E, having load upwards, member AB and DF tension, it is unnecessary that member CD and BE become.In Figure 67, all chord members all will bear as pillar component AC, the DB on right side and EF and draw, press two kinds of stress.Side leftward, all pull bar member AH, HI, IJ, IK, KL and LM all will bear tensile stress and compressive stress, yet, if the load-up condition on the truss be load react never and vertical load on node M, K and I always downward, member AH, IJ and KL will always be in tension state so, so they can be bar or the cables that is only stretched.The connection on an independent plane of above-mentioned bar that is only stretched or cable can be fixed on the bar 6802 piece plate 6801 by one and realize, shown in Figure 68, its mesopore 6803 is parts that node connects.Figure 69 has represented a U-shaped support bindiny mechanism, it will be connected by the member of tensile force only with two common (putting down) face surfaces at a square hollow node place, wherein, support 6901 links to each other with bar with nut 6903 on being screwed to bar screw thread 6904 by a hole 6902, and hole 6905 then is connected on one or more node pins.
Figure 70 and 71 has represented two different trussed constructions, it uses the U-shaped support shown in Figure 69 be connected on the contact by the member of tensile force, wherein, this support can also carry out length adjustment by the screw thread among Figure 69 6904 and 6903 pairs of bars that only stretched of nut.Can also see that by Figure 70,71 the top chord no longer needs to be interrupted at the node place, because only be subjected to the length adjustment of tension force will allow nonreinforcement to assemble.
Can see referring to Figure 67 again, stand connection among Figure 68,69 is when being used for the right-hand side of truss, pivoting between it and column and the chord connects, can realize rotating between all members or angle adjustment, promptly chord AD and pull bar AB, CD and column AC adjust towards pull bar CD and AB and chord AD and CB.It is also conceivable that in some cases the length of pressing/drawing member need be adjustable,, make between all members and can rotate adjusting that then above-mentioned length adjustment just can reach in any suitable method as long as foregoing.
Figure 72-74 expresses and is utilized as the common member of a plurality of truss, thereby how can connect or intersect a plurality of aforesaid truss forms a three-dimensional framework.
Figure 72 is the schematic form of a truss, and how expression chord, column or pull bar can reach outside the node so that a kind of truss method of attachment to be provided on another plane.Pillar that stretches out of node 7201 expressions in Figure 72 is to form another tie point, tie point within strut length of node 7202 expressions.
Figure 73 represents a three-dimensional framework node, wherein, a shared square hollow section pillar 7301 has been in one direction for the double flute shape chord 7302 in the panel point, square hollow section chord 7303 provide a kind of means that are connected with pull bar 7304, and also provides a kind of means that are connected at the inboard double flute shape chord 7305 in the panel point, a square hollow section chord 7306 given in second plane perpendicular to first plane with pull bar 7307.
Figure 74 is similar to Figure 73, and different is to have used angular member in Figure 74, and a shared corniform upright column 7401 provides the connection pivot hole to panel point on both direction.
Figure 75-78 has represented the polylith plate is connected to method on the total member of two or more truss in Different Plane.In Figure 75, two boards 7501 is rigidly connected to the bottom of shared pillar 7502, and wherein, these two can make square hollow section chord 7503 and pull bar 7504 be connected on the shared column on the same level at the plate that is connected with floor on the second direction.
Figure 76 represent four independently plate 7601 by two firm shapes of bolt be connected on the shared column 7602, square hollow section chord 7603 links to each other with two high-order plates with pull bar 7604, chord 7605 then links to each other with the low level plate with pull bar 7606.
Figure 77,78 has represented two kinds of other methods of attachment, wherein, can be connected on the shared column on the same level from the chord and the pull bar of Different Plane direction.Among Figure 77, two flat boards 7701 pass two frids 7702, and they can interconnect, and also can not be connected.In Figure 78, two platelets 7801 pass two blocks of big plates 7802.
How Figure 79-105 expression comes construction framework and building frame with plane frame described in Fig. 1-78 and three-dimensional framework, and method that it shows the target of saving time of realizing that the present invention will reach and cost is i.e. novelty practicality again.
Figure 79 represents two parallel truss 7901 are connected on two triangular trusses 7902 at least, so that a kind of method of the building frame especially for the roof to be provided, wherein purlin 7903 links to each other at an angle of 90 with the top chord of triangular truss, and the metal roof baffle plate 7904 of moulding or tile are fixed on the purlin to replenish the gap between the purlin.This room fixed structure can be sling then and is connected on the pillar 7905 in ground assembling.
Can be seen by Figure 79, anyly all will at first be delivered to English truss by purlin from the vertical load that acts on the roof such as wind or snow, English truss is on its loading transfer to two parallel string truss, and then with load through struts transmit to ground.The level that any horizontal load is decided the iris action of baffle plate by the room or is fixed on the Any shape between the truss draws (support) bar to bear, and they are passed to pillar and turn back to ground again.This pillar is preferably designed as the independent stationary support, does not just need tie rod (bar) like this under the plane of truss bottom chord.
Can also know that by Figure 79 the frame assembly notion is different from more common and more sequacious portal frame layout fully.If the frame layout shown in Figure 79 is the industrial plant of one 40 meters long (length of longitudiual truss 7901) 20 meters wide (width of transverse truss 7902), with the overhang bracket of a pillar on each transverse truss 7902, and save longitudiual truss this will be normal and it seems more reasonable, this will mean that the span of truss is 20m rather than 40m, and purlin is 8m in the span of 7902 of truss.As if this must be the rational structure layout apparently, yet find through many analyses, and when having only the length of structure to be not more than 2.5 times of its width, the structural framing among Figure 79 is only more effective on cost.Its reason is as follows:
1. transverse truss is bearing on its 1/4 span or can be more effective on the appropriate location time, thereby the cantilever beam action can reduce the load of member and reduce the size of member like this.
2. at this four pillars only being arranged, then is ten pillars in the portal frame system, and the expense of saving 1 to 2 pillar then is enough to surpass the cost of two longitudiual truss, particularly in the assembling of ground.
Can understand that by Figure 79 wherein do not comprise all framing components that reach complete stability, for example the cross-tie of longitudiual truss (bar) does not illustrate.
Can use vertical wind truss or reach above-mentioned stability by the spacer function of roof baffle plate.If describe, have been found that auxiliary longitudiual truss just needs when the width of transverse truss surpasses 50m, and the limit that the length of truss has a practicality is 80m in conjunction with the real size of 4 pillar constructions.Under above-mentioned yardstick, a kind of 7 or 8m is wide, 10-16m is long house size be particularly suitable for geometry in particular of the present invention (structure).Obviously, frame geometry of the present invention is applicable to the building of numerous types, and four pillars can provide in building and are 4000m to the maximum 2Or 1 acre expedite huge free space.
Figure 80 represents how the room fixed structure does not rely on floor, wall and furniture and construct, and user's pipeline is how to enter within the upright supports so that form grid in the scope of space under the house decided in the room.In Figure 80, pillar 8001 is supporting room fixed structure 8002, and at this, the sectional view of Figure 80 also can be corresponding with Figure 79, and be connected with supply pipe 8003 in the pillar.Also show floor 8004 among Figure 80, can see, floor 8004 is totally independent of pillar and roof structure.Also show three kinds of dissimilar wallboards 8005,8006 and 8007 among the figure, its deadlight 8005 is by its pin that has or the bar that stretches out from it location, and they are inserted into respectively in the hole of top board and reach in the hole on floor.Wallboard 8006 is fixed on top board and the floor by channel member, wherein, this wallboard can be inserted in the channel by lateral location, perhaps the groove of top channel is than the groove depth of bottom channel, so just can make wallboard by upwards and descending motion and locating, this also will produce a kind of being slidingly connected on the top board plane, also can use two dihedral side plates that wallboard is fixed on the floor surface.Wallboard 8007 is different from above-mentioned two kinds of wallboards on principle, it is suspended on the roof structure, and has a kind of sliding connection structure on the floor level.Also show an active cabinet 8008 among Figure 80, it also can be used as wallboard.Under the floor, show an excretory system 8009, its vertical tube reaches floor, yet also note that, underground excretory duct be can remove and little segregation pump (macerator pump) and little discharge pipe on ground, used, these devices can be used as holistic wallboard, positioner and drainage pump unit and provide and install, and assemble in advance in factory.
Since Figure 80 has represented that the room is fixed, the independence of floor, wallboard and furniture, explain construction sequence so be necessary to get back to Figure 79, therefrom can see, ground strut is positioned at outside the plane domain on whole roof, and the roof can sling and be fixed on the pillar before on ground or near ground, build and finish, comprise structure between all baffle plates, gutter channel, dish seat surface, ventilation opening, insulation layer, lining, gable termination, skylight, user's pipeline and loft.
Can know that by Figure 79 preferably the roof only is bearing on four pillars, respectively there is a pillar end of promptly parallel chord truss.Can be seen also that by Figure 79 the phase I of construction sequence is to make the roof, other work such as floor, wallboard and supporting facility can cover the condition of the sun, rain, snow etc. on the roof and descend to finish, thereby will significantly reduce the construction time.
Also know by Figure 79,80, this structure not only is fit to make simultaneously wallboard, but also being adapted at the room in factory-assembled whole room, particularly wet area, this room can be transported shows up and is slipped into position between ceiling (top board) and the floor by side direction.Can also know that these are not that the prefabricated wallboard known at a glance and/or room are worthwhile in the economy of design from Figure 79 and 80, this is discrete because of roof, floor and wallboard, i.e. floor supporting wall plate not, and wallboard does not support the roof yet.
Figure 81 represents how to utilize difform truss and builds multi-form roof, and wherein two vertical roof trusses 8101 and five transverse truss 8102,8103,8104,8105 and 8106 intersect.Transverse truss 8102 is identical with 8106 and link to each other with the leg-of-mutton top of longitudiual truss 8101 and from the purlin of holland type gable end.Truss 8103 is identical with 8105, and its bottom truss leads to a leg-of-mutton gable truss 8107.Experienced roof construction person is easy to understand, the framework shown in Figure 81 gives oblique ridge and triangle building, room paddy, holland type gable, roll over roof and roof (daylighting) window again provides basic member.Figure 81 has also represented to be used to support the ground plate girder 8108 of floor stringer 8109.Roof truss 8101 and ground plate girder 8108 are by pillar 8110 supportings of free-standing.When as a building structure, the typical sizes of Figure 81 will be to be 6-8m between the lateral struts, be 6-10m between the vertical pillar.
Figure 82 and 87 has represented the order of structure building, wherein assembles roof 8201 between pillar on ground, and pillar 8202 is the extension of the column of hole pier 8203.
In Figure 83, the roof is raised and be fixed on its final position, and in Figure 84, first floor/top board unit is assembled, and is raised in Figure 85.
Second floor/top board unit is assembled among Figure 86, and raised in Figure 87.
Figure 88 represents how to use the floor in the roof structure 8801 suspention tier buildings.Figure 88 is a sectional view, and its B-C post 8802 is fixed on the base 8803, and roof structure 8801 is promoted to its final position and is fixed on the pillar after the assembling of ground.Preferably realize its stability with four pillars 8802 at least.After roof structure 8801 is raised, can suspend the assembling and by suspension cable 8805 floor 8804 is fixed on it.In the same manner, floor/top board structure 8806 can and rise to its final position in the ground assembling, after the floor 8804 of having assembled on the ground is raised, can support it.The thickness of floor 8806 assemblies can change between 0.5-3m.When thickness was big, this floor can be used for holding air-conditioning or elevating mechanism, and this moment, building unit can not influence the life zone.The wallboard 8807 of any kind shown in Figure 88 can be installed after having built roof and floor.
In Figure 88, the floor of bottom be open wide or be used for the parking lot.If by this way floor panel assembly 8804 is suspended in midair, especially working as floor panel assembly 8804 is light weight, and for example the lightweight prefabricated concrete elements so, will reduce the cost of multistory building greatly.
Figure 89 has represented the details of a building, and its uses a roof structure 8901 that only is supported on a centre strut 8902 and the base 8903.Shown in Figure 89, light floor 8904 is being hung by rope or bar 8905 by rope or bar 8904, and it is described to press Figure 88, and they can be assembled on the ground, are sling by the stagewise elevator on roof then.
Wallboard 8906 can be installed between roof structure 8901 and the floor 8904 or two layers of floor 8904 between, and these wallboards 8906 can shelter rope or bar 8905, change end or edge that kind of mode wallboard 8907 also can be fixed to floor 8904.
Can be connected on the other strangulation base 8909 at auxiliary ropes between lower floor and the ground or bar 8808.
Can also know from Figure 89,, be fixed on erection loop on the pillar 8902 or bearing 8910 and will make roof structure 8901, floor 8904, rope 8905 and the wallboard 8906,8907 of assembling can be around the rotational of pillar 8902 if rope 8908 does not connect.Turnover stair 8911 can be connected on the rotation floor or around the geometrical stair of pillar 8902.Can make supply pipe 8912 be fixed within the pillar 8902 or make supply pipe 8913 flexibly around pillar 8902 and be positioned within the protective sleeve 8914.
Figure 90 has further represented the details in the house of a pillar among Figure 89, and Figure 90 is the three-dimensional view of a roof framework, and framing component becomes prismatic.
In Figure 90, pillar 8001 has round hollow section, and the roof framework member is square hollow section member 8002 and corner fittings 8003.One is rotated erection loop or sleeve pipe 8004(is also illustrated among Figure 91) around pillar 8001 rotations.Fixing erection loop or sleeve pipe 8005 have a pressure-bearing surface 8006 that joins with rotating casing 8004.Suspending rod or rope 8007 are supporting floor mounting structure 8008.The lower floor that bar 8009 threaded extensions can add other.Digonal link 8010 makes structure stable in the horizontal direction, and light floor 8011 is then being supported by floor mounting structure 8008.Wallboard 8012 can be fixed on roof component 8003 and the flooring element 8008.As described in Figure 89, all roof component all promotes in ground assembling and classification, and like this, the floor also can promote in the ground assembling and with the rise of roof structure.
Figure 92-96 has represented to be formed by share components the whole bag of tricks of frame truss.In Figure 92, each end of square hollow section column 9201 all is connected with a gusset 9202.The wall of the part of gusset 9202 and shared chord 9203 is coplane mutually, another part then with pull bar 9204 coplane mutually.Use is sold or bolt is assembled column under relaxed state and thereby chord can make the rod member tensioning constitute one three plane frame truss.
The details of the tower structure of aforesaid tubercle, truss and framework is used in Figure 93-96 expression.Figure 93 is the elevation of a upright pylon, and a support bed 9301 of representing with thick line that firmly is fixed on pedestal or the pier base 9302 is wherein arranged.Support bed in this example is the triangle frame truss that one three pin of a usefulness, two pins or a pin connected system constitute.Pylon 9303 be on the ground outside the plane domain of gantry with the assembling that saves land of form one joint one of truss.When jack 9404 lifts the pylon of assembling, pylon temporarily is fixed on the gantry, and it exceeds stand two joints at least, and crane boom descends and following another part is added to the bottom of pylon on ground, then with above-mentioned temporary transient fixing release, the height of the pylon joint that promptly raises.Repeat said process and reach whole height up to pylon.Scantling is increased gradually along the direction at the bottom of tower, thereby and the height that can reduce every joint pylon gain in strength.The pylon of supporting preferably is retained in original position, so that improve the intensity of base portion.
Another plane structure of triangle frame truss among Figure 94-96 expression Figure 93.In Figure 94, external edge frame 9401 usefulness three pins, two pins or a keying dot structure are fixed on column and the pull bar 9403.Column and pull bar 9403 can be angle channel or frame cross section part.The assembled length of limit frame 9401 equals the joint of one among Figure 94 height, and like this, three pins, two are sold or obtained keeping once the geometry of selling this indecisive assembly.Auxiliary limit frame 9402 and column or pull bar 9404 can be assembled within the main structure, to reduce effective length of span of column and pull bar 9403.
Figure 95 represents the mode of occupation of internal edges frame 9505, and uses pole 9506 to reduce the another kind of method of column and pull bar effective length.
Figure 96 represents several bilateral shelf structures, and they are applicable to the hollow section column and the pull bar of square or rectangle.Bilateral 9607 is outside framves in the firm combined type own.Can save column and pull bar length for bilateral 9608, bilateral 9609 is distortion of 9607.Difference between each notion in this tower structure and promptly be: introduce and progressively stablize this notion than the more novel part of truss of other band given shape limit frame, and form the indecisive assembling geometry that is adopted in each truss on each limit of frame truss, comprise that also single pin connects the desired amount of tolerance of its receiver hole.Certainly, also can replace described triangle frame structure to build pylon with square or other polygon.
Figure 97-99 has represented to use the details of the bridge framework of aforementioned principles.Figure 97 has represented one by the fixedly slide unit 9701 shown in the thick line, and it is fixed on the ground by base.The bridge framework 9702 that is shown in section among Figure 98,99 respectively and is triangle or rectangle frame truss is assembled into the left side of slide unit, and by its horizontal jack-up.The point of contact itself that is used to assemble the bridge framework can be 3 pins, 2 pins or 1 pin, the independently chord that uses in each truss joint, and then the tower structure with Figure 93-96 is the same.The novelty that this bridge framework has also is single pin principle, pin-hole tolerance and progressively stable indecisive assembling geometry, and the typical sizes 3 of Figure 97 elevation is to be A-10m, B-10m, C-50~100m.The typical sizes that adds the bridge of pavement as a two-way traffic among Figure 98 is D and E-6m, F and H-3m, G-7m.Typical sizes among Figure 99 is J-9m, K-6m, L-7m, M-2m.
Figure 100 represents that is used for a structural framing towering or tier building.Truss 1001 all is identical geometry, and being used for a plane is square building, and these truss 1001 are joined together on some share components, and these shared members also use as four pillars.It is dark that truss 1001 typically is 2.8-3.2, promptly whole wall height or floor height.The typical length that does not have each truss of jury strut supporting can be 16-20m.
Less truss 1002 and 1003 is used to construct the roof, and also needs to adopt auxiliary wind resistance tie rod 1004.The form of structure of representing among Figure 100 often is called staggered truss structure, and it has two sides of opening wide fully at every layer in this particular instance.In the floor load on each plane is that bottom boom string by top chord that is positioned at the relative truss of two under this cheek that connects and two relative truss on this plane bears.The characteristics of this building frame also are to have used the hole tolerance and the indecisive assembling geometry of single pin, single pin in truss.
Figure 101 has represented the another kind of method of the framework that construction high level or tier building use.This thick stick frame and framework shown in Figure 100 are identical having aspect the staggered truss, but in this example, and truss is the periphery that exceeds building, and like this, the end of each truss is exactly outside the lattice below 3.Have five layers in the drawings, every layer has two truss, and promptly first floor has truss 10101, and it is that 10103, the four layers of truss are 10104 that the second layer has 10102, the three layers of truss of truss, and the layer 5 truss is 10105 and triangle roof truss 10106.The auxiliary part that is used to construct the roof is 10107 and roof baffle plate 10108.The side bar 10109 that is used to support floor and wallboard is bearing in the end of truss, for example, be used for having on the 3rd layer the side bar floor cover plate assembly 10111 by side bar 10109 supportings, side bar 10109 then by the top of truss 10102 and the bottom supporting of truss 10103.Wall panel assembly 10110 is independent precast plates, and its bottom vertically reaches lateral-supporting by side bar 10109, and its top is then only by the side bar lateral-supporting.Floor cover plate assembly 10111 is also being supported by the top chord of tight bridge in its lower section as side bar.The effective real estate of this installation that staggered truss is left periphery surface has been given birth to the main pillar of building, and this pillar i.e. 10112 among the figure is that vertical principal post by the staggered truss in same plan-position constitutes.If install in the quite little distance of the outer surface of distance side bar the end of truss, so all wallboards all need continuous pillar as keeper, because pillar criteria of right and wrong part, this may produce too much surcharge in common high building.In addition, wallboard keeps vertical at whole face of building by side bar and isolates, and is then isolated by common water joint between wallboard in the horizontal direction.On every layer, have the movably design of wallboard and overcome the thermal expansion problem of face of building,, used continuous munnion, also can use jury strut to support 10113 at this.
Figure 102 is the three-dimensional view of a bridge-Ta cage construction, and wherein, square hollow section chord 101, column 102 and 103, pull bar 104 and 105, plate 106 and 107 have constituted the frame truss of a square or rectangle.In Figure 102, chord 101 is shared by four plane frames, and column 102 and pull bar 104 are connected on the plate 106 to form vertical truss.Column 103, pull bar 105 and plate 107 form horizontal truss.
Figure 103 is the point of contact of an amplification, and its central post 102 is connected on the plate 106 by two pins rigidly, and chord 101 is connected on the plate 106, and plate 107 is rigidly fixed on the chord 101 by two pins and pivoting is connected on column 103 and the pull bar 105.
Figure 104,105 is three-dimensional views of a preferred roof structure, and it uses square or rectangular hollow section structural member and point of contact resemble Figure 76.In Figure 104, the periphery on two parallel chord truss 10401 and two end gable truss 10402 formation roofs.There is shown auxiliary gable truss 10403 and auxiliary parallel chord truss 10404.Purlin 10405 is across between the truss, and outstanding pull bar 10406 provides horizontal restrain (power) for the bottom chord of gable formula truss.Can see that if hoop truss 10401,10402 and gable formula truss 10403 are nonadjustable, it is adjustable so just needing auxiliary parallel chord truss 10404, between truss 10403, to carry out loose attitude assembling.This can realize that the fixing of the auxiliary tension of truss and roof baffle plate can be by any conventional method by single pulling force adjustable-length pull bar 10407.

Claims (51)

1, a kind of precise 2-D truss, it is suitable for use as building thick stick framework or cage construction, for example crane span structure and pylon, wherein:
This two dimension truss is to be made of a plurality of straight slender members, and each member has the plane that being used in the truss plane connects with other member coplane at least.
Each member has a horizontal circular hole that is positioned at its flat surfaces at least at its each end or contiguous each end;
If no more than 2 of the member that connects on component node, above-mentioned member is by aliging horizontal circular hole and insert a round bar or pin and interconnective, and have clamp mechanism in the end of inserting pin rod, wherein, the connection of this clamp mechanism will produce coplane and connect between two members, it with an enough big frictional force prevent between two members around above-mentioned pin rod and the pivot type rotation in the truss plane or angle takes place changes, very close a plurality of component nodes have been determined a panel point;
In the member laterally the diameter of circular hole be not more than 1.007 with bar or pin diameter ratio, wherein the accumulative total of the truss periphery that produces owing to the tolerance connection displacement in hole under changing load or load inversion elongates or shortens the panel point extreme displacement with the ratio of being allowed for the truss span;
The feature of the present invention's two dimension truss is that it has three kinds of basic building blocks: the chord that impales or constitute the truss periphery; The closed area of truss is divided into unsettled quadrangle or polygonal column; And further these quadrangles or polygon are subdivided into the littler quadrangle or the pull bar of changeable shape;
This two dimension truss feature also is, some member in its basic building block has hole more than one at two ends or near two ends places, like this, the part between these holes or a plurality of part are exactly member from a quadrangle or polygon to another quadrangle or polygonal a kind of rigidity at least continuously;
The geometry of this two dimension truss then is, the continuous stability that provides of rigidity that some member enters another quadrangle or polygonal end from a quadrangle or polygon allows to carry out the member pivoting and connects in the length of quadrangle or polygonal one or more sides;
The layout of plane (two dimension) truss geometry is that the short end parts on some member of basic building block constitutes the part of truss periphery.
2, according to the two-dimentional truss of claim 1, the layout that it is characterized in that the truss geometry is progressively to assemble, unsettled quadrangle or the polygon that constitutes by chord and column at first, because its unstability and can be at truss plane intrinsic displacement, hole-pitch-row in pull bar in fully corresponding to column or chord the hole-pitch-row between the connecting hole from, thereby produce two less stable quadrangle or polygons, and needn't make excessive demands in arbitrary member hole-pitch-row from; Accuracy tolerance in the member manufacturing is the diameter ratio of hole-bar or pin, and it does not influence the no strain assembling of truss.
3, according to the two-dimentional truss of claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that:
At least to make three or more members be that coplane connects to several pins;
The thin division of truss can select to constitute triangle, and is not quadrangle or polygon.
4, according to the two-dimentional truss of claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that:
All members only have a hole in each end;
The connection of member is to arrange like this, and the truss zone is divided into triangle, and does not have quadrangle or polygon.
According to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-4, it is characterized in that 5, the plane surface of member comprises a surface of the outside of belly or the angular cross section member of channel section member.
6, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-4, it is characterized in that:
At least some members have two planes that are connected on other member, at this, and the hollow section member of preferably square hollow section of member or rectangle, it has the connecting hole of alignment on relative parallel surface.
7, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-4, it is characterized in that:
At least one member has plural plane, on this plural is connected to other member by pin unique plane, or is connected on two or more plane surfaces of other member.
8, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-4, it is characterized in that:
At least one member socket or telescopically place at least one other member, to be used for single or multiple coplanar connections.
9, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-4, it is characterized in that:
At least some member plane surface or a plurality of plane surface reach outside the end of member rigidly, and wherein these surfaces of stretching out have the transverse holes that connects other member.
10, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-4, it is characterized in that:
At least one member is replaced by two or more replacement members, wherein replaces member and is spaced laterally apart, will replace plane surface on the member is connected to other member by the aperture that is used for the alignment that pin connects a plurality of plane surfaces.
11, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-4, it is characterized in that:
The member that each member or lateral separation are opened to by member between the device that comprises prestretched rope and connection and/or boosting mechanism strengthen or reinforce.
12, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-11, it is characterized in that:
Member does not intersect between node mutually, and truss is ranks or truss, and it has the general geometry of Bowstring, Howe, Pratt, Fink and Warren formula truss.
13, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-11, it is characterized in that:
Member can pass through between node mutually, and this truss is a non-housing in row truss.
14, according to the two-dimentional truss one of among the claim 1-13, it is characterized in that:
Pin connected mode between the member planar section is such, fixing two the coplane coupling parts of different component at least of single pin, the connected mode that the clamp mechanism of pin end provides is when it produces the way of restraint of resistant members wall distortion, and each member is rotated relative to another member.
15, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-13, it is characterized in that:
At least one single member has at least two independently coplanar surfaces, this surface is connected on the other separate planes of one or more other members by the pin mechanism pivoting, so that each pin only connects the component surface of joining, thereby two or more constraint tie points are provided.
16, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-13, it is characterized in that:
Connection in pin connects to and/or clamp mechanism have the conical surface, realize that in transverse holes, to utilize the conical surface coplane engages, perhaps in a non-bellmouth, contact or zero tolerance fit in producing between pin and part hole surface.
17, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-13, it is characterized in that:
Allow that a single pin connects at least two component surface along its length at least two independent position.
18, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-12, it is characterized in that:
A sleeve pipe or lining are housed, so that clamp mechanism produces two independent restraining contacts at least two members at least at each end of pin on pin between the component surface that separates.
19, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-13, it is characterized in that:
Clamp mechanism comprises a nut holder in tubular articles, by insert and be screwed into the assembling that bolt is realized truss outside member.
20, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-19, it is characterized in that:
At least some horizontal pin connecting holes depart from the longitudinal axis of member, and this member is enough wide, so that at least two holes can be positioned on the isoplanar axis perpendicular to longitudinal axis in a member.
21, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-19, it is characterized in that:
At least some members are crooked, and to form the part of another member, perhaps two members rigidly fix mutually, make up chord to form one, or a part chord and a column.
22, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-19, it is characterized in that:
One independently plate or polylith plate can be rigidly fixed to the end of arbitrary member by welding or a plurality of bolted-on, wherein these plates and truss copline, a plurality of holes in plate or the hole of aliging in a plurality of plates provide and have been used for other member pin and connect the lateral aperture that engages;
Can change in the position of plate mesopore and the shape of plate, to adapt to the truss geometry, comprising a kind of truss, wherein all members all are hollow sections of square or rectangle, and two blocks of identical plates are bolted on each end of each pillar.
23, according to the two-dimentional truss one of among the claim 1-22, it is characterized in that:
The wide member in member, claim 20 or the position in the hole that is rotatably connected in the plate described in the claim 22 are, when truss when predetermined point is applied in load, in some or all members, will produce useful recurvation square, the moment of flexure that produces by the load on other node with opposing.
24, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-23, it is characterized in that:
All members all can bear sizable pulling force or the pressure that produces in the stand under load truss.
25, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-23, it is characterized in that:
At least some members only can bear tensile load, and these " unit " members comprise the bar or the rope that can be connected on first connecting pin.
26, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-24, it is characterized in that:
Pressure in the claim 24/draw the length of member and/or the length of singly drawing member in the claim 25 is adjustable, and wherein, this length adjustment is accompanied by the angular adjustment between member in the truss plane.
27, according to the two-dimentional truss of one of claim 1-26, it is characterized in that:
The adjustable length member is included within the truss geometry, and like this, member or member group just needn't must be made with the length tolerance of reality between any two rotation hole centers.
28, by the described a kind of three-dimensional structure framework made by the plane frame of a plurality of connections or intersection of one of claim 1-27, wherein:
Some members are by shared more than one plane frame;
A plurality of plane frames are in the different planes, and wherein, these share components have one at least and be the shared surface of each truss in each truss plane.
29, according to the three-dimensional truss of claim 28, it is characterized in that:
Share components is square or the hollow section column component of rectangle; The plate that is connected each post end provides fixedly connected means in a plane frame each member; The independent plate that is connected on the different flat surfaces of different vertical positions and column provides fixedly connected means for the member of each separate planes truss, and wherein, these columns are by shared more than one truss.
30, according to the three-dimensional structure framework of claim 29, it is characterized in that:
The plate that is connected post end is to make like this, and they can pass or connect mutually, like this, just can be connected on the shared pillar on the same vertical position from the chord or the pull bar member of Different Plane truss.
31, according to the three-dimensional framework of one of claim 28-30, it is characterized in that:
This framework wherein can increase or not increase the supplementary structure member as the roof structure of building, so that:
Lateral support by around node;
Come scaffold by lateral compression; And/or
Supporting roof beam and top board or tiling;
Wherein these auxiliary structural element have constituted frame construction stability and part of the whole, and are fixed on the effect that roof, beam and top board on purlin or other frame construction or tiling have played a kind of structure shell.
32, according to the three-dimensional structure framework of one of claim 28-30, it is characterized in that:
As a floor/top board unit, wherein the floor is fixed on the upper frame member or by the framing component supporting and connects this framework in multi-layer construction structure, and top board then is fixed on the lower frame member.
33, a kind of fabric structure, wherein:
At least one roof framework as claimed in claim 13 by a structural posts member supporting; Roof framework links to each other with the arbitrary floor/top board framework described in Stall floor or the claim 32;
Independently prefabricated panel is connected across between roof and/or the floor/top board framework and by their levels and/or vertically supporting.
34, according to the building of claim 30-32, it is characterized in that:
Independently roof structure is assembled on ground fully;
The assembling of falling of each plane frame within framework erects then, this plane frame also can be upright assembling;
Use temporary support under the arbitrary of arbitrary or all truss or all nodes, these interim node bearings are removed before steady brace and top board;
Like this, before slinging, roof framework only is bearing in the point of contact place of adjacent lift columns;
Roof and top board fixedly be to realize by its structural framing from bearing position.
35, according to the building of claim 34, it is characterized in that:
Complete roof is by vertical-lifting and be fixed at least one pre-pillar of installing;
Promote after the roof, be fixed on the pillar at arbitrary member of ground Assembly floor/top plate member and vertical-lifting;
Each floor panel assembly is all assembled and is promoted in next assembly assembling and before promoting.
36, according to the building of one of claim 32-35, it is characterized in that:
Interim lifting means is fixed on the top of outstanding pillar of the independent stationary of pre-installation;
Roof structure and follow-up floor/top board structure are raised, and the height along pillar is fixed on arbitrary predetermined vertical position then;
Pillar outside the plane domain on roof, but with in the opposing pillar during promoting by the ultimate bending moment of roof or floor and/or the generation of constant and changing load subsequently, pillar also can be within the plane domain on roof;
After the lifting, independently wallboard can be fixed between roof and the flooring structure, and auxiliary supports is installed between roof, floor and the ground, being used to transmit load greater than lifting load, the independent stationary characteristic of pillar has then been saved required wind resistance or the pushing tie rod in wallboard zone.
37, according to the building of claim 36, it is characterized in that:
Lifting appliance comprises hydraulic pressure, air pressure or electric capstan, jack, hoist or cable.
38, according to the building of claim 33-36, it is characterized in that:
The spacing of truss is such in roof framework or floor/top board framework, and floor strip is bearing on the plate support chord of truss the space between the truss then as activity or residential zone.
39, according to the building of one of claim 33-38, it is characterized in that:
The roof framework of floor/top board is enough firm, and can hang the floor of bottom from framework, make on ground or assembling on this floor, and framework is raised the back it is hung on the floor;
In high-rise building, the floor that framework and multilayer are supported is combined, and constitutes a group, in these groups, comprise a plurality of frameworks, and each framework is all supporting multi-layer floor;
The supporting arrangement that is used for the floor is the bar that can only bear pulling force.
40, according to the building of one of claim 33-39, it is characterized in that:
Only use a center pole, wherein used the supporting member that rotates, so that the floor of roof framework, floor/top board framework suspention can be rotated around the central longitudinal axis of pillar.
41, according to the frame construction of one of claim 28-30, it is characterized in that:
Connect three or more plane frames with share components, to form an elongated frame truss, wherein, this frame truss can be used as the non-slab structure of a pylon, bridge, wireless or similar item.
42, according to the frame construction of claim 41, it is characterized in that:
This frame truss is a section vertical or level assembling and jack-up.
43, according to the building of one of claim 33-39, it is characterized in that:
At least some truss are arch trusses of parallel chord, they are in 90 ° of connections with the rectangle truss of parallel chord, constitute a cylinder vault framework, it can be bearing on the pillar or be bearing on the ground along its at least one limit, perhaps raked floor is formed a pier base under at least one leg of frame or a plurality of relative leg of frame, this pier base can be used as the base in the stadium.
44, according to the building of one of claim 33-39, it is characterized in that:
The equal arch truss of parallel chord of the truss of any intersection or connection in a framework, each truss all has different radius of curvature, so just can form a two arc roof.
45, according to the building of one of claim 33-39, it is characterized in that:
At least two U-shapeds or door frame shape frame truss have the shared fulcrum that is used for more than the end of a frame truss, so that build the frame truss in the ground assembling or by shortening many drag-lines that are stretched between the above-mentioned truss, and these frame truss of making also can be the supporting systems of a roof baffle plate, and above-mentioned frame truss is connected in the supporting system that cable on the ground can form wallboard.
46, according to the building of one of claim 33-37, it is characterized in that:
Pillar is stretched on the roof line, and the stretching support cable is from being connected between the top of each pillar on any supporting member on the framework, and wherein, these supporting members also can be connected on the pile, to support the windproof uplift pressure.
47, according to the structural framing of one of claim 31-40, it is characterized in that:
Trussed construction be by the rectangle truss of two relative parallel longitudinal chords and two sides laterally or the end truss constitute, the end of end truss and the height of longitudiual truss matches and also have a summit in central authorities, wherein, two relative gable formula end truss vertical rectangle truss relative with two have constituted the periphery of a rectangle in plan view, and can be parallel to the auxiliary horizontal frontispiece shape truss that end gable formula truss increases arbitrary quantity, and to be parallel to the edge be the assistant longitudinal rectangle truss that the truss of rectangle installs any amount additional, purlin wherein is connected across between the top chord of gable formula truss, several pillars along periphery be rectangle longitudiual truss separately so that promote and permanent supporting;
After the lifting several pillars or supporting member are installed under arbitrary truss.
48, according to the structural framing of claim 47, it is characterized in that:
All members all have the square hollow section that is 90 ° of angles, and node described in claim 29, some of them inner transverse or longitudiual truss have the pull bar of adjustable-length, can make all truss realize non-tensioning attitude assembling in the internal chiasma sash by it.
49, according to the structural framing of one of claim 31-40, it is characterized in that:
Trussed construction is spaced from each other by two but the parallel chord or the rectangle truss that are parallel to each other constitute, wherein each truss is held by a pillar separate support at each, and these two main lattices are supporting a plurality of and its triangular truss at an angle of 90, the end gable that its shared vertical column has identical height and triangular truss in two kinds of truss is suspended in outside vertical rectangle lattice or surpasses it, its purlin across between the top chord of triangular truss with supporting roof baffle plate, the top board joist across between the chord of triangular truss bottom with the supporting top flap, between the triangular truss and the space between the longitudiual truss is as life or activity space.
50, the high building structure framework of the framework of one of the truss of one of use claim 1-27 or claim 28-39, wherein:
Two truss to every layer in major general's building with near on this layer or under at least two truss in the aspect be positioned at different directions, to produce a kind of staggered truss framework, these truss are positioned on the periphery or external surface of building;
This orientation and the connection between truss at the truss on the varying level produce three-dimensional stability.
51, the bridge or the tower structure of the framework of a kind of truss that uses one of claim 1-27 or claim 28-30, it comprises:
An elongated frame truss that constitutes by four parallel chord truss, in these four truss, each truss has a chord shared with adjacent truss, wherein, the board-like connection of member and two relative truss is corresponding with claim 22, and all the other two truss are installed column and pull bar by constituting on the vertical plane that plate is connected to chord at some the some place along chord length on these plates, like this, it is common that each chord is two orthogonal truss.
CN 93119913 1992-12-18 1993-12-18 Precision structure system Pending CN1090360A (en)

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AUPL6390 1992-12-18
AUPL639092 1992-12-18
AUPL9422 1993-06-17
AUPL942293 1993-06-17

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